This collection, written by Japanese and foreign scholars, represents an inclusive cross-section of the most important work in key areas of this field. Topics include: * the impact of Japanese education and training on Japan's economy and culture * the Japanese influence on the "East Asian approach" to education, in comparison with the educational systems of Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong * Japan's promotion of "learning organizations" and "Knowledge workers" for the Information Age.
Most contributions to this volume originated as papers given at an inter national conference on Integrative Perspectives on Youth Development held in Berlin (West) in May, 1983. This conference was part of a 6-year longi tudinal research program on the causes of substance use among adolescents in Berlin, which is now in its fourth year. The conference title deliberately did not refer to substance use. However, its relevance to an explanation of drug-related problem behavior was made evident to everyone invited to the conference. The search for integrative perspectives in youth development originated in a dilemma that became obvious during the planning of intensive research on concomitants of substance use. In the methodology for research on youth development, there were two lines of thought that seemed completely unre lated to each other: One line of thought was oriented toward the person, leaving situational aspects aside, while the other concentrated on ecological or situational determinants and thus neglected the aspects of development and internal processes. The integration of both these directions seemed to be an unusually promising approach for any project that aimed to understand changes in the individual within a rapidly changing urban setting. The best way to come closer to a resolution of that dilemma seemed to be an intensive exchange between the American and European scientific communities on this issue.
The Choice Movement in North Carolina and the United States
Author: W. Lewis
This is the story of North Carolina parent choice advocates' push for the creation and expansion of choice policies. The exploration of the politics, ideology, and interests surrounding parent choice includes but also stretches beyond the most frequently discussed choice policies of charter schools, school vouchers, and tuition tax credits.
In this book the authors systematically address the most common stereotypes or myths about Japanese education that are currently being circulated in the popular press, teaching magazines and educational research journals. The authors show how arguments about Japan are used to further political ends within the American educational debate. Some of the myths that the book debunks are Japan's high adolescent suicide rate. LeTendre and Zeng show that adolescent suicide among males is now twice as high in the U.S. as in Japan. Tsuchida and Lewis take on the myth of Japanese classrooms as crowded places centered on rote-learning--providing detailed evidence as to why Japanese students may indeed have an "edge" in math. McConnell uses Japan's highly successful foreign language program to deconstruct images of "Japan Inc."--showing the highly fractious and bitter political debates that occur in Japan. Yang provides data on differences in Japanese and American teachers' work roles--showing that differences in the two educational systems are not simply due to "cultural" differences, but have a basis in educational policy and school organization. Shimizu offers an alternative view of achievement motivation among Japanese students based on in-depth interviews with Japanese teens.
Global science education is a reality at the end of the 20th century - albeit an uneven reality - because of tremendous technological and economic pressures. Unfortunately, this reality is rarely examined in the light of what interests the everyday lives of ordinary people rather than the lives of political and economic elites. The purpose of this book is to offer insightful and thought-provoking commentary on both realities. The tacit question throughout the book is `Whose interests are being served by current science education practices and policies?' The various chapters offer critical analysis from the perspectives of culture, economics, epistemology, equity, gender, language, and religion in an effort to promote a reflective science education that takes place within, rather than taking over, the important cultural lives of people. The target audience for the book includes graduate students in education, science education and education policy professors, policy and government officials involved with education.
comparative studies of parenting, learning, and educational change
Author: Robert Alan LeVine
Publisher: Hong Kong Univ Pr
"This book on the socialization of the child in diverse cultures focuses on parent-child relationships, enculturation, and child development under changing educational conditions. Twelve articles originally published by the author and his colleagues between 1960 and 1996 show the evolution not only in LeVine's thinking but in the field as a whole. These articles are supplemented by new commentaries written for this volume. LeVine examines intersections among patterns of childhood experience, cultural values and institutional change in developing societies during the 20th century. Individual chapters include a focus on Kenya, Nigeria and Mexico; parenting, the child's acquisition of culture, and the impact of mass schooling on maternal care; and critiques of psychoanalysis, environmentalism and the psychology of individual differences."--BOOK JACKET.
In Schools and Societies the author demonstrates that more than any other major institution, schooling and schools are political, and virtually everyone has opinions to voice and interests to promote. Steven Brint musters a wealth of comparative material to show how schooling around the world is shaped by social forces even as it tries to shape the societies of the future.
Over the past two decades, efforts to improve schools have significantly modified role expectations for principals. Today, school-level administrators are expected to be both visionary leaders and competent managers. Based on the conviction that administration is an amalgam of leadership and management, The School Principal emphasizes the need for practitioners to apply conceptual skills to make "what to do" decisions, to apply technical skills to make "how to do" decisions, and to apply relational skills to engage in democratic decision making. Kowalski frames the book with a discussion of the nature of schools, the roles of principals, and their need to improve schools. The book then provides a balanced treatment of leadership and management, covering issues of personal behavior, instructional leadership, relationship building issues, finances, facilities, personnel management, pupil services, and maintaining safe schools. The text closes with discussion of the vital aspects of practice for contemporary principals, addressing problem solving, collaborative change strategies, and personal commitment to being a principal. Special Features: Vignettes introduce the subject matter in the context of common challenges faced by practitioners. Knowledge-Based Questions and Skill-Based Activities prompt readers to engage with and reflect on the chapter content. The School Principal aligns with the Educational Leadership Consortium Council (ELCC) Standards. Treating principals as concurrently visionary leaders and competent managers, this excellent text addresses the needs of aspiring and practicing principals, providing the tools to build effective and efficient schools.
The subject matter of this book – what happens in schools, the effects of curriculum change, the reasons why some children are successful and others are not – explains just why the sociology of education is one of the most important areas to achieve political importance. There are five sections to the book covering: Educational Achievement; Educational Provision; The Organization of the School; Roles in the School and Values and Learning. The editor discusses the implications of the material presented (much of which was available for the first time when this book was originally published).
Stand und PerspektivenDokumentation eines Expertengesprächs
Author: Heinz Mandl,Birgitta Kopp
Publisher: Oldenbourg Verlag
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Empirische Bildungsforschung ist ein grundlegender Forschungsbereich, der sich mit den Voraussetzungen, Bedingungen, Prozessen und Ergebnissen von Bildung über die gesamte Lebensspanne hinweg innerhalb und ausserhalb von Bildungssituationen befasst. Vor dem aktuellen Hintergrund der PISA-Befunde und der bildungspolitischen Diskussion gewinnt dieses Forschungsfeld zunehmend an Brisanz. Das vorliegende Buch beschreibt den Stand der Empirischen Bildungsforschung in Deutschland unter Einbeziehung internationaler Entwicklungen (namentlich im Hinblick auf erfolgreiche Modelle in Grossbritannien und den Niederlanden) und zeigt die Möglichkeiten, wie diese Forschung gefördert werden sollte. Im Vordergrund stehen besonders die Nachwuchsförderung, unterstützende strukturelle Rahmenbedingungen an Hochschulen sowie die Ausrichtung von Forschungsprogrammen auf spezifische Themenstellungen der Empirischen Bildungsforschung.
Agnès van Zanten,Stephen J. Ball,Brigitte Darchy-Koechlin
Elites, Privilege and Excellence: The National and Global Redefinition of Educational Advantage
Author: Agnès van Zanten,Stephen J. Ball,Brigitte Darchy-Koechlin
This latest volume in the World Yearbook of Education Series focuses on educational elites and inequality, focusing particularly on the ways in which established and emergent groups located at the top of the social hierarchy and power structure reproduce, establish or redefine their position. The volume is organized around three main issues: analyzing the way in which parents, students and graduates in positions of social advantage use their assets and capitals in relation to educational strategies, and how these are different for old and new and cultural and economic elites; studying how elite institutions have adapted their strategies to take into account changes in the social structure, in policy and in their institutional environment and exploring the impact of these strategies on educational systems at the national and global levels; mapping the new global dynamics in elite education and how new forms of 'international education' and 'transnational cultural capital' as well as new global educational elite pathways shape elite students’ identities, status and trajectories. Making use of a social and an institutional approach as well as a focus on practices and policies, the volume draws on research conducted on secondary schools and on higher education. In addition, the global contributions within the book allow for a comparison and contrast of situations in different countries. This results in a comprehensive picture of common processes and national differences concerning advantage and excellence and a thorough examination of the impact of globalization on the strategies, identities and trajectories of elite groups and individuals alongside more general cultural and economic processes.
Religion is a critical construct for understanding contemporary social life. It illuminates the everyday experiences and practices of many individuals, is a significant component of diverse institutional processes including politics, gender relations, and socioeconomic inequality, and plays a vital role in public culture and social change. This handbook showcases current research and thinking in the sociology of religion. The contributors, all active writers and researchers int eh area, provide original chapters focusing on select aspects of their own engagement with the field. Aimed at students and scholars who want to know more about the sociology of religion, this handbook also provides a resource for sociologists in general by integrating broader questions of sociology (e.g. demography, ethnicity, life course, inequality, political sociology) into the analysis of religion. Broadly inclusive of traditional research topics (modernity, secularization, politics) as well as newer interests (feminism, spirituality, faith-based community action), this handbook illustrates the validity of diverse theoretical perspectives and research designs to understanding the multilayered nature of religion as a sociological phenomenon.
Most studies on nations and nationalism argue that history, or more precisely a 'common past', is crucial for the process of national identity building. However, the existence of one or more concurrent narratives for the construction of this identity is often not accounted for, and there are cases where the ‘common past’ or a ‘collective memory’ is no longer shared. This book centres on the construction, elaboration and negotiation of the narratives that have become official history in India. These narratives influence politics and the representation of the nation. Depending on the chosen definition of the nation, over 160 million Muslim Indians are either included or excluded from the nation, and considered as ‘foreigners from inside’. The author shows that beyond the antagonism of two representations of history, two conceptions of the Indian nation – secular and Hindu nationalist – confronted each other during the history textbook controversy between 1998 and 2004. The diverging elements of the two discourses are underlined, and surprising similarities are uncovered. Yet, in contemporary India this convergence remains overshadowed in political debates as the definition of the political has been shaped by the opposition between these two visions of the nation. This book analyzes and questions the conception of the school textbook as a tool of national construction and more generally highlights the complexity of the link between historiography, nation-state and nation-building.
The Handbook of the Sociology of Medical Education provides a contemporary introduction to this classic area of sociology by examining the social origin and implications of the epistemological, organizational and demographic challenges facing medical education in the twenty-first century. Beginning with reflections on the historical and theoretical foundations of the sociology of medical education, the collection then focuses on current issues affecting medical students, the profession and the faculty, before exploring medical education in different national contexts. Leading sociologists analyze: the intersection of medical education and social structures such as gender, ethnicity and disability; the effect of changes in medical practice, such as the emergence of evidence-based medicine, on medical education; and the ongoing debates surrounding the form and content of medical curricula. By examining applied problems within a framework which draws from social theorists such as Pierre Bourdieu, this new collection suggests future directions for the sociological study of medical education and for medical education itself.
This book examines the ways in which the theory and data of social psychology can be applied to teaching, learning, and other experiences in schools. Its focus ranges in level from the individual (e.g., student attitudes and attributions), to the teacher-student interaction, to the impact of society (e.g., racial and cultural influences on school performance). The editor and distinguished contributors have two major purposes. The first is to illustrate the scope and sophistication of the emerging field known as the social psychology of education. The second is to provide solid, informed suggestions to educators for the amelioration of current educational problems. To that end, each author explicitly discusses implications for educational practice.
Author: Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung,Max Planck
Publisher: SUNY Press
Major changes in education have taken place in West Germany over the past three decades. The experience of the Federal Republic differs from that of its European neighbors, since it was conditioned by postwar efforts of the occupying powers to impose a new model of education: the American comprehensive secondary school. Yet the traditional American educational system is at the extreme of what could be called "mass education," whereas that of West Germany is more nearly "class education" that is, more structurally differentiated and keeping a much smaller proportion of pupils in school until age 18. Moreover, as in every developed country, West Germany has experienced increased consumer demand from an expanding middle class for more extended secondary education that does not foreclose post- secondary options. This study shows the structure that has emerged from this unique experiment with elite and mass education. Discussed at length are the four secondary routes: the Gymnasium, the Realschule, the Hauptschule, and the Volksschule. Also featured are the German answers to questions that have occupied the center of attention in American education for some years: education of ethnic minorities, education- ally disadvantaged, and handicapped children. Prepared by a team of researchers associated with the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education, the study provides the only comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the pre- sent educational system in the Federal Republic of Germany. Its abundance of statistical data make it a valuable resource for the educator, political scientist, and European Studies specialist. Its clarity renders it accessible to the non-specialist as well. The panoramic and yet detailed view that this book gives of German education goes a long way toward providing the base upon which comparison of education in the United States and the Federal Republic can begin.