Racism and Criminology stimulates criminological debate on issues of crime, race, racism, and criminal justice and offers practical guidance to those seeking to address race issues and confront racism in their own work. This unique text critiques the existing,largely empirical, research on race and criminal justice. It then presents theoretical advances in criminology and sociology and the methodological implications of applying such theory to future research. After reviewing work on race and crime within the major criminological paradigms to date and the uses and limitations of such research for policy development, distinguished contributors go on to explore some central problems of method inherent to research on race. They discuss issues such as competing ethnic classification schemes, the definition of "racial," and ethnic data in criminal justice agency records. The theoretical contributions explore the development of antiracism, the relationship between race and wider sociologies of disadvantage, the "racialization" of the politics of crime, and the "criminalization" of the politics of race during the 1980s. Finally, they examine one of the key problems for the 1990s: the development of discourses and control strategies, which exclude black people from enjoyment of full citizenship rights. This book will be invaluable in helping students and researchers make informed theoretical choices and evaluate the various theoretical perspectives. It will encourage engagement with race issues by open discussion of the methodological dilemmas which are usually left unspoken. As such, it is essential reading for all those who wish to understand and confront racism in state systems of control and regulation.
These essays, first published in 1996, focus on class, race, and gender as organising and analytical concepts in criminology. For many years, their importance in studying how the world relates to crime and its control was minimized or ignored. It is clear, however, that these concepts are of critical importance in understanding societal issues, especially crime and societal responses to it. This title will be of interest to students of criminology.
In a post-Macpherson, post-9/11 world, criminal justice agencies are adapting their responses to criminal behaviour across diverse ethnic groups. Race, Crime and Resistance draws on contemporary theory and a range of case studies to consider racial inequalities within the criminal justice system and related organisations. Exploring the mechanisms of discrimination and exclusion, the book goes beyond superficial assumptions to examine the ensuing processes of mobilisation and resistance across disadvantaged groups. Empirically grounded and theoretically informed, the book critically unpicks the persisting concepts of race and ethnicity in the perceptions and representations of crime. Articulate and sensitive, the book clarifies complex ideas through the use of chapter summaries, case studies, further reading and study questions. It is essential reading for students and scholars of criminology, race and ethnicity, and sociology.
This book provides a critical exploration of the importance of social identities when considering crime, victimisation and criminal justice and offers a refreshing perspective on the most significant developments in relation to equality and diversity issues that feature in policies and practices of criminal justice agencies.
Author: James D. Unnever,Shaun L. Gabbidon,Cecilia Chouhy
Category: Social Science
In light of the Black Lives Matter movement and protests in many cities, race plays an ever more salient role in crime and justice. Within theoretical criminology, however, race has oddly remained on the periphery. It is often introduced as a control variable in tests of theories and is rarely incorporated as a central construct in mainstream paradigms (e.g., control, social learning, and strain theories). When race is discussed, the standard approach is to embrace the racial invariance thesis, which argues that any racial differences in crime are due to African Americans being exposed to the same criminogenic risk factors as are Whites, just more of them. An alternative perspective has emerged that seeks to identify the unique, racially specific conditions that only Blacks experience. Within the United States, these conditions are rooted in the historical racial oppression experienced by African Americans, whose contemporary legacy includes concentrated disadvantage in segregated communities, racial socialization by parents, experiences with and perceptions of racial discrimination, and disproportionate involvement in and unjust treatment by the criminal justice system. Importantly, racial invariance and race specificity are not mutually exclusive perspectives. Evidence exists that Blacks and Whites commit crimes for both the same reasons (invariance) and for different reasons (race-specific). A full understanding of race and crime thus must involve demarcating both the general and specific causes of crime, the latter embedded in what it means to be "Black" in the United States. This volume seeks to explore these theoretical issues in a depth and breadth that is not common under one cover. Again, given the salience of race and crime, this volume should be of interest to a wide range of criminologists and have the potential to be used in graduate seminars and upper-level undergraduate courses.
A little more than a century ago, the famous social scientist W.E.B. Du Bois asserted that a true understanding of African American offending must be grounded in the "real conditions" of what it means to be black living in a racial stratified society. Today and according to official statistics, African American men – about six percent of the population of the United States – account for nearly sixty percent of the robbery arrests in the United States. To the authors of this book, this and many other glaring racial disparities in offending centered on African Americans is clearly related to their unique history and to their past and present racial subordination. Inexplicably, however, no criminological theory exists that fully articulates the nuances of the African American experience and how they relate to their offending. In readable fashion for undergraduate students, the general public, and criminologists alike, this book for the first time presents the foundations for the development of an African American theory of offending.
A comprehensive collection of the essential writings on race and crime, this important Reader spans more than a century and clearly demonstrates the long-standing difficulties minorities have faced with the justice system. The editors skillfully draw on the classic work of such thinkers as W.E.B. DuBois and Gunnar Myrdal as well as the contemporary work of scholars such as Angela Davis, Joan Petersilia, John Hagen and Robert Sampson. This anthology also covers all of the major topics and issues from policing, courts, drugs and urban violence to inequality, racial profiling and capital punishment. This is required reading for courses in criminology and criminal justice, legal studies, sociology, social work and race.
This three volume reference set offers a comprehensive look at the roles race and ethnicity play in society and in our daily lives. General readers, students, and scholars alike will appreciate the informative coverage of intergroup relations in the United States and the comparative examination of race and ethnicity worldwide. These volumes offer a foundation to understanding as well as researching racial and ethnic diversity from a multidisciplinary perspective. Over a hundred racial and ethnic groups are described, with additional thematic essays offering insight into broad topics that cut across group boundaries and which impact on society. The encyclopedia has alphabetically arranged author-signed essays with references to guide further reading. Numerous cross-references aid the reader to explore beyond specific entries, reflecting the interdependent nature of race and ethnicity operating in society. The text is supplemented by photographs, tables, figures and custom-designed maps to provide an engaging visual look at race and ethnicity. An easy-to-use statistical appendix offers the latest data with carefully selected historical comparisons to aid study and research in the area
'The social landscape of 'race' and 'ethnicity' within contemporary Britain has become increasingly diverse and complex. The old, exclusive research emphasis in criminology on the outcomes of social inequalities and policies is now challenged by an appreciation of how race and ethnicity are constructed and other theoretical perspectives. This collection of papers will introduce students to these subjects, and do so usefully by addressing contemporary themes that must be given attention by criminologists.' - Professor Simon Holdaway, University of Sheffield 'This collection provides useful and up-to-date information on the response of police, prosecution, prisons and probation services to the challenges of increasing ethnic diversity. It is an excellent source for students and practitioners concerned with reforming policy and improving practice.' - Professor David J. Smith, University of Edinburgh & London School of Economics This text delivers a comprehensive overview of race and ethnicity across the criminal justice system. It unpacks terms such as 'race', 'diversity' and 'multiculturalism' to equip students with a thorough understanding of this complex subject area. Featuring chapters by leading experts, Race and Criminal Justice provides a specialist introduction to each area of the criminal justice system, including police, prosecution, prisons and probation. It also features stimulating discussion of contemporary issues, such as criminal justice responses to refugees and asylum seekers, and the experiences of Muslims within the criminal justice system post-9/11 and 7/7. Each chapter follows a consistent structure, offering: " an overview of key theories relating to the study of race, ethnicity and criminal justice " analysis of research, policy and practice " chapter summaries and further reading to support understanding.
The use of intersectionality theory in the social sciences has proliferated in the past several years, putting forward the argument that the interconnected identities of individuals, and the way these identities are perceived and responded to by others, must be a necessary part of any analysis. Fundamentally, intersectionality claims that not only are people’s lived experiences affected by their racial identity and by their gender identity, but that these identities, and others, continually operate together and affect each other. With "official" statistical data that indicate people of Color have higher offending and victimization rates than White people, and with the overrepresentation of men and people of Color in the criminal legal system, new theories are required that address these phenomena and that are devoid of stereotypical or debasing underpinnings. Intersectionality and Criminology provides a comprehensive review of the need for, and use of, intersectionality in the study of crime, criminality, and the criminal legal system. This is essential reading for academics and students researching and studying in the fields of crime, criminal justice, theoretical criminology, and gender, race, and socioeconomic class.
This fascinating book documents the everyday abuse, assault, and intimidation that is suffered by black and Asian people in Great Britain every day, using information gathered in an East London London case study. The author explains and analyses the process through which violence is targeted at these minorities, and the role that the ideas and language of racial exclusion take in this process. The failure of the police to respond to this problem is then looked at in depth. This bookis based on detailed analysis of official documents, a victimization survey, interviews, and direct observation, seen in the overall context of the history of race relations in Britain. The author describes many of the thousands of racist attacks that have occurred in recent years and the events in the last two decades that have shaped English racism, and the political response to it. In this paperback edition Ben Bowling's Preface examines the racist murder of the black teenager, Stephen Lawrence, whose killing in cold blood on an ordinary English street in April 1993 did not hit the headlines until February 1999, causing reverberations across the whole body of British politics and beyond.
Karim Murji is Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the Open University, UK. He writes on cultural and policy studies of ethnicity and racism, and criminology. With John Solomos, he is the editor of Racialization: Studies in theory and practice (2005) and Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. He is an Editor of the journal Sociology. Gargi Bhattacharyya is Professor of Sociology at the University of East London, UK. She has written on issues of racism and sexuality, global cultures of racism and the war on terror. Her recent work includes Dangerous Brown Men: Exploiting Sex, Violence and Feminism in the War on Terror (2008) and the edited collection Ethnicities and Values in a Changing World (2009).
The author presents historical specificity for a modern theory of hate crime, then rigorously tests the theory with interview data derived from skinheads who have committed an array of violent acts against persons because of their race, religion, or sexual preference--the classic "outgroups" of American society.
Race still matters in Canada, and in the context of crime and criminal justice, it matters a lot. In this book, the authors focus on the ways in which racial minority groups are criminalized, as well as the ways in which the Canadian criminal justice system is racialized. Employing an intersectional analysis, Chan and Chunn explore how the connection between race and crime is further affected by class, gender, and other social relations.The text covers not only conventional topics such as policing, sentencing, and the media, but also neglected areas such as the criminalization of immigration, poverty, and mental illness.
This revised and updated edition of a highly successful text provides a comprehensive account of the ideas and controversies that have arisen within law, philosophy, sociology and criminology about the punishment of criminals. Written in a clear, accessible style, it summarises major philosophical ideas - retribution, rehabilitation, incapacitation - and discusses their strengths and weaknesses.