The field of electrical measurement continues to grow, with new techniques developed each year. From the basic thermocouple to cutting-edge virtual instrumentation, it is also becoming an increasingly "digital" endeavor. Books that attempt to capture the state-of-the-art in electrical measurement are quickly outdated. Recognizing the need for a text devoted to the major areas underlying modern electrical measurement, Slawomir Tumanski developed Principles of Electrical Measurement. This text builds a solid foundation in the necessary background concepts and fundamentals needed to develop and use modern electrical instruments. The author first introduces the fundamentals-including main terms and definitions, methods of estimating accuracy and uncertainty, and standards of electrical quantities-and the classical methods of measurement. He then delves into data acquisition, signal conditioning, and signal processing for both analog and digital signals. The final chapter examines computer measuring systems and virtual measurement techniques. By focusing on the aspects that are common to all types of electrical measurement, the book ensures a solid understanding that can be easily applied in practice. Whether used as an introduction to the field or as a reference to the essential concepts, Principles of Electrical Measurement provides the knowledge necessary to develop measurement solutions for any application.
This text offers comprehensive coverage of electronic instruments and electronics-aided measurements, highlighting the essential components of digital electronic instrumentation and the principles involved in electrical and electronic measurement processes. It also explains the stages involved in data acquisition systems for acquiring, manipulating, processing, storing, displaying and interpreting the sought-for data. The principal instruments presented in this book include cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO), analyzers, signal generators, oscillators, frequency synthesizers, sweep generators, function generators and attenuators. Besides, the book covers several laboratory meters such as phase meters, frequency meters, Q-meters, wattmeters, energy meters, power factor meters, and measurement bridges. Also included are a few important sensors and transducers which are used in the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow rate, liquid level, force, etc. The book also emphasizes the growing use of fibre optic instrumentation. It explains some typical fibre optic sensing systems including the fibre optic gyroscope. Some applications of optical fibre in biomedical area are described as well. The book is intended for a course on Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation prescribed for B.E./B.Tech. students of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Electronics and Communication Engineering, Electronics and Control Engineering, and Electronics and Computer Engineering. It will also be a useful book for diploma level students pursuing courses in electrical/electronics/instrumentation disciplines. A variety of worked-out examples and exercises serve to illustrate and test the understanding of the underlying concepts and principles. ADDITIONAL FEATURES • Provides the essential background knowledge concerning the principles of analogue and digital electronics • Conventional techniques of measurement of electrical quantities are also presented • Shielding, grounding and EMI aspects of instrumentation are highlighted • Units, dimensions, standards, measurement errors and error analysis are dealt with in the appendices • Techniques of automated test and measurement systems are briefly discussed in an appendix
Based on materials originally developed for Open University courses, Professor Bryant's book has proved very successful for student and practicing engineers working in the radio-frequency and microwave areas. The revised paperback edition contains full explanatory notes and numerical solutions to the problems accompanying each chapter.
The concept of temperature. The thermodynamic temperature scale. Entropy, temperature and statistical mechanics. The international practical temperature scale. General characteristics of temperature measuring devices and treatment of data. Liquid-in-glass thermometers. Sealed liquid or gas sensing instruments and bimetallic sensors. Electrical resistance temperature measurement using metallic sensors. Thermistors and semiconductors for temperature measurement. Thermoelectric temperature measurement. Theory of radiant heat transfer as a basis for temperature measurement bu radiant techniques. The disappearing filament optical pyrometer. Photoelectric optical pyrometers (automatic and infrared). Total radiation pyrometers. Novel methods of temperature measurement. Pyrometric cones. Calibration methods. Installation effects. Dynamic response of sensors. Temperature instrumentation and control. Thermocouple reference tables.
'Measurement and Instrumentation Principles' is the latest edition of a successful book that introduces undergraduate students to the measurement principles and the range of sensors and instruments that are used for measuring physical variables. Completely updated to include new technologies such as smart sensors, displays and interfaces, the 3rd edition also contains plenty of worked examples and self-assessment questions (and solutions). In addition, a new chapter on safety issues focuses on the legal framework, electrical safety and failsafe designs, and the author has also concentrated on RF and optical wireless communications. Fully up-to-date and comprehensively written, this textbook is essential for all engineering undergraduates, especially those in the first two years of their course. Completely updated Includes new technologies such as smart sensors and displays
In the modern scientific world, a thorough understanding of complex measurements and instruments is the need of the hour. The second edition of the book provides a comprehensive coverage of the concepts and principles of measurements and instrumentation, and brings into fore the recent and significant developments in this field. The text now offers an exhaustive exposition of different types of measuring instruments and their applications in an easy-to-grasp manner. It presents even the minute details of various measurement techniques and calibration methods, which are the essential features of a measurement programme. The book elaborates on the theoretical background and practical knowledge of different measuring instruments to make the students accustomed to these devices. An in-depth coverage of topics makes the text useful to somewhat more advanced courses and its elaborated methodology will help students meet the challenges in their career. This book is ideally suitable for the undergraduate students of Electrical and Electronics, Electronics and Communication, Electronics and Telecommunication, and Instrumentation and Control disciplines of engineering.
Units 2. Electronics 3. Currents, Voltage, Power And Energy 4. Conductors And Resistors 5. Dielectrics And Capacitors 6. Primary And Secondary Cells 7. Network Analysis 8. Electromagnetics 9. Magnetic Circuits 10. Magnetically Induced Voltages 11. Self And Mutual Inductance 12. Circuit Transients 13. Alternating Voltage And Current 14. A.C. Circuits With Single Element-R, L, C 15. Series A.C. Circuits 16. Parallel And Series Parallel Circuits 17. Resonance 18. Harmonics 19. Polyphase Circuits 20. Two-Port Networks 21. Wave Filters 22. Measuring Instruments 23. Ammeters And Voltmeters 24. Measurement Of Power And Energy
The CRC Principles and Applications in Engineering series is a library of convenient, economical references sharply focused on particular engineering topics and subspecialties. Each volume in the series comprises chapters carefully selected from CRC's bestselling handbooks, logically organized for optimum convenience, and thoughtfully priced to fit every budget. Electrical Measurement, Signal Processing, and Displays describes the use of instruments and techniques for practical measurement of electromagnetic variables, signal processing equipment and parameters, and various types of displays, from cathode ray tubes to LED devices. For this volume, chapters relevant to these topics were culled from the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook and revised by their original authors to bring them thoroughly up to date. This is a concise, well-illustrated, and highly practical reference. It sets forth the principles, formulas, and equations engineers and scientists need for solving the instrumentation and measurement questions they encounter in practice, particularly when problems arise in areas outside their own specialties.
Measuring InstrumentsPrinciple of Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC), Moving Iron Instruments, Ammeters & Voltmeters, Operating Principles of the Electrodynamometer Instruments. Wattmeter, Energy meter, Electrostatic Instruments, Rectifier type Instruments, Extension of Ranges of Voltmeters and Ammeters. Principle of Power Factor & Frequency meter. Use of Current & Potential Transformers. Measurement of R, L, and CMeasurement of low, medium & high resistances Wheatstone & Kelvin bridge, Ohmmeter, Megger. A.C. bridge circuits for measurement of inductance & capacitance-Maxwell s, Hay s & Anderson s bridge, Schering bridge.PotentiometersPrinciples of D.C & A.C. Potentiometers & their applications.Magnetic Properties of MaterialsThe magnetic dipole movement, diamagnetism. The origin of permanent magnetic dipoles in matter, Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism.D.C. MotorsPrinciples of working, E.M.F. equation, back EMF, torque equations, methods of excitation, characteristics of D.C. shunt, series & compound motors, speed torque characteristic of D.C. motors, starters, principles of speed control. Three Phase Induction MotorsRotating magnetic field, construction & principle of operation, slip, rotor frequency, development of equivalent circuit, torque equation, maximum torque, torque speed characteristics, speed control. Starting methods, motor ratings.Stepper MotorPrinciple of working, characteristics & applications.
Units,Dimensions and Standards MKS and rationalised MKSA system, SI units, Standards of EMF, Resistance, Capacitance and inductance, Systematic errors. General Theory of Analog Measuring Instruments Operating torque, Damping and controlling torque, T/W ratio, Pointers and scales. Principles of operation of various types of electro mechanical indicating/registering instruments viz. PMMC, Dynamometer, Induction, Thermal, etc. for d.c. and a.c. measurement of V, I, W, Frequency, Phase and power factor etc., Energy meter, Their sources of error and compensation, Shunts and multipliers, Multi-meter. Potentiometers Basic potentiometer circuit, Multiple range potentiometers, Constructional details of potentiometers, Applications of d.c. potentiometers, Self balancing potentiometers, A.C. potentiometers, Polar and co-ordinate types. Bridges Sources and detectors, General equation for bridge balance, Measurement of R, L, C, M, F etc. by Wheatstone, Kelvin, Maxwell, Hay's, Anderson, Owen, Heaviside, Campbell, Schering, Wien bridges, Bridge sensitivity, Errors, Wagner earthing device. Magnetic Measurements Flux meter, B-H Curve, Hystersis loop, Permeameters, A.C. testing of magnetic materials, Separation of iron losses, Iron loss measurement by Wattmeter and bridge methods. Instrument Transformers Theory and construction of current and potential transformers, Ratio and phase angle errors and their minimization, Characteristics of CTs and PTs, Testing of CTs and PTs.
A contemporary new text for preparing students to work with the complex patient-care equipment found in today's modern hospitals and clinics. It begins by presenting fundamental prerequisite concepts of electronic circuit theory, medical equipment history and physiological transducers, as well as a systematic approach to troubleshooting. The text then goes on to offer individual chapters on common and speciality medical equipment, both diagnostic and therapeutic. Self-contained, these chapters can be used in any order, to fit the instructor's class goals and syllabus.
Electrical Impedance: Principles, Measurement, and Applications provides a modern and much-needed overview of electrical impedance measurement science and its application in metrology, sensor reading, device and material characterizations. It presents up-to-date coverage of the theory, practical methods, and modeling. The author covers the main impedance measurement techniques, stressing their practical application. The book includes a large set of measurement setup schematics, and diagrams and photos of standards and devices. It also offers an extensive list of references to both historical and recent papers on devices, methods, and traceability issues. Reviews the main definitions of the quantities related to impedance, some theorems of particular interest, the issue of impedance representation, and introduces the problem of impedance definition Lists devices, appliances, circuits, and instruments employed as building blocks of impedance measurement setups Classifies the main impedance measurement methods, including details on their implementation when a specific impedance definition is chosen Discusses the increasing use of mixed-signal electronics in impedance measurement setups Covers applications including details on the measurement of electromagnetic properties of materials Introduces impedance metrology, including artifact impedance standards, and the realization and reproduction of SI impedance units
While magnetic devices are used in a range of applications, the availability of up-to-date books on magnetic measurements is quite limited. Collecting state-of-the-art knowledge from information scattered throughout the literature, Handbook of Magnetic Measurements covers a wide spectrum of topics pertaining to magnetic measurements. It describes magnetic materials and sensors, the testing of magnetic materials, and applications of magnetic measurements. Suitable for specialists as well as readers with minimal knowledge of magnetic measurements, the book begins with an easy-to-follow introduction to the essentials of magnetic measurements. It then offers a comprehensive review of various modern magnetic materials, such as soft and hard magnetic materials and thin magnetic films. The text also describes all commonly used magnetic field sensors, including inductive, fluxgate, Hall, magnetoresistive, resonance, SQUID, magnetoelastic, and magnetooptical sensors. The final chapters discuss the nondestructive testing of materials and explore applications related to magnetic measurements, including magnetic diagnostics in medicine, magnetoarcheology, and magnetic imaging. A thorough overview of magnetic measurements, this handbook helps readers navigate the sometimes impenetrable terms of the field. It also assists them in the quest to design electromagnetic devices in a more effective way.
Measurement and Instrumentation introduces undergraduate engineering students to the measurement principles and the range of sensors and instruments that are used for measuring physical variables. Based on Morris's Measurement and Instrumentation Principles, this brand new text has been fully updated with coverage of the latest developments in such measurement technologies as smart sensors, intelligent instruments, microsensors, digital recorders and displays and interfaces. Clearly and comprehensively written, this textbook provides students with the knowledge and tools, including examples in LABVIEW, to design and build measurement systems for virtually any engineering application. The text features chapters on data acquisition and signal processing with LabVIEW from Dr. Reza Langari, Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Texas A&M University. Early coverage of measurement system design provides students with a better framework for understanding the importance of studying measurement and instrumentation Includes significant material on data acquisition, coverage of sampling theory and linkage to acquisition/processing software, providing students with a more modern approach to the subject matter, in line with actual data acquisition and instrumentation techniques now used in industry. Extensive coverage of uncertainty (inaccuracy) aids students' ability to determine the precision of instruments Integrated use of LabVIEW examples and problems enhances students' ability to understand and retain content