Refactoring

Improving the Design of Existing Code

Author: Martin Fowler,Kent Beck,John Brant,William Opdyke,Don Roberts

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

ISBN: 013306526X

Category: Computers

Page: 455

View: 1844

As the application of object technology--particularly the Java programming language--has become commonplace, a new problem has emerged to confront the software development community. Significant numbers of poorly designed programs have been created by less-experienced developers, resulting in applications that are inefficient and hard to maintain and extend. Increasingly, software system professionals are discovering just how difficult it is to work with these inherited, "non-optimal" applications. For several years, expert-level object programmers have employed a growing collection of techniques to improve the structural integrity and performance of such existing software programs. Referred to as "refactoring," these practices have remained in the domain of experts because no attempt has been made to transcribe the lore into a form that all developers could use. . .until now. In Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code, renowned object technology mentor Martin Fowler breaks new ground, demystifying these master practices and demonstrating how software practitioners can realize the significant benefits of this new process. With proper training a skilled system designer can take a bad design and rework it into well-designed, robust code. In this book, Martin Fowler shows you where opportunities for refactoring typically can be found, and how to go about reworking a bad design into a good one. Each refactoring step is simple--seemingly too simple to be worth doing. Refactoring may involve moving a field from one class to another, or pulling some code out of a method to turn it into its own method, or even pushing some code up or down a hierarchy. While these individual steps may seem elementary, the cumulative effect of such small changes can radically improve the design. Refactoring is a proven way to prevent software decay. In addition to discussing the various techniques of refactoring, the author provides a detailed catalog of more than seventy proven refactorings with helpful pointers that teach you when to apply them; step-by-step instructions for applying each refactoring; and an example illustrating how the refactoring works. The illustrative examples are written in Java, but the ideas are applicable to any object-oriented programming language.

Refactoring

Improving the Design of Existing Code

Author: Martin Fowler,Kent Beck

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 0201485672

Category: Computers

Page: 431

View: 7347

Users can dramatically improve the design, performance, and manageability of object-oriented code without altering its interfaces or behavior. "Refactoring" shows users exactly how to spot the best opportunities for refactoring and exactly how to do it, step by step.

Refactoring to Patterns

Author: Joshua Kerievsky

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780321630018

Category: Computers

Page: 400

View: 3627

In 1994, Design Patterns changed the landscape of object-oriented development by introducing classic solutions to recurring design problems. In 1999, Refactoring revolutionized design by introducing an effective process for improving code. With the highly anticipated Refactoring to Patterns , Joshua Kerievsky has changed our approach to design by forever uniting patterns with the evolutionary process of refactoring. This book introduces the theory and practice of pattern-directed refactorings: sequences of low-level refactorings that allow designers to safely move designs to, towards, or away from pattern implementations. Using code from real-world projects, Kerievsky documents the thinking and steps underlying over two dozen pattern-based design transformations. Along the way he offers insights into pattern differences and how to implement patterns in the simplest possible ways. Coverage includes: A catalog of twenty-seven pattern-directed refactorings, featuring real-world code examples Descriptions of twelve design smells that indicate the need for this book’s refactorings General information and new insights about patterns and refactoring Detailed implementation mechanics: how low-level refactorings are combined to implement high-level patterns Multiple ways to implement the same pattern–and when to use each Practical ways to get started even if you have little experience with patterns or refactoring Refactoring to Patterns reflects three years of refinement and the insights of more than sixty software engineering thought leaders in the global patterns, refactoring, and agile development communities. Whether you’re focused on legacy or “greenfield” development, this book will make you a better software designer by helping you learn how to make important design changes safely and effectively.

Refactoring

Ruby Edition

Author: Jay Fields,Shane Harvie,Martin Fowler,Kent Beck

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 0321604172

Category: Computers

Page: 480

View: 952

The Definitive Refactoring Guide, Fully Revamped for Ruby With refactoring, programmers can transform even the most chaotic software into well-designed systems that are far easier to evolve and maintain. What’s more, they can do it one step at a time, through a series of simple, proven steps. Now, there’s an authoritative and extensively updated version of Martin Fowler’s classic refactoring book that utilizes Ruby examples and idioms throughout–not code adapted from Java or any other environment. The authors introduce a detailed catalog of more than 70 proven Ruby refactorings, with specific guidance on when to apply each of them, step-by-step instructions for using them, and example code illustrating how they work. Many of the authors’ refactorings use powerful Ruby-specific features, and all code samples are available for download. Leveraging Fowler’s original concepts, the authors show how to perform refactoring in a controlled, efficient, incremental manner, so you methodically improve your code’s structure without introducing new bugs. Whatever your role in writing or maintaining Ruby code, this book will be an indispensable resource. This book will help you Understand the core principles of refactoring and the reasons for doing it Recognize “bad smells” in your Ruby code Rework bad designs into well-designed code, one step at a time Build tests to make sure your refactorings work properly Understand the challenges of refactoring and how they can be overcome Compose methods to package code properly Move features between objects to place responsibilities where they fit best Organize data to make it easier to work with Simplify conditional expressions and make more effective use of polymorphism Create interfaces that are easier to understand and use Generalize more effectively Perform larger refactorings that transform entire software systems and may take months or years Successfully refactor Ruby on Rails code

Refactoring Workbook

Author: William C. Wake

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780321109293

Category: Computers

Page: 235

View: 9050

& Most software practitioners deal with inherited code; this book teaches them how to optimize it & & Workbook approach facilitates the learning process & & Helps you identify where problems in a software application exist or are likely to exist

Refactoring JavaScript

Turning Bad Code Into Good Code

Author: Evan Burchard

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1491964898

Category: Computers

Page: 442

View: 3439

How often do you hear people say things like this? "Our JavaScript is a mess, but we’re thinking about using [framework of the month]." Like it or not, JavaScript is not going away. No matter what framework or ”compiles-to-js” language or library you use, bugs and performance concerns will always be an issue if the underlying quality of your JavaScript is poor. Rewrites, including porting to the framework of the month, are terribly expensive and unpredictable. The bugs won’t magically go away, and can happily reproduce themselves in a new context. To complicate things further, features will get dropped, at least temporarily. The other popular method of fixing your JS is playing “JavaScript Jenga,” where each developer slowly and carefully takes their best guess at how the out-of-control system can be altered to allow for new features, hoping that this doesn’t bring the whole stack of blocks down. This book provides clear guidance on how best to avoid these pathological approaches to writing JavaScript: Recognize you have a problem with your JavaScript quality. Forgive the code you have now, and the developers who made it. Learn repeatable, memorable, and time-saving refactoring techniques. Apply these techniques as you work, fixing things along the way. Internalize these techniques, and avoid writing as much problematic code to begin with. Bad code doesn’t have to stay that way. And making it better doesn’t have to be intimidating or unreasonably expensive.

Fowler

Pattern Enterpr Applica Arch

Author: Martin Fowler

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

ISBN: 0133065219

Category: Computers

Page: 557

View: 6110

The practice of enterprise application development has benefited from the emergence of many new enabling technologies. Multi-tiered object-oriented platforms, such as Java and .NET, have become commonplace. These new tools and technologies are capable of building powerful applications, but they are not easily implemented. Common failures in enterprise applications often occur because their developers do not understand the architectural lessons that experienced object developers have learned. Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture is written in direct response to the stiff challenges that face enterprise application developers. The author, noted object-oriented designer Martin Fowler, noticed that despite changes in technology--from Smalltalk to CORBA to Java to .NET--the same basic design ideas can be adapted and applied to solve common problems. With the help of an expert group of contributors, Martin distills over forty recurring solutions into patterns. The result is an indispensable handbook of solutions that are applicable to any enterprise application platform. This book is actually two books in one. The first section is a short tutorial on developing enterprise applications, which you can read from start to finish to understand the scope of the book's lessons. The next section, the bulk of the book, is a detailed reference to the patterns themselves. Each pattern provides usage and implementation information, as well as detailed code examples in Java or C#. The entire book is also richly illustrated with UML diagrams to further explain the concepts. Armed with this book, you will have the knowledge necessary to make important architectural decisions about building an enterprise application and the proven patterns for use when building them. The topics covered include · Dividing an enterprise application into layers · The major approaches to organizing business logic · An in-depth treatment of mapping between objects and relational databases · Using Model-View-Controller to organize a Web presentation · Handling concurrency for data that spans multiple transactions · Designing distributed object interfaces

Implementation Patterns

Author: Kent Beck

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780132702553

Category: Computers

Page: 176

View: 6549

Software Expert Kent Beck Presents a Catalog of Patterns Infinitely Useful for Everyday Programming Great code doesn’t just function: it clearly and consistently communicates your intentions, allowing other programmers to understand your code, rely on it, and modify it with confidence. But great code doesn’t just happen. It is the outcome of hundreds of small but critical decisions programmers make every single day. Now, legendary software innovator Kent Beck—known worldwide for creating Extreme Programming and pioneering software patterns and test-driven development—focuses on these critical decisions, unearthing powerful “implementation patterns” for writing programs that are simpler, clearer, better organized, and more cost effective. Beck collects 77 patterns for handling everyday programming tasks and writing more readable code. This new collection of patterns addresses many aspects of development, including class, state, behavior, method, collections, frameworks, and more. He uses diagrams, stories, examples, and essays to engage the reader as he illuminates the patterns. You’ll find proven solutions for handling everything from naming variables to checking exceptions.

Planning Extreme Programming

Author: Kent Beck,Martin Fowler

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780201710915

Category: Computers

Page: 139

View: 8529

A guide to XP leads the developer, project manager, and team leader through the software development planning process, offering real world examples and tips for reacting to changing environments quickly and efficiently.

Working Effectively with Legacy Code

Author: Michael Feathers

Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional

ISBN: 0132931753

Category: Computers

Page: 456

View: 9041

Get more out of your legacy systems: more performance, functionality, reliability, and manageability Is your code easy to change? Can you get nearly instantaneous feedback when you do change it? Do you understand it? If the answer to any of these questions is no, you have legacy code, and it is draining time and money away from your development efforts. In this book, Michael Feathers offers start-to-finish strategies for working more effectively with large, untested legacy code bases. This book draws on material Michael created for his renowned Object Mentor seminars: techniques Michael has used in mentoring to help hundreds of developers, technical managers, and testers bring their legacy systems under control. The topics covered include Understanding the mechanics of software change: adding features, fixing bugs, improving design, optimizing performance Getting legacy code into a test harness Writing tests that protect you against introducing new problems Techniques that can be used with any language or platform—with examples in Java, C++, C, and C# Accurately identifying where code changes need to be made Coping with legacy systems that aren't object-oriented Handling applications that don't seem to have any structure This book also includes a catalog of twenty-four dependency-breaking techniques that help you work with program elements in isolation and make safer changes.

Refactoring in Ruby

Author: William C. Wake,Kevin Rutherford

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780321647900

Category: Computers

Page: 288

View: 9872

The First Hands-On, Practical, All-Ruby Refactoring Workbook! Refactoring—the art of improving the design of existing code—has taken the world by storm. So has Ruby. Now, for the first time, there’s a refactoring workbook designed from the ground up for the dynamic Ruby language. Refactoring in Ruby gives you all the realistic, hands-on practice you need to refactor Ruby code quickly and effectively. You’ll discover how to recognize “code smells,” which signal opportunities for improvement, and then perfect your program’s design one small, safe step at a time. The book shows you when and how to refactor with both legacy code and during new test-driven development, and walks you through real-world refactoring in detail. The workbook concludes with several applications designed to help practice refactoring in realistic domains, plus a handy code review checklist you’ll refer to again and again. Along the way, you’ll learn powerful lessons about designing higher quality Ruby software—lessons that will enable you to experience the joy of writing consistently great code. Refactoring in Ruby will help you Recognize why poor code design occurs, so you can prevent it from occurring in your own code Master better design techniques that lead to more efficient, reliable, and maintainable software Fix code that’s too long, large, or difficult to follow Ferret out duplication, and express each idea “once and only once” Recognize missing or inadequately formed classes Simplify overly complex relationships between classes and their subclasses Achieve the right balance of responsibilities among objects Make your code easier to test and change Cope with incomplete library modules, and fix runaway dependencies Learn the next steps to take after you refactor

Refactoring for Software Design Smells

Managing Technical Debt

Author: Girish Suryanarayana,Ganesh Samarthyam,Tushar Sharma

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 0128016469

Category: Computers

Page: 258

View: 5172

Awareness of design smells – indicators of common design problems – helps developers or software engineers understand mistakes made while designing, what design principles were overlooked or misapplied, and what principles need to be applied properly to address those smells through refactoring. Developers and software engineers may "know" principles and patterns, but are not aware of the "smells" that exist in their design because of wrong or mis-application of principles or patterns. These smells tend to contribute heavily to technical debt – further time owed to fix projects thought to be complete – and need to be addressed via proper refactoring. Refactoring for Software Design Smells presents 25 structural design smells, their role in identifying design issues, and potential refactoring solutions. Organized across common areas of software design, each smell is presented with diagrams and examples illustrating the poor design practices and the problems that result, creating a catalog of nuggets of readily usable information that developers or engineers can apply in their projects. The authors distill their research and experience as consultants and trainers, providing insights that have been used to improve refactoring and reduce the time and costs of managing software projects. Along the way they recount anecdotes from actual projects on which the relevant smell helped address a design issue. Contains a comprehensive catalog of 25 structural design smells (organized around four fundamental design principles) that contribute to technical debt in software projects Presents a unique naming scheme for smells that helps understand the cause of a smell as well as points toward its potential refactoring Includes illustrative examples that showcase the poor design practices underlying a smell and the problems that result Covers pragmatic techniques for refactoring design smells to manage technical debt and to create and maintain high-quality software in practice Presents insightful anecdotes and case studies drawn from the trenches of real-world projects

Refactoring HTML

Improving the Design of Existing Web Applications

Author: Elliotte Rusty Harold

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 0132701871

Category: Computers

Page: 368

View: 6059

Like any other software system, Web sites gradually accumulate “cruft” over time. They slow down. Links break. Security and compatibility problems mysteriously appear. New features don’t integrate seamlessly. Things just don’t work as well. In an ideal world, you’d rebuild from scratch. But you can’t: there’s no time or money for that. Fortunately, there’s a solution: You can refactor your Web code using easy, proven techniques, tools, and recipes adapted from the world of software development. In Refactoring HTML, Elliotte Rusty Harold explains how to use refactoring to improve virtually any Web site or application. Writing for programmers and non-programmers alike, Harold shows how to refactor for better reliability, performance, usability, security, accessibility, compatibility, and even search engine placement. Step by step, he shows how to migrate obsolete code to today’s stable Web standards, including XHTML, CSS, and REST—and eliminate chronic problems like presentation-based markup, stateful applications, and “tag soup.” The book’s extensive catalog of detailed refactorings and practical “recipes for success” are organized to help you find specific solutions fast, and get maximum benefit for minimum effort. Using this book, you can quickly improve site performance now—and make your site far easier to enhance, maintain, and scale for years to come. Topics covered include • Recognizing the “smells” of Web code that should be refactored • Transforming old HTML into well-formed, valid XHTML, one step at a time • Modernizing existing layouts with CSS • Updating old Web applications: replacing POST with GET, replacing old contact forms, and refactoring JavaScript • Systematically refactoring content and links • Restructuring sites without changing the URLs your users rely upon This book will be an indispensable resource for Web designers, developers, project managers, and anyone who maintains or updates existing sites. It will be especially helpful to Web professionals who learned HTML years ago, and want to refresh their knowledge with today’s standards-compliant best practices. This book will be an indispensable resource for Web designers, developers, project managers, and anyone who maintains or updates existing sites. It will be especially helpful to Web professionals who learned HTML years ago, and want to refresh their knowledge with today’s standards-compliant best practices.

UML Distilled

A Brief Guide to the Standard Object Modeling Language

Author: Martin Fowler

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 013486512X

Category: Computers

Page: 208

View: 7558

More than 300,000 developers have benefited from past editions of UML Distilled . This third edition is the best resource for quick, no-nonsense insights into understanding and using UML 2.0 and prior versions of the UML. Some readers will want to quickly get up to speed with the UML 2.0 and learn the essentials of the UML. Others will use this book as a handy, quick reference to the most common parts of the UML. The author delivers on both of these promises in a short, concise, and focused presentation. This book describes all the major UML diagram types, what they're used for, and the basic notation involved in creating and deciphering them. These diagrams include class, sequence, object, package, deployment, use case, state machine, activity, communication, composite structure, component, interaction overview, and timing diagrams. The examples are clear and the explanations cut to the fundamental design logic. Includes a quick reference to the most useful parts of the UML notation and a useful summary of diagram types that were added to the UML 2.0. If you are like most developers, you don't have time to keep up with all the new innovations in software engineering. This new edition of Fowler's classic work gets you acquainted with some of the best thinking about efficient object-oriented software design using the UML--in a convenient format that will be essential to anyone who designs software professionally.

Analysis Patterns

Reusable Object Models

Author: Martin Fowler

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780201895421

Category: Computers

Page: 357

View: 4939

In his long-awaited book, Martin Fowler has done for application domain patterns what the Gang of Four [Gamma et al.] have done for general purpose design patterns in their book, Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. This book is a must have for all analysts and designers doing object-oriented business modeling and business process re-engineering. —Donald G. Firesmith, Knowledge Systems Corporation Fowler shares with you his wealth of object modeling experience and his keen eye for identifying repeating problems and transforming them into reusable models. Analysis Patterns provides a catalogue of patterns that have emerged in a wide range of domains, including trading, measurement, accounting, and organizational relationships.

Smalltalk Best Practice Patterns

Author: Kent Beck

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: 0132852128

Category: Computers

Page: 228

View: 3630

This classic book is the definitive real-world style guide for better Smalltalk programming. This author presents a set of patterns that organize all the informal experience successful Smalltalk programmers have learned the hard way. When programmers understand these patterns, they can write much more effective code. The concept of Smalltalk patterns is introduced, and the book explains why they work. Next, the book introduces proven patterns for working with methods, messages, state, collections, classes and formatting. Finally, the book walks through a development example utilizing patterns. For programmers, project managers, teachers and students -- both new and experienced. This book presents a set of patterns that organize all the informal experience of successful Smalltalk programmers. This book will help you understand these patterns, and empower you to write more effective code.

Domain-Specific Languages

Author: Martin Fowler

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780131392809

Category: Computers

Page: 640

View: 7178

When carefully selected and used, Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) may simplify complex code, promote effective communication with customers, improve productivity, and unclog development bottlenecks. In Domain-Specific Languages , noted software development expert Martin Fowler first provides the information software professionals need to decide if and when to utilize DSLs. Then, where DSLs prove suitable, Fowler presents effective techniques for building them, and guides software engineers in choosing the right approaches for their applications. This book’s techniques may be utilized with most modern object-oriented languages; the author provides numerous examples in Java and C#, as well as selected examples in Ruby. Wherever possible, chapters are organized to be self-standing, and most reference topics are presented in a familiar patterns format. Armed with this wide-ranging book, developers will have the knowledge they need to make important decisions about DSLs—and, where appropriate, gain the significant technical and business benefits they offer. The topics covered include: How DSLs compare to frameworks and libraries, and when those alternatives are sufficient Using parsers and parser generators, and parsing external DSLs Understanding, comparing, and choosing DSL language constructs Determining whether to use code generation, and comparing code generation strategies Previewing new language workbench tools for creating DSLs

Programming the Perl DBI

Database programming with Perl

Author: Tim Bunce,Alligator Descartes

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449315364

Category: Computers

Page: 366

View: 4449

One of the greatest strengths of the Perl programming language is its ability to manipulate large amounts of data. Database programming is therefore a natural fit for Perl, not only for business applications but also for CGI-based web and intranet applications.The primary interface for database programming in Perl is DBI. DBI is a database-independent package that provides a consistent set of routines regardless of what database product you use--Oracle, Sybase, Ingres, Informix, you name it. The design of DBI is to separate the actual database drivers (DBDs) from the programmer's API, so any DBI program can work with any database, or even with multiple databases by different vendors simultaneously.Programming the Perl DBI is coauthored by Alligator Descartes, one of the most active members of the DBI community, and by Tim Bunce, the inventor of DBI. For the uninitiated, the book explains the architecture of DBI and shows you how to write DBI-based programs. For the experienced DBI dabbler, this book reveals DBI's nuances and the peculiarities of each individual DBD.The book includes: An introduction to DBI and its design How to construct queries and bind parameters Working with database, driver, and statement handles Debugging techniques Coverage of each existing DBD A complete reference to DBI This is the definitive book for database programming in Perl.