Population biology has been investigated quantitatively for many decades, resulting in a rich body of scientific literature. Ecologists often avoid this literature, put off by its apparently formidable mathematics. This textbook provides an introduction to the biology and ecology of populations by emphasizing the roles of simple mathematical models in explaining the growth and behavior of populations. The author only assumes acquaintance with elementary calculus, and provides tutorial explanations where needed to develop mathematical concepts. Examples, problems, extensive marginal notes and numerous graphs enhance the book's value to students in classes ranging from population biology and population ecology to mathematical biology and mathematical ecology. The book will also be useful as a supplement to introductory courses in ecology.
How do plant and animal populations change genetically to evolve and adapt to their local environments? How do populations grow and interact with one another through competition and predation? How does behaviour influence ecology and evolution? Introduction to Population Biology covers all these areas and more. Taking a quantitative and Darwinian perspective, the basic theory of population processes is developed using mathematical models. To allow students of biology, ecology and evolution to gain a real understanding of the subject, key features include: • step-by-step instructions for spreadsheet simulations of many basic equations to explore the outcomes or predictions of models • worked examples showing how the equations are applied to biological questions • problem sets together with detailed solutions to help the reader test their understanding • real-life examples to help the reader relate the theory to the natural world
An increasing variety of biological problems involving resource management, conservation and environmental quality have been dealt with using the principles of population biology (defined to include population dynamics, genetics and certain aspects of community ecology). There appears to be a mixed record of successes and failures and almost no critical synthesis or reviews that have attempted to discuss the reasons and ways in which population biology, with its remarkable theoretical as well as experimental advances, could find more useful application in agriculture, forestry, fishery, medicine and resource and environmental management. This book provides examples of state-of-the-art applications by a distinguished group of researchers in several fields. The diversity of topics richly illustrates the scientific and economic breadth of their discussions as well as epistemological and comparative analyses by the authors and editors. Several principles and common themes are emphasized and both strengths and potential sources of uncertainty in applications are discussed. This volume will hopefully stimulate new interdisciplinary avenues of problem-solving research.
This book is a careful integration of the social and biological sciences, drawing on anthropology, biology, human ecology and medicine to provide a comprehensive understanding of how our species adapts to natural and man-made environments. Part I presents techniques to adapt and apply demographic methods to small populations, particularly important for studying non-Western populations. Part II discusses the relationship of medical genetics to human adaptability and patterns of disease in non-Western populations. Part III covers capacity, climatic stress, and nutrition. Part IV presents methods for growth assessment and prediction and addresses the topic of aging. The final section, Part V, presents integrated case studies of human adaptation to high altitude, and patterns of modernization and stress resulting from cultural change.
The goal of this book is to search for a balance between simple and analyzable models and unsolvable models which are capable of addressing important questions on population biology. Part I focusses on single species simple models including those which have been used to predict the growth of human and animal population in the past. Single population models are, in some sense, the building blocks of more realistic models -- the subject of Part II. Their role is fundamental to the study of ecological and demographic processes including the role of population structure and spatial heterogeneity -- the subject of Part III. This book, which will include both examples and exercises, is of use to practitioners, graduate students, and scientists working in the field.
The lecture notes contained in this volume were presented at the AMS Short Course on Population Biology, held August 6-7, 1983, in Albany, New York in conjunction with the summer meeting of the American Mathematical Society. These notes will acquaint the reader with the mathematical ideas that pervade almost every level of thinking in population biology and provide an introduction to the many applications of mathematics in the field. Research mathematicians, college teachers of mathematics, and graduate students all should find this book of interest. Population biology is probably the oldest area in mathematical biology, but remains a constant source of new mathematical problems and the area of biology best integrated with mathematical theory. The need for mathematical approaches has never been greater, as evolutionary theory is challenged by new interpretations of the paleontological record and new discoveries at the molecular level, as world resources for feeding populations become limiting, as the problems of pollution increase, and as both animal and plant epidemiological problems receive closer scrutiny. A background of advanced calculus, introduction to ordinary and partial differential equations, and linear algebra will make the book accessible. All of the papers included have high research value. A list of the contents follows.
Population dynamics is an important subject in mathematical biology. A cen tral problem is to study the long-term behavior of modeling systems. Most of these systems are governed by various evolutionary equations such as difference, ordinary, functional, and partial differential equations (see, e. g. , [165, 142, 218, 119, 55]). As we know, interactive populations often live in a fluctuating environment. For example, physical environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity and the availability of food, water, and other resources usually vary in time with seasonal or daily variations. Therefore, more realistic models should be nonautonomous systems. In particular, if the data in a model are periodic functions of time with commensurate period, a periodic system arises; if these periodic functions have different (minimal) periods, we get an almost periodic system. The existing reference books, from the dynamical systems point of view, mainly focus on autonomous biological systems. The book of Hess [106J is an excellent reference for periodic parabolic boundary value problems with applications to population dynamics. Since the publication of this book there have been extensive investigations on periodic, asymptotically periodic, almost periodic, and even general nonautonomous biological systems, which in turn have motivated further development of the theory of dynamical systems. In order to explain the dynamical systems approach to periodic population problems, let us consider, as an illustration, two species periodic competitive systems dUI dt = !I(t,Ul,U2), (0.
An introduction to mathematical methods used in the study of population phenomena including models of total population and population age structure, models of random population events presented in terms of Markov chains, and methods used to uncover qualitative behavior of more complicated difference equations.
Extraordinary in the diversity of their lifestyles, insect parasitoids have become extremely important study organisms in the field of population biology, and they are the most frequently used agents in the biological control of insect pests. This book presents the ideas of seventeen international specialists, providing the reader not only with an overview but also with lively discussions of the most salient questions pertaining to the field today and prescriptions for avenues of future research. After a general introduction, the book divides into three main sections: population dynamics, population diversity, and population applications. The first section covers gaps in our knowledge in parasitoid behavior, parasitoid persistence, and how space and landscape affect dynamics. The contributions on population diversity consider how evolution has molded parasitoid populations and communities. The final section calls for novel approaches toward resolving the enigma of success in biological control and questions why parasitoids have been largely neglected in conservation biology. Parasitoid Population Biology will likely be an important influence on research well into the twenty-first century and will provoke discussion amongst parasitoid biologists and population biologists. In addition to the editors, the contributors are Carlos Bernstein, Jacques Brodeur, Jerome Casas, H.C.J. Godfray, Susan Harrison, Alan Hastings, Bradford A. Hawkins, George E. Heimpel, Marcel Holyoak, Nick Mills, Bernard D. Roitberg, Jens Roland, Michael R. Strand, Teja Tscharntke, and Minus van Baalen.