In this important study David Armstrong examines the impact of revolutionary states on the international system. These states have always posed major problems for the achievement of world order: revolution is often accompanied by international as well as civil conflict, while revolutionary doctrines have proven to be highly disruptive of the existing structure of international politics.Dr Armstrong asks whether revolutionary states are `socialized' into adopting acceptable patterns of international behaviour or whether it is international society that is forced to change when these new states appear.He looks in detail at the French, American, and Russian revolutions and at several post-1945 revolutionary states; he also examines the relationship between revolutionary states and the principal ordering devices of international society: international law, diplomacy, and the balance of power. His book is a major contribution to international relations and an important development and application of the `international society' concept.
Presenting an analysis of the role of revolution in international politics, this edition takes account of developments since the first edition was published in 1984, such as the dramatic changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union between 1989 and 1991, and the re-evaluation by a number of scholars of the French Revolution. This is followed by various revisionist studies of revolution itself. The book incorporates recent work in the field, which calls for some significant changes of emphasis in order to understand the nature of international politics today. International relations as a discipline has moved away from state-centred theory; the new emphasis is on globalization, interdependence and the importance of non-state actors.
Revolution within a state almost invariably leads to intense security competition between states, and often to war. In Revolution and War, Stephen M. Walt explains why this is so, and suggests how the risk of conflicts brought on by domestic upheaval might be reduced in the future. In doing so, he explores one of the basic questions of international relations: What are the connections between domestic politics and foreign policy? Walt begins by exposing the flaws in existing theories about the relationship between revolution and war. Drawing on the theoretical literature about revolution and the realist perspective on international politics, he argues that revolutions cause wars by altering the balance of threats between a revolutionary state and its rivals. Each state sees the other as both a looming danger and a vulnerable adversary, making war seem both necessary and attractive. Walt traces the dynamics of this argument through detailed studies of the French, Russian, and Iranian revolutions, and through briefer treatment of the American, Mexican, Turkish, and Chinese cases. He also considers the experience of the Soviet Union, whose revolutionary transformation led to conflict within the former Soviet empire but not with the outside world. An important refinement of realist approaches to international politics, this book unites the study of revolution with scholarship on the causes of war.
Eine Argumentationstheorie internationaler Systemkonflikte
Category: Social Science
1.1. Die theoretische Herausforderung der Osteuropäischen Revolution: Anlaß und Ziele der Untersuchung In den Staaten Osteuropas setzte 1989 ein Systemwandel ein, der die kom munistischen Parteien ihres Herrschaftsmonopols beraubte und eine Trans formation der sozialistischen Gesellschaftsordnungen auslöste. Er orientierte sich an den Grundwerten der liberalen Demokratie: "Rechtsstaatlichkeit"und "Demokratie", "Marktwirtschaft" und "Privateigentum". Im Gefolge dieser Veränderungen lösten sich der "Ostblock", der europäische Systemgegensatz zwischen Kommunismus und liberaler Demokratie und damit der Ost-West Konflikt als zentrale Konfliktformationdes internationalen Systems auf. 1991 fiel schließlich die vormalige "Supermacht" Sowjetunion selbst den Zerfalls prozessen zum Opfer, die der Systemwandel im kommunistischen Imperium verursacht hatte. Ähnlich wie 200 Jahre zuvor die Französische Revolution markierte diese Osteuropäische Revolution schon im Bewußtsein der Zeitgenossen einen Wendepunkt der europäischen Geschichte. Wie ,,1789" wurde auch die Jahreszahl ,,1989" zum Symbol einer tiefgreifenden geschichtlichen Umwäl zung. "Ende der Nachkriegszeit", "Ende des Kalten Krieges", "Ende des Kommunismus", "Ende des Ost-West-Konflikts", "Ende der Utopie", "Ende der Geschichte" - so und ähnlich lauteten die stets dem gleichen Muster folgenden Versuche, den Wendepunkt auf den Begriff zu bringen.! Diese historische Bedeutung macht die Osteuropäische Revolution zu einem erst rangigen Forschungsobjekt der Sozialwissenschaften.
This comprehensive study of China's Cold War experience reveals the crucial role Beijing played in shaping the orientation of the global Cold War and the confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. The success of China's Communist revolution in 1949 set the stage, Chen says. The Korean War, the Taiwan Strait crises, and the Vietnam War--all of which involved China as a central actor--represented the only major "hot" conflicts during the Cold War period, making East Asia the main battlefield of the Cold War, while creating conditions to prevent the two superpowers from engaging in a direct military showdown. Beijing's split with Moscow and rapprochement with Washington fundamentally transformed the international balance of power, argues Chen, eventually leading to the end of the Cold War with the collapse of the Soviet Empire and the decline of international communism. Based on sources that include recently declassified Chinese documents, the book offers pathbreaking insights into the course and outcome of the Cold War.
Revolutions, Conflicts, and Geopolitics in Europe and the Atlantic World
Author: P. Serna,A. De Francesco,J. Miller
This collection probes the troubling connections between war and republic during Revolutionary era, 1776-1840. It presents the work of an international team of scholars, some of them in English for the first time.
Neither 'End of History' nor 'Clash of Civilizations'
Author: Dr Mojtaba Mahdavi,Professor W Andy Knight
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
This volume suggests that there is a 'third way' of addressing global tensions - one that rejects the extremes of both universalism and particularism. This third way acknowledges the 'dignity of difference' and promotes both self-respect and respect for others. It is also a radical call for an epistemic shift in our understanding of 'us-other' and 'good-evil'. The authors strengthen their alternative approach with a practical policy guide, by challenging existing policies that either exclude or assimilate other cultures, that wage the constructed 'global war on terror', and that impose a western neo-liberal discourse on non-western societies.
Henry Kissinger über die größte Herausforderung des 21. Jahrhunderts Hat das westlich geprägte Wertesystem im 21. Jahrhundert angesichts aufstrebender Mächte mit gänzlich anderem Menschenbild und Gesellschaftskonzept als Basis einer Frieden stiftenden Weltordnung ausgedient? Henry Kissinger, über Jahrzehnte zentrale Figur der US-Außenpolitik und Autorität für Fragen der internationalen Beziehungen, sieht unsere Epoche vor existenziellen Herausforderungen angesichts zunehmender Spannungen. In der heutigen global eng vernetzten Welt wäre eine Ordnung vonnöten, die von Menschen unterschiedlicher Kultur, Geschichte und Tradition akzeptiert wird und auf einem Regelwerk beruht, das in der Lage ist, regionale wie globale Kriege einzudämmen. Der Autor analysiert die Entstehung der unterschiedlichen Ordnungssysteme etwa in China, den islamischen Ländern oder im Westen und unternimmt den Versuch, das Trennende zwischen ihnen zusammenzuführen und den Grundstein für eine zukünftige friedliche Weltordnung zu legen.
This textbook investigates the tortuous relationship between established status quo powers and revolutionary states, such as China, North Korea, Iran, Nicaragua and Iraq. It bridges the gap between analyses of revolutions, which tend to concentrate on their domestic causes, and the study of renegade states' impact on the international system. It sees revolutionary states as a central dynamic of modern international society, rather than as aberrations damaging an otherwise stable international body politic. The book provides a series of historical and contemporary case studies and theoretical analyses.
Occupation and Resistance in the Rhineland, 1792-1802
Author: T. C. W. Blanning
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This book is a study of the occupation of western Germany by the armies of the French Revolution in the decade which separated the first invasion in 1792 from the final absorption of the left bank of the Rhineland into the French Republic ten years later.
Now in an updated edition, this groundbreaking study develops a new approach to understanding the formation of the postrevolutionary state in Mexico. Adam David Morton links the rise and demise of the modern Mexican state to ongoing forms of class struggle that have shaped and restructured state and civil society. He thus sheds valuable interdisciplinary light on debates on state formation by recovering radical tools of analysis, such as uneven development and class struggle, for the wider study of past and present politics in Mexico and, more broadly, Latin America. A substantive new epilogue engages the main theoretical debates that have emerged since the book was first published while also exploring the dominant geographies of power and resistance that are shaping state space in Mexico in the twenty-first century.
For a full list of entries and contributors, sample entries, and more, visit the Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women website. Featuring comprehensive global coverage of women's issues and concerns, from violence and sexuality to feminist theory, the Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women brings the field into the new millennium. In over 900 signed A-Z entries from US and Europe, Asia, the Americas, Oceania, and the Middle East, the women who pioneered the field from its inception collaborate with the new scholars who are shaping the future of women's studies to create the new standard work for anyone who needs information on women-related subjects.
Proceeding of the 14th IVR World Congress in Edinburgh, August 1989
Author: Werner Maihofer,Gerhard Sprenger
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag
Category: Social Science
Content: I. Revolution and Law: H.P. Glenn: Law, Revolution and Rights u M.A. Simon: Must a Revolution Preserve Rights? u C. Wellman: Locke's Right to Revolution Reexamined u W.E. Murnion: Aquinas on Revolution u Shing-I Liu: Menschenrecht, Widerstandsrecht u. Revolution u II. Human Rights and Democracy: A. Mineau: L'origine des droits de l'homme u H. Kochler: Menschenrechtskonformitat demokrat. Systeme u M. Scheinin: Legal Protection of Human Rights and Different Conceptions of Democracy u J.F. Doyle: Fulfilling Revolutionary Promises u N. Lopez-Calera: Naturaleza dialectica de los derechos humanos u J. Wetlesen: Inherent Dignity as a Ground of Human Rights u M.-R. Ollila: Virtue Ethics and Violations of Human Rights u P. Duran y Lalaguna: Human Rights in Democratic Society u C.B. Gray: Fraternity and Nonobstante u III. Human Rights and International Law: A. Bragyova: Is it Possible to Base Human Rights on Internaional Law? u L. Lukaszuk: The Concept of Protection of Human and Civic Rights According to the Principles and Rules of Both the International and Constitutional Law u A.N. Georgiadou: Les droits fondamentaux en droit communautaire u IV. Human Rights and Socialism: K.A. Mollnau: Entwicklungsdenken in der Rechtswissenschaft u W. Sokolewicz: Constitutionality as a Precondition of the Rule of Law u R. Wieruszewski: The Principle of Interrelation Between Human Rights and Duties u P.D. Swan: The Contributions of J. Habermas and C. Lefort u A. Lopatka: Revolution and Socialist Renewal in Poland u M. Samu: The Connection Between Human Rights and Democracy u D.J. Galligan: The Foundations of Due Process in Socialism u R. Bellamy: Liberal Rights and Socialist Goals .
Algeria, Decolonization, and the Third World Order
Author: Jeffrey James Byrne
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Amid the burgeoning literature on the connections between the global north and the global south, Mecca of Revolution is a pure example of post-colonial, or "south-south," international history. Through an examination of Algeria's interactions with the wider world, from the beginning of its warof independence to the fall of its first post-colonial regime, the Third Worldist perspective on the twentieth century comes into view. Hitherto dominant historical paradigms such as the Cold War are situated in the larger context of decolonization and the re-inclusion of the large majority ofhumanity in international affairs. At the same time, groundbreaking research in the archives of Algeria and a half-dozen other countries enable Mecca of Revolution to advance beyond the focus on discourse analysis that has typified previous studies of Third World internationalism. It demystifiesterms like Non-Alignment, Afro-Asianism, and Bandung, and sheds new light on the relationships between the emergent elites of Africa, the Middle East, Asian, and Latin America. As one of the most prominent sites of post-colonial socialist experimentation and an epicenter of transnational guerrilla activity, Algeria was at the heart of efforts to transform global political and economic structures. Yet, the book also shows how Third Worldism evolved from a subversivetransnational phenomenon into a mode of elite cooperation that reinforced the authority of the post-colonial state. In so doing, the Third World movement played a key role in the construction of the totalizing international order of the late-twentieth century. Ultimately, Mecca of Revolution showsthe "post-colonial world" is all of our world.