Poverty and public policy

an evaluation of social science research

Author: Vincent T. Covello,Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences (U.S.). Committee on Evaluation of Poverty Research,National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Evaluation of Poverty Research

Publisher: Not Avail

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 314

View: 1492

Poverty Knowledge

Social Science, Social Policy, and the Poor in Twentieth-Century U.S. History

Author: Alice O'Connor

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400824745

Category: History

Page: 392

View: 6257

Progressive-era "poverty warriors" cast poverty in America as a problem of unemployment, low wages, labor exploitation, and political disfranchisement. In the 1990s, policy specialists made "dependency" the issue and crafted incentives to get people off welfare. Poverty Knowledge gives the first comprehensive historical account of the thinking behind these very different views of "the poverty problem," in a century-spanning inquiry into the politics, institutions, ideologies, and social science that shaped poverty research and policy. Alice O'Connor chronicles a transformation in the study of poverty, from a reform-minded inquiry into the political economy of industrial capitalism to a detached, highly technical analysis of the demographic and behavioral characteristics of the poor. Along the way, she uncovers the origins of several controversial concepts, including the "culture of poverty" and the "underclass." She shows how such notions emerged not only from trends within the social sciences, but from the central preoccupations of twentieth-century American liberalism: economic growth, the Cold War against communism, the changing fortunes of the welfare state, and the enduring racial divide. The book details important changes in the politics and organization as well as the substance of poverty knowledge. Tracing the genesis of a still-thriving poverty research industry from its roots in the War on Poverty, it demonstrates how research agendas were subsequently influenced by an emerging obsession with welfare reform. Over the course of the twentieth century, O'Connor shows, the study of poverty became more about altering individual behavior and less about addressing structural inequality. The consequences of this steady narrowing of focus came to the fore in the 1990s, when the nation's leading poverty experts helped to end "welfare as we know it." O'Connor shows just how far they had traveled from their field's original aims.

Poverty Policy And Poverty Research

Author: Robert H. Haveman

Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press

ISBN: 9780299111540

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 307

View: 8327

The War on Poverty, instituted in 1965 during the administration of Lyndon B. Johnson, was one of the chief elements of that president s Great Society initiative. This book describes and assesses the major social science research effort that grew up with, and in part because of, these programs. Robert H. Haveman s objective is to illuminate the process by which social and political developments have an impact on the direction of progress in the social sciences. Haveman identifies the policy measures most closely tied to the War on Poverty and the Great Society and describes the nature of these policies and their growth from 1965 to 1980. He examines the extent and growth of resources devoted to the poverty-related research that accompanied these programs, and assesses the impact of the growth in this research commitment over the 1965 1980 period. Haveman s was the first full overview of recent poverty-related research and an overview of methodological developments in the social sciences in the post-1965 period which were stimulated by the antipoverty effort. "

Research Design

Successful Designs for Social and Economic Research

Author: Catherine Hakim

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415223121

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 5345

Providing a practical overview for graduates and professional researchers, this book highlights the central issues involved in the design of medium to large scale social and economic research. Covering both theoretical and policy research Hakim sets out the key features, strengths and limitations of eight main types of study, with illustrations from real life research of the kinds of questions each can best be used to answer. This book also offers a more general pragmatic discussion of strategies for choosing between one design and another, and on how different types of study can be successfully combined in wider ranging research programmes. In this expanded second edition the author has added new material on areas of contemporary significance across the social and economic sciences. New features to this edition are: * a chapter on cross-national comparative studies * more examples throughout the text of comparative research both within Europe and across modern societies * discussions of student theses, advocacy research, selection effects and collaboration.

Bringing the State Back In

Author: Peter B. Evans,Dietrich Rueschemeyer,Theda Skocpol

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107717132

Category: Political Science

Page: 404

View: 8445

Until recently, dominant theoretical paradigms in the comparative social sciences did not highlight states as organizational structures or as potentially autonomous actors. Indeed, the term 'state' was rarely used. Current work, however, increasingly views the state as an agent which, although influenced by the society that surrounds it, also shapes social and political processes. The contributors to this volume, which includes some of the best recent interdisciplinary scholarship on states in relation to social structures, make use of theoretically engaged comparative and historical investigations to provide improved conceptualizations of states and how they operate. Each of the book's major parts presents a related set of analytical issues about modern states, which are explored in the context of a wide range of times and places, both contemporary and historical, and in developing and advanced-industrial nations. The first part examines state strategies in newly developing countries. The second part analyzes war making and state making in early modern Europe, and discusses states in relation to the post-World War II international economy. The third part pursues new insights into how states influence political cleavages and collective action. In the final chapter, the editors bring together the questions raised by the contributors and suggest tentative conclusions that emerge from an overview of all the articles. As a programmatic work that proposes new directions for the analysis of modern states, the volume will appeal to a wide range of teachers and students of political science, political economy, sociology, history, and anthropology.

World poverty

New policies to defeat an old enemy

Author: Townsend, Peter,Gordon, David

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1847425569

Category: Political Science

Page: 480

View: 5590

World poverty is an important book offering fresh insights into how to tackle poverty worldwide. With contributions from leading scholars in the field both internationally and in the UK, the book asks whether existing international and national policies are likely to succeed in reducing poverty across the world. It concludes that they are not and that a radically different international strategy is needed. This book is a companion volume to Breadline Europe: The measurement of poverty (The Policy Press, 2001). The focus of World poverty is on anti-poverty policies rather than the scale, causes and measurement of poverty. A wide range of countries is discussed including countries such as China and India, which have rarely been covered elsewhere. The interests of the industrialised and developing world are given equal attention and are analysed together. Policies intended to operate at different levels - international, regional, national and sub-national - ranging from the policies of international agencies like the UN and the World Bank through to national governments, groups of governments and local and city authorities - are examined. Key aspects of social policy, like 'targeting' and means-testing, de-regulation and privatisation, are considered in detail. World poverty will become a definitive point of reference for anyone working, studying or researching in the poverty field. Studies in poverty, inequality and social exclusion series Series Editor: David Gordon, Director, Townsend Centre for International Poverty Research. Poverty, inequality and social exclusion remain the most fundamental problems that humanity faces in the 21st century. This exciting series, published in association with the Townsend Centre for International Poverty Research at the University of Bristol, aims to make cutting-edge poverty related research more widely available. For other titles in this series, please follow the series link from the main catalogue page.

Handbook of Social Policy Evaluation

Author: Bent Greve

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1785363247

Category:

Page: 576

View: 8370

This Handbook uses methodologies and cases to discover how and when to evaluate social policy, and looks at the possible impacts of evaluation on social policy decisions. The contributors present a detailed analysis on how to conduct social policy evaluation, how to be aware of pitfalls and dilemmas and how to use evidence effectively.

Poverty Knowledge

Social Science, Social Policy, and the Poor in Twentieth-Century U.S. History

Author: Alice O'Connor

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400824745

Category: History

Page: 392

View: 8086

Progressive-era "poverty warriors" cast poverty in America as a problem of unemployment, low wages, labor exploitation, and political disfranchisement. In the 1990s, policy specialists made "dependency" the issue and crafted incentives to get people off welfare. Poverty Knowledge gives the first comprehensive historical account of the thinking behind these very different views of "the poverty problem," in a century-spanning inquiry into the politics, institutions, ideologies, and social science that shaped poverty research and policy. Alice O'Connor chronicles a transformation in the study of poverty, from a reform-minded inquiry into the political economy of industrial capitalism to a detached, highly technical analysis of the demographic and behavioral characteristics of the poor. Along the way, she uncovers the origins of several controversial concepts, including the "culture of poverty" and the "underclass." She shows how such notions emerged not only from trends within the social sciences, but from the central preoccupations of twentieth-century American liberalism: economic growth, the Cold War against communism, the changing fortunes of the welfare state, and the enduring racial divide. The book details important changes in the politics and organization as well as the substance of poverty knowledge. Tracing the genesis of a still-thriving poverty research industry from its roots in the War on Poverty, it demonstrates how research agendas were subsequently influenced by an emerging obsession with welfare reform. Over the course of the twentieth century, O'Connor shows, the study of poverty became more about altering individual behavior and less about addressing structural inequality. The consequences of this steady narrowing of focus came to the fore in the 1990s, when the nation's leading poverty experts helped to end "welfare as we know it." O'Connor shows just how far they had traveled from their field's original aims.

Measuring Poverty

A New Approach

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance: Concepts, Information Needs, and Measurement Methods

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309176842

Category: Political Science

Page: 536

View: 7185

Each year's poverty figures are anxiously awaited by policymakers, analysts, and the media. Yet questions are increasing about the 30-year-old measure as social and economic conditions change. In Measuring Poverty a distinguished panel provides policymakers with an up-to-date evaluation of Concepts and procedures for deriving the poverty threshold, including adjustments for different family circumstances. Definitions of family resources. Procedures for annual updates of poverty measures. The volume explores specific issues underlying the poverty measure, analyzes the likely effects of any changes on poverty rates, and discusses the impact on eligibility for public benefits. In supporting its recommendations the panel provides insightful recognition of the political and social dimensions of this key economic indicator. Measuring Poverty will be important to government officials, policy analysts, statisticians, economists, researchers, and others involved in virtually all poverty and social welfare issues.

Child Poverty and Public Policy

Author: Judith A. Chafel

Publisher: The Urban Insitute

ISBN: 9780877666103

Category: Social Science

Page: 351

View: 6970

This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in poverty. The chapters are as follows: (1) "Child Poverty: Overview and Outlook" (Judith A. Chafel); (2) "Profiles of Children and Families in Poverty" (Judith S. Musick); (3) "Who Are the Poor? A Demographic Perspective" (William H. Scarbrough); (4) "Children of Poverty: Why Are They Poor?" (Suzanne M. Bianchi); (5) "Childhood Poverty and Child Maltreatment" (Joan I. Vondra); (6) "The Child in Poverty: Enduring Images and Changing Interpretations" (Elsie G. J. Moore); (7) "The 101st Congress: An Emerging Agenda for Children in Poverty" (Sandra L. Hofferth); (8) "Human Capital: The Biggest Deficit" (Harold Watts); (9) "Advocacy for Children in Poverty" (Judith A. Chafel and Kevin Condit); and (10) "Conclusion: Integrating Themes about Child Poverty in Search of a Solution" (Judith A. Chafel). Each chapter contain references, and Chapters 2 and 9 contain their own appendixes. (Contains 12 tables and 7 figures.) (SLD)

Evaluating Welfare Reform:

A Framework and Review of Current Work, Interim Report

Author: Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Panel on Data and Methods for Measuring the Effects of Changes in Social Welfare Programs,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council,Committee on National Statistics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309066492

Category: Social Science

Page: 160

View: 903

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 fundamentally changed the nation's social welfare system, replacing a federal entitlement program for low-income families, called Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), with state-administered block grants, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. PRWORA furthered a trend started earlier in the decade under so called "waiver" programs-state experiments with different types of AFDC rules-toward devolution of design and control of social welfare programs from the federal government to the states. The legislation imposed several new, major requirements on state use of federal welfare funds but otherwise freed states to reconfigure their programs as they want. The underlying goal of the legislation is to decrease dependence on welfare and increase the self-sufficiency of poor families in the United States. In summer 1998, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) asked the Committee on National Statistics of the National Research Council to convene a Panel on Data and Methods for Measuring the Effects of Changes in Social Welfare Programs. The panel's overall charge is to study and make recommendations on the best strategies for evaluating the effects of PRWORA and other welfare reforms and to make recommendations on data needs for conducting useful evaluations. This interim report presents the panel's initial conclusions and recommendations. Given the short length of time the panel has been in existence, this report necessarily treats many issues in much less depth than they will be treated in the final report. The report has an immediate short-run goal of providing DHHS-ASPE with recommendations regarding some of its current projects, particularly those recently funded to study ''welfare leavers''-former welfare recipients who have left the welfare rolls as part of the recent decline in welfare caseloads.

Global child poverty and well-being

Measurement, concepts, policy and action

Author: Minujin, Alberto,Nandy, Shailen

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447312767

Category: Political Science

Page: 624

View: 8757

Child poverty is a central and present part of global life, with hundreds of millions of children around the world enduring tremendous suffering and deprivation of their most basic needs. Despite its long history, research on poverty and development has only relatively recently examined the issue of child poverty as a distinct topic of concern. This book brings together theoretical, methodological and policy-relevant contributions by leading researchers on international child poverty. With a preface from Sir Richard Jolly, Former Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations, it examines how child poverty and well-being are now conceptualized, defined and measured, and presents regional and national level portraits of child poverty around the world, in rich, middle income and poor countries. The book's ultimate objective is to promote and influence policy, action and the research agenda to address one of the world's great ongoing tragedies: child poverty, marginalization and inequality.

Social Sciences and Modern States

National Experiences and Theoretical Crossroads

Author: Peter Wagner

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521381987

Category: History

Page: 374

View: 9084

Modern social sciences have, over the past forty years, been committed to the improvement of public policy. More recently, however, doubts have arisen about the possibility and desirability of a policy-oriented social science. In this book, leading specialists in the field analyze both the development and failings of policy-oriented social science. In contrast to other writings on the subject, this volume presents a distinctively historical and comparative approach. By looking at earlier periods, the contributors demonstrate how policy orientation has been central to the emergence and evolution of the social sciences as a form of professional activity. Case studies of rarely examined societies such as Poland, Brazil and Japan further demonstrate the various ways in which intellectual developments have been shaped by the societal contexts in which they have emerged and how they have taken part in the shaping of these societies.

Teaching Research Methods in Public Administration

Author: Schwester, Richard W.

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1466681179

Category: Political Science

Page: 313

View: 773

While there are many ways to collect information, many students have trouble understanding how to employ various research methods effectively. Since everyone learns and processes information differently, instructing students on successfully using these methods continues to be a challenge. Teaching Research Methods in Public Administration combines empirical research and best practices on various research methods being employed by administrators. Emphasizing theoretical concepts, this publication is an essential reference source for academics, public administration practitioners, and students interested in how information is gathered, processed, and utilized.

Neighborhood Poverty

Context and Consequences for Children

Author: Jeanne Brooks-Gunn,Greg Duncan,J. Lawrence Aber

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610440846

Category: Social Science

Page: 356

View: 2875

Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment. This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between children and community. As the essays demonstrate, poverty entails a host of problems that affects the quality of educational, recreational, and child care services. Poor neighborhoods usually share other negative features—particularly racial segregation and a preponderance of single mother families—that may adversely affect children. Yet children are not equally susceptible to the pitfalls of deprived communities. Neighborhood has different effects depending on a child's age, race, and gender, while parenting techniques and a family's degree of community involvement also serve as mitigating factors. Volume II incorporates empirical data on neighborhood poverty into discussions of policy and program development. The contributors point to promising community initiatives and suggest methods to strengthen neighborhood-based service programs for children. Several essays analyze the conceptual and methodological issues surrounding the measurement of neighborhood characteristics. These essays focus on the need to expand scientific insight into urban poverty by drawing on broader pools of ethnographic, epidemiological, and quantitative data. Volume II explores the possibilities for a richer and more well-rounded understanding of neighborhood and poverty issues. To grasp the human cost of poverty, we must clearly understand how living in distressed neighborhoods impairs children's ability to function at every level. Neighborhood Poverty explores the multiple and complex paths between community, family, and childhood development. These two volumes provide and indispensible guide for social policy and demonstrate the power of interdisciplinary social science to probe complex social issues.

Minimum Wages and Poverty

An Evaluation of Policy Alternatives

Author: J. P. Formby,John A. Bishop,H. Kim

Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 222

View: 1350

This research investigates the impact of three equal cost alternative labour market policies on the economic well-being of low-income families and society in general at the turn of the 21st century. The principal focus is on how changes in the minimum wage, Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), and payroll taxes influence the well-being of low-income American families. The methods we employ also reveal how much of the benefits from raising the minimum wage, increasing the EITC, and reducing payroll taxes of workers in low-income families accrue to families in the middle and upper ranges of the income distribution. Thus, we consider the entire distribution, but focus primary attention on families and persons at or near the bottom of the income distribution. The research reported in this book has three distinguishing features.First, it examines and compares changes in the minimum wage, the EITC, and payroll taxes using a common analytical framework. There is considerable discussion of the impacts of raising the minimum wage and increasing EITC payments. The research reported here places these two policies in an 'equivalent social cost' framework and analyses the distributional consequences of each policy. In addition, we use the same equivalent cost paradigm to investigate an alternative policy that rebates a portion of the payroll taxes paid by workers in low-income families. A second distinguishing feature of the research is that it incorporates important insights from the poverty and income distribution literature into the analysis of labour market policies and family well-being.This literature suggests that any evaluation of success or failure of poverty fighting policies that increase the minimum wage, expand the EITC, or reduce payroll taxes requires that the poor population be properly identified and poverty measured using distribution sensitive measures of poverty and not simple headcounts of the poor. Further, it is important to check for the sensitivity of any conclusions about the policy choices to alternative poverty lines. A third distinguishing feature of the research is that we use important developments in the applied welfare economics of income distribution to address the key question: Which policy alternative is best?

Microsimulation as a Tool for the Evaluation of Public Policies

Methods and Applications

Author: Amedeo Spadaro

Publisher: Fundacion BBVA

ISBN: 8496515176

Category: Economic policy

Page: 352

View: 1655

Esta publicación recoge las contribuciones de los expertos que participaron en el encuentro internacional del mismo nombre, celebrado con el apoyo de la Fundación BBVA. Durante este encuentro, se presentó el SimFundaciónBBVA, un modelo de microsimulación capaz de anticipar los efectos sobre la población española de los posibles cambios en el sistema fiscal -particularmente, en el impuesto sobre la renta-, al que, en la actualidad, se puede acceder libremente desde la página web de la Fundación (www.fbbva.es). En este libro se explican los fundamentos teóricos de la microsimulación como técnica microeconométrica de evaluación de las políticas públicas. Basadas en la representación del comportamiento de los individuos frente a cambios reales o hipotéticos en su entorno económico e institucional, las técnicas de microsimulación se realizan con modelos de alta precisión y exactitud, y permiten predecir el impacto que una política determinada ejercerá sobre una muestra de individuos, familias o empresas representativa de la población total. Asimismo, se ilustran varias aplicaciones de modelos desarrollados en España, Italia y Noruega; en las áreas sanitaria, energética, fiscal y agrícola; en el comercio internacional e, incluso, como instrumento para determinar políticas de lucha contra la pobreza a nivel supranacional. Los modelos de microsimulación, al permitir evaluar ex-ante diferentes escenarios, pueden contribuir a mejorar el diseño y la eficacia de las políticas públicas, así como a facilitar la toma de decisiones en áreas fundamentales.

Improving Information for Social Policy Decisions -- The Uses of Microsimulation Modeling

Volume I, Review and Recommendations

Author: Panel to Evaluate Microsimulation Models for Social Welfare Programs,Committee on National Statistics,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309557305

Category: Social Science

Page: 327

View: 1149

This book reviews the uses and abuses of microsimulation models--large, complex models that produce estimates of the effects on program costs and who would gain and who would lose from proposed changes in government policies ranging from health care to welfare to taxes. Volume 1 is designed to guide future investment in modeling and analysis capability on the part of government agencies that produce policy estimates. It will inform congressional and executive decision makers about the strengths and weaknesses of models and estimates and will interest social scientists in the potential of microsimulation techniques for basic and applied research as well as policy uses. The book concludes that a "second revolution" is needed to improve the quality of microsimulation and other policy analysis models and the estimates they produce, with a special emphasis on systematic validation of models and communication of validation results to decision makers.

The Importance of Common Metrics for Advancing Social Science Theory and Research

A Workshop Summary

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Social Science Evidence for Use,Committee on Advancing Social Science Theory: The Importance of Common Metrics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030921100X

Category: Social Science

Page: 108

View: 7084

In February 2010, the National Research Council convened a workshop to investigate the feasibility of developing well-grounded common metrics to advance behavioral and social science research, both in terms of advancing the development of theory and increasing the utility of research for policy and practice. The Workshop on Advancing Social Science Theory: The Importance of Common Metrics had three goals: To examine the benefits and costs involved in moving from metric diversity to greater standardization, both in terms of advancing the development of theory and increasing the utility of research for policy and practice. To consider whether a set of criteria can be developed for understanding when the measurement of a particular construct is ready to be standardized. To explore how the research community can foster a move toward standardization when it appears warranted. This book is a summary of the two days of presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop.