A Study of Religious Interaction in Roman Syria
Author: Lucinda Dirven
This volume provides a reconstruction of the religion of Palmyrenes in Dura-Europos on the basis of archaeological remains, and focuses upon the religious interaction between this migrant community and their new residence.
Mural Paintings in Greek and Roman Sanctuaries
Author: Eric M. Moormann
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
"Divine interiors" is een onderzoek naar de aankleding van Griekse en Romeinse heiligdommen met wandschilderingen. Machtige marmeren façades, beeldhouwwerken en schilderingen speelden een belangrijke rol in het aanzien van deze monumenten. Terwijl de officiële tempels, die met de steden of de staat waren verbonden, meestal een plechtige maar sobere uitstraling hadden, waren de gebouwen die gericht waren op meer volkse uitingen van religiositeit juist bont beschilderd. Scènes uit het leven van de vereerde godheid, aanhangers en beoefenaren van de cultus, planten en dieren konden de bezoekers van deze heiligdommen in hogere sferen brengen. Het valt op dat er in de uitgestrekte Grieks-Romeinse wereld veel overeenkomsten te vinden zijn tussen vaak ver van elkaar gelegen tempels. De muurschilderkunst kende net als andere kunstvormen stijl- en smaakveranderingen, maar die hadden wel overal dezelfde uitstraling.
Author: John F. Healey
This book surveys systematically all the aspects of the religion of the Nabataeans of ancient Petra, including such important themes as the divinisation of kings and comparisons with Judaism and Islam. It is the first monograph ever devoted to this subject.
Author: Nathanael J. Andrade
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
By engaging with recent developments in the study of empires, this book examines how inhabitants of Roman imperial Syria reinvented expressions and experiences of Greek, Roman and Syrian identification. It demonstrates how the organization of Greek communities and a peer polity network extending citizenship to ethnic Syrians generated new semiotic frameworks for the performance of Greekness and Syrianness. Within these, Syria's inhabitants reoriented and interwove idioms of diverse cultural origins, including those from the Near East, to express Greek, Roman and Syrian identifications in innovative and complex ways. While exploring a vast array of written and material sources, the book thus posits that Greekness and Syrianness were constantly shifting and transforming categories, and it critiques many assumptions that govern how scholars of antiquity often conceive of Roman imperial Greek identity, ethnicity and culture in the Roman Near East, and processes of 'hybridity' or similar concepts.
Reflections on Culture, Ideology, and Power
Author: Yaron Z. Eliav,Elise A. Friedland,Sharon Herbert
Publisher: Peeters Pub & Booksellers
Public sculptures were the "mass media" of the Roman world. They populated urban centers throughout the empire, serving as a "plastic language" that communicated political, religious, and social messages. This book brings together twenty-eight experts who otherwise rarely convene: text-based scholars of the Greco-Roman, Jewish, and Christian realms from the fields of classics, history, and religion and specialists in the artistic traditions of Greece and Rome as well as art historians and archaeologists. Utilizing the full spectrum of ancient sources, the book examines the multiple, at times even contradictory, meanings and functions that statues served within the complex world of the Roman Near East. Moreover, it situates the discussion of sculpture in the broader context of antiquity in order to reevaluate long-held scholarly consensuses on such ideas as the essence of Hellenism (the culture that emerged from the encounter of Greco-Romans with the Near East) and the everlasting "conflict" among paganism, Christianity, and Judaism.
Epigraphy and Iconography
Author: Iain Gardner,Samuel N. C. Lieu,Kenneth Parry
Publisher: Brepols Pub
This volume highlights research by Australian scholars on two major Silk Road cities: Palmyra in Syria - long regarded as the finest example of a Caravan City - and Quanzhou (Zayton) in South China which was the destination of the main Maritime Silk Road between Medieval China and the Middle East. The volume exhibits for the first time in a western language publication and in full colour the unique iconography of the Nestorian Christian community in South China under Mongol rule. This material is virtually unknown to western scholars and will be of major importance to the study of the eastward diffusion of Christianity and of East-West contact in the period of Marco Polo. The volume also contains one of the largest collections of Palmyrene inscriptions (Aramaic, Greek, Latin and Hebrew) in English translations with accompanying original texts and detailed analytical indices. The selection focuses on politics and trade but also gives representative texts of almost all genres of Palmyrene inscriptions. The volume should prove indispensable to scholars of East-West contacts and of Roman History given the role played by Palmyra under Zenobia in the Crisis of the Third Century.
A Study of the Social Patterns of Worship in the Roman Period
Author: Ted Kaizer
Publisher: School-Age Notes
The Roman city of Palmyra had an outward appearance that was conventionally hellenised, but many aspects of social and religious life were influenced by a number of different cultures and both Greek and local Aramaic languages coexisted. This study which is a revised version of Kaizer's doctoral thesis, studies the religious life and ritual activities of Palmyra under the Romans. Discussing epigraphic, sculptural and architectural evidence from temples, he reveals that, apart from the Imperial cult, direct Roman influence on religious life is largely absent.
Author: Kevin Butcher
Publisher: Getty Publications
The provinces that the Romans referred to as Syria covered a vast area occupied today by several modern states. These included some of the most spectacular ruins of the ancient world-Palmyra, Baalbek, and Apamea-and fabled cities such as Antioch, Damascus, Sidon, and Tyre. Roman Syria also comprised sites that are virtually unknown, such as the great fortress city of Zenobia on the Euphrates and the remarkably well-preserved villages of the limestone massif of northwestern Syria. Roman Syria and the Near East offers a broad overview of this major cultural crossroads. Surveying a millennium of Roman and Byzantine rule in the Near East, from Roman annexation to the Arab conquest, the book outlines Syria's crucial role in Roman history. Topics discussed include the Roman army's use of Syria as a buffer against its powerful eastern neighbors and the elaborate road system that Rome developed to connect its far-reaching empire. The book also explores the impact of geography, trade, and religion on the shaping of Syria, as well as the influence of Syrian culture on the classical world.
From Small States to Universalism in the Pre-Islamic Near East
Author: Mark Altaweel,Andrea Squitieri
Publisher: UCL Press
This book investigates the long-term continuity of large-scale states and empires, and its effect on the Near East’s social fabric, including the fundamental changes that occurred to major social institutions. Its geographical coverage spans, from east to west, modern-day Libya and Egypt to Central Asia, and from north to south, Anatolia to southern Arabia, incorporating modern-day Oman and Yemen. Its temporal coverage spans from the late eighth century BCE to the seventh century CE during the rise of Islam and collapse of the Sasanian Empire. The authors argue that the persistence of large states and empires starting in the eighth/seventh centuries BCE, which continued for many centuries, led to new socio-political structures and institutions emerging in the Near East. The primary processes that enabled this emergence were large-scale and long-distance movements, or population migrations. These patterns of social developments are analysed under different aspects: settlement patterns, urban structure, material culture, trade, governance, language spread and religion, all pointing at movement as the main catalyst for social change. This book’s argument is framed within a larger theoretical framework termed as ‘universalism’, a theory that explains many of the social transformations that happened to societies in the Near East, starting from the Neo-Assyrian period and continuing for centuries. Among other influences, the effects of these transformations are today manifested in modern languages, concepts of government, universal religions and monetized and globalized economies.
A Social History
Author: Richard Alston
Category: Social Science
The province of Egypt provides unique archaeological and documentary evidence for the study of the Roman army. In this fascinating social history Richard Alston examines the economic, cultural, social and legal aspects of a military career, illuminating the life and role of the individual soldier in the army. Soldier and Society in Roman Eygpt provides a complete reassessment of the impact of the Roman army on local societies, and convincingly challenges the orthodox picture. The soldiers are seen not as an isolated elite living in fear of the local populations, but as relatively well-integrated into local communities. The unsuspected scale of the army's involvement in these communities offers a new insight into both Roman rule in Egypt and Roman imperialism more generally.
Author: Jörg Rüpke
A comprehensive treatment of the significant symbols and institutions of Roman religion, this companion places the various religious symbols, discourses, and practices, including Judaism and Christianity, into a larger framework to reveal the sprawling landscape of the Roman religion. An innovative introduction to Roman religion Approaches the field with a focus on the human-figures instead of the gods Analyzes religious changes from the eighth century BC to the fourth century AD Offers the first history of religious motifs on coins and household/everyday utensils Presents Roman religion within its cultural, social, and historical contexts
Author: Nigel Pollard
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
A study of interaction between the Roman army and the civilian population in Syria and Mesopotamia in the first five centuries A.D.