Proportionality is intimately linked to the overarching concepts of self-defense, lawful force, and the controlled application of violence. It is one of the most visible facets of humanitarian law designed to reduce unnecessary human suffering and avoid excessive damage to property, and the natural environment. However, its application has come under renewed scrutiny and sustained controversy as a result of wars against non-state actors and from the extensive use of drones, human shields, cyber war techniques, and counterinsurgency tactics. Proportionality in International Law critically assesses the law of proportionality in normative terms combining abstract philosophical and legal analysis with highly emotive contemporary combat cases. The principle of proportionality permits actions that are logically linked to the intended goal, and thus defines the permissible boundaries for the initiation and conduct of modern wars. The case studies discussed in this book are predominantly from the perspective of those who make decisions in the midst of armed conflict, bringing analytic rigor to the debates as well as sensitivity to facts on the ground. The authors analyze modern usages of proportionality across a wide range of contexts enabling a more complete comprehension of the values that it preserves. This book contrasts the applications of proportionality in both jus ad bellum (the law and morality of resort to force) and within jus in bello (the doctrines applicable for using force in the midst of conflicts). Proportionality in International Law provides the reader with a unique interdisciplinary approach, offering practitioners and policymakers alike greater clarity over how proportionality should be understood in theory and in practice.
There has been considerable debate in the international community as to the legality of the forceful actions in Kosovo in 1999, Afghanistan in 2002 and Iraq in 2003 under the United Nations Charter. There has been consensus, however, that the use of force in all these situations had to be both proportional and necessary. Against the background of these recent armed conflicts, this 2004 book offers the first comprehensive assessment of the twin requirements of proportionality and necessity as legal restraints on the forceful actions of States. It also provides a much-needed examination of the relationship between proportionality in the law on the use of force and international humanitarian law.
Author: Pierre Tschannen,Ulrich Zimmerli,Markus Müller
Fünf Jahre sind mittlerweile im Verwaltungsrecht (selbst im allgemeinen Verwaltungsrecht) eine Ewigkeit, die vollständige Überarbeitung und Neuauflage des vorliegenden Buches ist daher kein Luxus. Die vierte Auflage versucht, die neusten Entwicklungen in der Praxis und Dogmatik zum allgemeinen Verwaltungsrecht aufzugreifen und einzuarbeiten. Die Struktur der dritten Auflage wurde dabei weitgehend beibehalten. Das Buch behandelt den üblichen Pflichtstoff des allgemeinen Verwaltungsrechts, nämlich: Träger und Aufgaben der Verwaltung, Rechtsbindungen der Verwaltung, Handlungsformen der Verwaltung, typische Verwaltungsrechtsverhältnisse und das öffentliche Entschädigungsrecht. Das Werk versteht sich weiterhin zunächst als Lehrmittel für Studierende. Am didaktischen Tenor mit eingestreuten Beispielen, Prüfprogrammen und Übersichten hat sich darum nichts geändert. Mit Exkursen und Kommentaren wird das Buch indessen auch der Praxis nützliche Dienste erweisen. (Quelle: www.buchhandel.de).
This book of essays, the product of a conference held at the University of Birmingham in the spring of 1998, contains contributions from a group of extremely distinguished scholars in the fields of both public and private law. The meaning of proportionality is examined in a number of different contexts, including those of EC law, the domestic law of the member states of the EU, and the law of the European Convention on Human Rights.
An Analysis of the Scope of Proportionality in the Right of Self-defence and in the Regime of International Countermeasures and an Evaluation of the Concept of State Crimes
Author: Christian Wicker
Publisher: Peter Lang Gmbh, Internationaler Verlag Der Wissenschaften
It is generally recognised in both literature and jurisprudence that the notion of proportionality constitutes a key requirement of self-defence and of countermeasures. The determination of the exact content of the proportionality principle is, however, very complex and controversial. This study demonstrates that consequently a State can no longer commit an international crime. Yet it also shows that by applying more serious consequences to the commission of a serious breach of peremptory norms the idea behind the concept does add something valuable to the existing concepts of jus cogens and obligations erga omnes.
International investment law is one of the most dynamic fields of international law, and yet it has been criticised for failing to strike a fair balance between private and public interests. In this valuable contribution to the current debate, Valentina Vadi examines the merits and pitfalls of arbitral tribunals’ use of the concepts of proportionality and reasonableness to review the compatibility of a state’s regulatory actions with its obligations under international investment law.
Zur Konkretisierung des Gebots des fair and equitable treatment in der internationalen Investitionsschiedsgerichtsbarkeit
Author: Carsten Kern
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
Durch die Diskussion uber den Abschluss von Freihandelsabkommen hat die Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit eine bislang ungekannte Aufmerksamkeit erfahren. Fur den internationalen Investitionsschutz durch bilaterale und multilaterale Abkommen ist es zudem pragend, dass der jeweils zu Gunsten des auslandischen Investors maSSgebende Schutzstandard unter Ruckgriff auf Generalklauseln formuliert wird. DIes betrifft insbesondere das Gebot des fair and equitable treatment, den zentralen Schutzstandard des internationalen Investitionsrechts. EIn generelles Problem auf der 'Nutzerseite' schiedsrichterlicher Streitbeilegung im Bereich des internationalen Investitionsschutzes besteht im Fehlen einer allgemein anerkannten Konkretisierung dieser Generalklauseln. EIn Teil der gegenuber der Investitionsschiedsgerichtsbarkeit vorgebrachten Kritik beruht auf diesem Befund. HIer setzt Carsten Kern an und zielt, unter Berucksichtigung der institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen der Investitionsschiedsgerichtsbarkeit, auf die Beantwortung der methodischen wie auch der inhaltlichen Frage nach der angemessenen Konkretisierung des Gebots des fair and equitable treatment.
The margin of appreciation is a judicial doctrine whereby international courts allow states to have a measure of diversity in their interpretation of human rights treaty obligations. The doctrine is at the heart of some of the most important international human rights decisions. Does it undermine the universality of human rights? How should judges decide whether to give this margin of appreciation to states? How can lawyers make best use of arguments for or against the margin of appreciation? This book answers these questions, and broadens the discussion on the margin of appreciation by including material beyond the ECHR system. It provides a comprehensive justification of the doctrine, and ALLFSCA14I the key cases affecting the doctrine in practice. Part One provides a systematic defence of the margin of appreciation doctrine in international human rights law. Drawing on the philosophy of practical reasoning the book argues that the margin of appreciation is a doctrine of judicial deference and is a common and appropriate feature of adjudication. The book argues that the margin of appreciation doctrine prevents courts from imposing unhelpful uniformity, whilst allowing decisions to be consistent with the universality of human rights. Part Two considers the key case law of the European Court of Human Rights, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, and the UN Human Rights Committee, documenting the margin of appreciation in practice. The analysis uniquely takes a broad look at the factors affecting the margin of appreciation. Part Three explores how the margin of appreciation operates in the judicial decision-making process, reconceptualising the proportionality assessment and explaining how the nature of the right and the type of case affect the courts' reasoning.
Das Zeitalter der zwischenstaatlichen Kriege geht offenbar zu Ende. Aber der Krieg ist keineswegs verschwunden, er hat nur seine Erscheinungsform verändert. In den neuen Kriegen spielen nicht mehr die Staaten die Hauptrolle, sondern Warlords, Söldner und Terroristen. Die Gewalt richtet sich vor allem gegen die Zivilbevölkerung; Hochhäuser werden zu Schlachtfeldern, Fernsehbilder zu Waffen. Herfried Münkler macht die Folgen dieser Entwicklung deutlich. Er zeigt, wie mit dem Verschwinden von klassischen Schlachten und Frontlinien auch die Unterscheidung von Krieg und Frieden brüchig geworden ist, und erörtert, wie man den besonderen Gefahren begegnen kann, die von den neuen Kriegen ausgehen.
Author: Jens David Ohlin,Claire Finkelstein,Larry May
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The chief means to limit and calculate the costs of war are the philosophical and legal concepts of proportionality and necessity. Both categories are meant to restrain the most horrific potential of war. The volume explores the moral and legal issues in the modern law of war in three major categories. In so doing, the contributions will look for new and innovative approaches to understanding the process of weighing lives implicit in all theories of jus in bello who counts in war, understanding proportionality, and weighing lives in asymmetric conflicts. These questions arise on multiple levels and require interdisciplinary consideration of both philosophical and legal themes.
The main objective of this study is to present a comparative legal analysis of proportionality. it provides a close examination of the key areas in which this principle has been applied, both at the national and supranational levels. The whole work is placed in the context of transformation of public law in the twentieth century. As many important general principles of law as applied by the Court of Justice have been borrowed from German and French law, a comparative study of the various forms which this principle has assumed in both German and French public law is presented. The book then offers an in-depth analysis of the application and impact of the principle of proportionality in EC law. The introduction and development of this principle by the Court of Justice represents one of the most striking examples of the interaction between the Community and national legal systems. it also illustrates the character of Community law as developed by the Court And The law-making function of the latter.
States reject inequality when they choose to ratify the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), but to date the ICESCR has not yet figured prominently in the policy calculus behind States' international economic decisions. This book responds to the modern challenge of operationalizing the ICESCR, particularly in the context of States' decisions within international trade, finance, and investment. Differentiating between public policy mechanisms and institutional functional mandates in the international trade, finance, and investment systems, this book shows legal and policy gateways for States to feasibly translate their fundamental duties to respect, protect, and fulfil economic, social and cultural rights into their trade, finance, and investment commitments, agreements, and contracts. It approaches the problem of harmonizing social protection objectives under the ICESCR with a State's international economic treaty obligations, from the designing and interpreting international treaty texts, up to the institutional monitoring and empirical analysis of ICESCR compliance. In examining public policy options, the book takes into account around five decades of States' implementation of social protection commitments under the ICESCR; its normative evolution through the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Committee's expanded fact-finding and adjudicative competences under the Optional Protocol to the ICESCR; as well as the critical, dialectical, and deliberative roles of diverse functional interpretive communities within international trade, finance, and investment law. Ultimately, the book shoes how States' ICESCR commitments operate as the normative foundation of their trade, finance, and investment decisions.
This book addresses the principle of proportionality, which is currently one of the most important instruments of judicial review, from both analytical and theory of law perspectives. As such, the analysis provided is far more comprehensive and can be applied to all areas of law, not just constitutional law. On the one hand, the volume offers a broad perspective on several aspects related to proportionality, such as its structure, the balancing methodology and the distinction between rules and principles. On the other, it provides an innovative, normativist and analytical approach to proportionality, helping readers understand its structure and behaviour.
Written by a team of distinguished and internationally renowned experts, this Oxford Handbook gives an analytical overview of international law as it applies in armed conflicts. The Handbook draws on international humanitarian law, human rights law, and the law of neutrality to provide a comprehensive picture of the status of law in war.
A Study of Proportionality, Subsidiarity and Primarity in the European Convention on Human Rights
Author: Jonas Christoffersen
Category: Political Science
In one of the most important publications on the European Convention and Court of Human Rights in recent years, a wide range of fundamental practical and theoretical problems of crucial importance are addressed in an original and critical way bringing a fresh, coherent and innovative order into well-known battle zones. The analysis revolves around the Courta (TM)s fair balance-test and comprises in-depth analyses of e.g. methods of interpretation, proportionality, the least onerous means-test, the notion of absolute rights, subsidiarity, formal and substantive principles, evidentiary standards, proceduralisation of substantive rights etc. The author coins the term of a oeprimaritya in order to clarify the obligation of the Contracting Parties to implement the Convention in domestic law.