POLICE CRIME CONTROL STRATEGIES is a practical, realistic, one-of-a-kind book that provides readers with a balanced assessment of approaches to police crime reduction. Written by an expert in the field of law enforcement, this book covers the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of approaches including crime-specific, community-oriented, problem-oriented, hot spot targeting, concentrated patrol deployment, broken windows enforcement, and intelligence-guided. Opening chapters trace the accumulating evidence for the substantial impact upon crime that focused police efforts can have. Community and problem-oriented programs are reviewed in the context of their employment for crime reduction. State-of-the-art strategies are organized by three targeting foci: geographic, offense, and offender. The role of investigative units in proactive crime reduction is critically assessed and Compstat as a framework receives special attention. Also discussed are crime strategy meetings, and staffing and deployment for crime control. Care is taken to review both the successes and failures of structured efforts both in suburban environments and major cities so that readers are provided with an unbiased overview of policing in the real world. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
First published in 1996, this work covers all the major sectors of policing in the United States. Political events such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, have created new policing needs while affecting public opinion about law enforcement. This third edition of the "Encyclopedia" examines the theoretical and practical aspects of law enforcement, discussing past and present practices.
This book provides insight on the great diversity in community policing and crime prevention as they appear in countries around the world. Various chapters deal with countries that have established formal, professional police forces; are in transition from colonial status to independence; or are emerging democracies faced with the demands associated with major political and social change. All of these efforts are tied together with the recognition that the public needs to be involved in preventing crime. For individuals interested in the concept of community policing—and its implications around the globe.
Marc Cools,Marleen Easton,Brice De Ruyver,Lieven Pauwels
Author: Marc Cools,Marleen Easton,Brice De Ruyver,Lieven Pauwels
Category: Political Science
In nowadays' globalised society an international exchange of ideas and views in indispensable within the field of social sciences, including criminology and criminal justice studies. The Research Group Governance of Security wants to foster contemporary international discourses on issues of crime and crime control. Therefore, GofS started a Research Paper Series, combining theoretical and empirical articles on issues reflecting the research activities of GofS. This research group is collaboration between Ghent University and Ghent University College in Belgium. GofS is concentrating its research around the study of administrative and judicial policy that has been developed with respect to new issues of crime and insecurity. Volume 4 focuses on topical issues in EU and International Crime Control. The first five articles deal with intrinsic EU criminal policy aspects, including in its transatlantic cooperation with the US.The remaining three articles deal with anti money laundering control, counter-strategies of criminal organisations and police torture.
Over the last three decades American policing has gone through a period of significant change and innovation. In what is a relatively short historical time frame the police began to reconsider their fundamental mission, the nature of the core strategies of policing, and the character of their relationships with the communities that they serve. This volume brings together leading police scholars to examine eight major innovations which emerged during this period: community policing, broken windows policing, problem oriented policing, pulling levers policing, third party policing, hot spots policing, Compstat and evidence-based policing. Including advocates and critics of each of the eight police innovations, this comprehensive book assesses the evidence on impacts of police innovation on crime and public safety, the extent of the implementation of these new approaches in police departments, and the dilemmas these approaches have created for police management. This book will appeal to students, scholars and researchers.
Police do not and cannot prevent crime. This alarming thesis is explored by David Bayley, one of the most prolific and internationally renowned authorities on criminal justice and policing, in Police for the Future. Providing a systematic assessment of the performance of the police institution as a whole in preventing crime, the study is based on exhaustive research, interviews, and first hand observation in five countries--Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Japan, and the United States. It analyzes what police are accomplishing in modern democratic societies, and asks whether police organizations are using their resources effectively to prevent crime. Bayley assesses the impediments to effective crime prevention, describes the most promising reforms currently being tested by the police, and analyzes the choices that modern societies have with respect to creating truly effective police forces. He concludes with a blueprint for the creation of police forces that can live up to their promise to reduce crime and enhance public safety. Written for both the general public and the specialist in criminal justice, Police for the Future offers a unique multinational perspective on one of society's most basic institutions.
In recent years, crime scholars and practitioners have pointed to the potential benefits of focusing crime prevention efforts on crime places. A number of studies suggest that crime is not spread evenly across city landscapes. Rather, there is significant clustering of crime in small places, or "hot spots," that generate a vastly disproportionate number of criminal events. Even within the most crime-ridden neighborhoods, crime clusters at a few discrete locations and other areas are relatively crime free. A number of researchers have argued that many crime problems can be addressed more efficiently if police officers focus their attention on these deviant places. The appeal of focusing limited resources on a small number of high-activity crime places is straightforward. If crime can be prevented at these problem places, then police will be well positioned to lower citywide crime rates. In Policing Problem Places, Anthony A. Braga and David L. Weisburd make the case that hotspots policing is an effective approach to crime prevention that should be engaged by police departments in the United States and other countries. There is a strong and growing body of rigorous scientific evidence that the police can control crime hot spots without simply displacing crime problems to other places. Indeed, putting police officers in high crime locations is an old and well-established idea. However, the age and popularity of this idea does not necessarily mean that it is being done properly. Police officers should strive to use problem-oriented policing and situational crime prevention techniques to address the place dynamics, situations, and characteristics that cause a "spot" to be "hot." Braga and Weisburd further suggest that the strategies used to police problem places can have more or less desirable effects on police-community relations. Particularly in minority neighborhoods where residents have long suffered from elevated crime problems and historically poorpolice service, police officers should make an effort to develop positive and collaborative relationships with residents and not engage strategies that will undermine the legitimacy of police agencies, such as indiscriminant enforcement tactics. This book argues that it is time for police departments to shift away from a focus on catching criminal offenders and move towards dealing with crime at problem places as a central crime prevention strategy.
With a comprehensive analysis, this book links theory, evidence and practical application to bridge gaps between planning, design and criminology. The authors investigate connections between crime prevention and development planning with an international approach, looking at initiatives in the field and incorporating an understanding of current responses to the growth of technology and terrorism.
There are many controversial aspects of our criminal justice system, and this encyclopedia examines the most significant controversies throughout American history with emphasis on current debates, trends, and issues. Arranged alphabetically, approximately 100 entries cover background, explanations, notable cases and events, various sides of an issue, and what to expect in the future. Entries are objective and factual, allowing readers to formulate their own conclusions. Sidebars and case examples help to illustrate each entry, and sources for further reading point readers to other important materials. Given the prevalance of controversial criminal justice topics in the news, this timely reference is an important resource for anyone interested in crime and justice. Entries include: Boot Camps, Corporal Punishment, DNA Evidence, Domestic Violence, Expert Testimony, Eye Witness Identifications, Gun Control, Homeland Security, International Criminal Court, Legalization of Marijuana, Mental Health and Insanity, Police Brutality, Prison Violence, Racial Profiling, School Violence, Sex Offender Laws, Stalking Laws, Supermax Prisons, Three Strikes, Treating Juveniles as Adults, War on Drugs, and more.
Deterrence is at the heart of the preventive aspiration of criminal justice. Deterrence, whether through preventive patrol by police officers or stiff prison sentences for violent offenders, is the principal mechanism through which the central feature of criminal justice, the exercise of state authority, works – it is hoped -- to diminish offending and enhance public safety. And however well we think deterrence works, it clearly often does not work nearly as well as we would like – and often at very great cost. Drawing on a wide range of scholarly literatures and real-world experience, Kennedy argues that we should reframe the ways in which we think about and produce deterrence. He argues that many of the ways in which we seek to deter crime in fact facilitate offending; that simple steps such as providing clear information to offenders could transform deterrence; that communities may be far more effective than legal authorities in deterring crime; that apparently minor sanctions can deter more effectively than draconian ones; that groups, rather than individual offenders, should often be the focus of deterrence; that existing legal tools can be used in unusual but greatly more effective ways; that even serious offenders can be reached through deliberate moral engagement; and that authorities, communities, and offenders – no matter how divided – share and can occupy hidden common ground. The result is a sophisticated but ultimately common-sense and profoundly hopeful case that we can and should use new deterrence strategies to address some of our most important crime problems. Drawing on and expanding on the lessons of groundbreaking real-world work like Boston’s Operation Ceasefire – credited with the "Boston Miracle" of the 1990s – "Deterrence and Crime Prevention" is required reading for scholars, law enforcement practitioners, and all with an interest in public safety and the health of communities.
Despite widespread concern over urban crime, public participation in local crime prevention programs is generally low and limited to a small, homogeneous group of middle-class home-owing residents. Conspicuously absent from these programs are the very people who are the most vulnerable to crime: the poor, immigrants, and visible minorities. In Refocusing Crime Prevention Stephen Schneider explores the capacity of disadvantaged neighbourhoods to organize around issues related to local crime and disorder. It identifies obstacles to community mobilization, many of which are strongly related to demographic and socio-psychological factors, including low socio-economic status.
Do citizen and police initiatives have any impact on the incidence and fear of crime? This volume brings together studies of several community crime prevention programmes that were introduced in major US cities. The book is unique in its breadth of focus: its contributors address a broad and varied audience, including practitioners, policy-makers, and scholars interested in community crime prevention and evaluation research.
In the last five years, New York City has experienced the nation's most dramatic reduction in crime. While the New York Police Department is receiving extensive publicity and praise as the key agent for the sharp decline, many experts downplay the NYPD's role, arguing instead that prevailing social, economic, and demographic conditions are the primary reasons for the unprecedented drop in crime rates. This timely book informs the debate by detailing how innovative strategies adopted in 1994 by then-police commissioner William Bratton had the immediate and sustained effect of lowering incidents of crime in every city precinct. Eli B. Silverman begins his study with a historical review of the evolution of police reform movements in New York City, showing that the achievements and failures of earlier external and internal initiatives formed the foundation for today's re-engineered NYPD. Drawing on privileged access to police documents and meetings, he then examines how the dynamic interaction of specific strategic, organizational, and managerial changes redefined the approach to policing, transforming the department from a reactive to a proactive force. In particular, Silverman focuses on Compstat, a sophisticated computer program that compiles crime statistics, as the crucial mechanism for linking the development of new policies with effective tactics to control crime. The up-to-date and accurate information provided by Compstat drives twice-weekly crime strategy meetings that ensure essential planning, coordination, evaluation, and accountability. NYPD Battles Crime is a fascinating story of organizational change, innovation, and continuity.