Author: Larry Hoover
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Category: Social Science
POLICE CRIME CONTROL STRATEGIES is a practical, realistic, one-of-a-kind book that provides readers with a balanced assessment of approaches to police crime reduction. Written by an expert in the field of law enforcement, this book covers the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of approaches including crime-specific, community-oriented, problem-oriented, hot spot targeting, concentrated patrol deployment, broken windows enforcement, and intelligence-guided. Opening chapters trace the accumulating evidence for the substantial impact upon crime that focused police efforts can have. Community and problem-oriented programs are reviewed in the context of their employment for crime reduction. State-of-the-art strategies are organized by three targeting foci: geographic, offense, and offender. The role of investigative units in proactive crime reduction is critically assessed and Compstat as a framework receives special attention. Also discussed are crime strategy meetings, and staffing and deployment for crime control. Care is taken to review both the successes and failures of structured efforts both in suburban environments and major cities so that readers are provided with an unbiased overview of policing in the real world. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Approaches, Practices, and Evaluations
Author: Steven P. Lab
Category: Social Science
Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices, and Evaluations, 9th Edition, meets the needs of students and instructors for engaging, evidence-based, impartial coverage of the origins of crime, as well as of public policy that can reduce or prevent deviance. The book examines a range of approaches to preventing crime and elucidates their respective goals. Strategies include primary prevention measures designed to prevent conditions that foster deviance; secondary prevention measures directed toward persons or conditions with a high potential for deviance; and tertiary prevention measures to deal with persons who have already committed crimes. This edition provides research and information on all aspects of crime prevention, including the physical environment and crime, neighborhood crime prevention programs, community policing, crime in schools, and electronic monitoring and home confinement. Lab offers a thorough and well-rounded discussion of the many sides of the crime prevention debate, in clear and accessible language.
Author: Committee to Review Research on Police Policy and Practices,National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice
Publisher: National Academies Press
Because police are the most visible face of government power for most citizens, they are expected to deal effectively with crime and disorder and to be impartial. Producing justice through the fair, and restrained use of their authority. The standards by which the public judges police success have become more exacting and challenging. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing explores police work in the new century. It replaces myths with research findings and provides recommendations for updated policy and practices to guide it. The book provides answers to the most basic questions: What do police do? It reviews how police work is organized, explores the expanding responsibilities of police, examines the increasing diversity among police employees, and discusses the complex interactions between officers and citizens. It also addresses such topics as community policing, use of force, racial profiling, and evaluates the success of common police techniques, such as focusing on crime "hot spots." It goes on to look at the issue of legitimacy-how the public gets information about police work, and how police are viewed by different groups, and how police can gain community trust. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing will be important to anyone concerned about police work: policy makers, administrators, educators, police supervisors and officers, journalists, and interested citizens.
Author: Larry K. Gaines,Victor E. Kappeler
In the field of law enforcement in the United States, it is essential to know the contemporary problems being faced and combine that knowledge with empirical research and theoretical reasoning to arrive at best practices and an understanding of policing. Policing in America, Eighth Edition, provides a thorough analysis of the key issues in policing today, and offers an issues-oriented discussion focusing on critical concerns such as personnel systems, organization and management, operations, discretion, use of force, culture and behavior, ethics and deviance, civil liability, and police-community relations. A critical assessment of police history and the role politics played in the development of American police institutions is also addressed, as well as globalization, terrorism, and homeland security. This new edition not only offers updated research and examples, it also incorporates more ways for the reader to connect to the content through learning objectives, discussion questions, and "Myths and Realities of Policing" boxes. Video and Internet links provide additional coverage of important issues. With completely revised and updated chapters, Policing in America, Eighth Edition provides an up-to-date examination of what to expect as a police officer in America. In full color, including photographs and illustrations Video links provide additional coverage of topics discussed in the text Learning objectives, critical thinking questions, and review questions in every chapter help to reinforce key concepts Updated figures and “Myths and Realities of Policing boxes provide important context Includes all-new content, such as further coverage of violent crime reduction programs, gangs, and drug use Access to student and instructor ancillaries, including Self-Assessments, Case Studies, Test Bank, and PowerPoint Lecture Slides
A Companion for Police Leaders
Author: Jerry Ratcliffe
How do I reduce crime in my police command? How do I tackle chronic crime problems? How do I address the long-term issues that have plagued my community? How do I analyze crime and criminal behaviour? How do I show evidence of success in crime reduction? What works, what doesn’t, and how do we know? Providing answers to these questions and more, this engaging and accessible book offers a foundation for leadership in modern policing. Blending concepts from crime science, environmental criminology, and the latest research in evidence-based policing, the book draws on examples from around the world to cover a range of issues such as: how to analyze crime problems and what questions to ask, why the PANDA model is your key to crime reduction, key features of criminal behavior relevant to police commanders, the current research on what works in police crime prevention, why to set up systems to avoid surprises and monitor crime patterns, how to develop evidence of your effectiveness, forming a crime reduction plan, tracking progress, and finally, how to make a wider contribution to the policing field. Crammed with useful tips, checklists and advice including first-person perspectives from police practitioners, case studies and chapter summaries, this book is essential reading both for police professionals taking leadership courses and promotion exams, and for students engaged with police administration and community safety.
Author: James F. Albrecht,Dilip K. Das
Publisher: CRC Press
The International Police Executive Symposium (IPES, www.ipes.info) coordinates annual international conferences to evaluate critical issues in policing and recommend practical solutions to law enforcement executives deployed across the globe. Drawn from the 2005 proceedings hosted by the Czech Republic in Prague, Effective Crime Reduction Strategies: International Perspectives contains contributions from the renowned criminal justice and law enforcement professionals who gathered at this elite annual meeting. Dedicated to continued reduction in crime through local and global response, these international experts share effective crime-fighting principles and tried and proven best practices. Thoroughly revised and updated since the initial proceedings, the reports in this volume are divided into six sections which explore a host of essential topics: Critical Issues in European Law Enforcement: Highlights efforts in Hungary, Austria, and Norway to revise policies and organizational structures to meet the demands of developing events and political pressures Contemporary Concerns: Policing in the United States and Canada: Analyzes the impact of international terrorism and transnational crime on police work Paradigm Shifts: Policing as Democracy Evolves: Evaluates the success of democratic reforms in South Africa, Brazil, Argentina, Nigeria, and Cameroon Revising Traditional Law Enforcement in Asia to Meet Contemporary Demands: Describes how counterterrorism, cultural ideology, and transnational criminal influence affects the traditional nature of policing in New Zealand, Turkey, Indonesia, and Thailand The Positive Influence of Unionization on Police Professionalism: Addresses the impact of police associations on management decision-making and policy development in the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa Significant Issues Facing Twenty-First Century Law Enforcement: Focuses on counterterrorism, border and transnational criminality, the measurement of police effectiveness, and the investigation of juvenile crime Supplemented with select papers considered for the official journal of the IPES, this volume represents a thoroughly comparative approach to the challenges police executives face in the 21st century. Exploring a wide range of issues impacting how law enforcement professionals fight crime, experts from virtually all regions of the globe engage in discourse that is destined to shape future policing worldwide.
Restoring Order And Reducing Crime In Our Communities
Author: George L. Kelling,Catherine M. Coles
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Category: Political Science
Cites successful examples of community-based policing
Reconsidering the Prospect of Sanction
Author: David M. Kennedy
Category: Business & Economics
Deterrence is at the heart of the preventive aspiration of criminal justice. Deterrence, whether through preventive patrol by police officers or stiff prison sentences for violent offenders, is the principal mechanism through which the central feature of criminal justice, the exercise of state authority, works – it is hoped -- to diminish offending and enhance public safety. And however well we think deterrence works, it clearly often does not work nearly as well as we would like – and often at very great cost. Drawing on a wide range of scholarly literatures and real-world experience, Kennedy argues that we should reframe the ways in which we think about and produce deterrence. He argues that many of the ways in which we seek to deter crime in fact facilitate offending; that simple steps such as providing clear information to offenders could transform deterrence; that communities may be far more effective than legal authorities in deterring crime; that apparently minor sanctions can deter more effectively than draconian ones; that groups, rather than individual offenders, should often be the focus of deterrence; that existing legal tools can be used in unusual but greatly more effective ways; that even serious offenders can be reached through deliberate moral engagement; and that authorities, communities, and offenders – no matter how divided – share and can occupy hidden common ground. The result is a sophisticated but ultimately common-sense and profoundly hopeful case that we can and should use new deterrence strategies to address some of our most important crime problems. Drawing on and expanding on the lessons of groundbreaking real-world work like Boston’s Operation Ceasefire – credited with the "Boston Miracle" of the 1990s – "Deterrence and Crime Prevention" is required reading for scholars, law enforcement practitioners, and all with an interest in public safety and the health of communities.
Management by Manipulation
Author: John A. Eterno,Eli B. Silverman
Publisher: CRC Press
In the mid-1990s, the NYPD created a performance management strategy known as Compstat. It consisted of computerized data, crime analysis, and advanced crime mapping coupled with middle management accountability and crime strategy meetings with high-ranking decision makers. While initially credited with a dramatic reduction in crime, questions quickly arose as to the reliability of the data. The Crime Numbers Game: Management by Manipulation brings together the work of two criminologists—one a former NYPD captain—who present the first in-depth empirical analysis of this management system—exposing the truth about crime statistics manipulation in the NYPD and the repercussions suffered by crime victims and those who blew the whistle on this corrupt practice. Providing insider insight into a system shrouded in secrecy, this volume: Documents and analyzes a wide array of data that definitively demonstrates the range of manipulation reflected in official New York City crime statistics Explores how the consequences of unreliable crime statistics ripple throughout police organizations, affecting police, citizens, and victims Documents the widening spell of police performance management throughout the world Reviews current NYPD leadership approaches and offers alternatives Analyzes the synchronicity of the media’s and the NYPD’s responses to the authors’ findings Explores the implications of various theoretical approaches to Compstat Offers a new approach based on organizational transparency Presenting a story of police reform gone astray, this book stunningly demonstrates how integrity succumbed to a short-term numbers game, casting a cloud on the department from which we can only hope it will emerge. For more information, check out the authors' blog, Unveiling Compstat, at blogspot.com and their website. Eterno and Silverman’s work in this book was cited in the article The Truth About Chicago’s Crime Rates: Part 2 in the June 2014 issue of Chicago magazine. The Authors in the News The authors' studies on crime were featured in a November 1, 2010 New York Times article and their comments were published on the editorial page. Their work was also cited in a November 30, 2010 Uptowner article about police manipulation of crime statistics. Silverman and Eterno described a proposed strategy for improving community confidence in the integrity of crime statistics in a January 24, 2011 Daily News article. On August 22, 2011, Eli Silverman commented on a recent rise in NYC crime statistics in a New York Post article. On November 29, 2011, the Village Voice featured an article written by Silverman and Eterno on crime statistics manipulation and recent corruption scandals. Eli Silverman was interviewed by the Plainview Patch in a December 20, 2011 article about people's perception of crime in a community. The book is cited in a February 23, 2012 Wall Street Journal article about a lawsuit filed by a NYPD officer. John Eterno was a featured guest on Talkzone Internet Talk Radio on February 25, 2012. Eli Silverman spoke in a February 27, 2012 NY1 Online video about concerns regarding NYPD's stop and frisk policy. The book was profiled in a February 27, 2012 article in The Chief, a weekly newspaper for New York civil service employees. The authors appeared on a March 26, 2012 local ABC news program about underreported crime rates. thePolipit blog discussed the book on April 2, 2012. John Eterno was quoted in an April 9, 2012 New York Times article about the NYPD's stop-and-frisk policy. Eli Silverman was quoted in a May 2, 2012 DNAinfo.com article about rising New York City crime rates. A New York Times Op-Ed piece referenced Eli Silverman on May 13, 2012. John Eterno's Op-Ed piece entitled "Policing by the Numbers" appeared in the New York Times on June 17, 2012. The book was cited in a June 19, 2012 Mother Jones article. John Eterno was featured in a Reuters TV program about the NYPD's "stop and frisk" policy. Eli Silverman testified on April 4, 2013 in a class action lawsuit related to the NYPD stop and frisk policy. On July 14, 2014, an article written by John Eterno and Eli Silversman about Police Commissioner Bratton's stop-and-frisk policy appeared in the New York Daily News.
Implementing the New York Crime Control Model CompStat
Author: Phyllis P. McDonald,Sheldon Greenberg
Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company
This book is a descriptive presentation of how the largest and most influential police department in the nation, the NYPD, has significantly reduced crime over the last 10 years. As COMPSTAT is a critical tool in implementing the community policing model, this case study and methodology is of supreme importance to anyone interested in community policing and studying crime reduction.
The Police and the Public
Author: David Churchill
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The history of modern crime control is usually presented as a narrative of how the state wrested control over the governance of crime from the civilian public. Most accounts trace the decline of a participatory, discretionary culture of crime control in the early modern era, and its replacement by a centralized, bureaucratic system of responding to offending. The formation of the 'new' professional police forces in the nineteenth century is central to this narrative: henceforth, it is claimed, the priorities of criminal justice were to be set by the state, as ordinary people lost what authority they had once exercised over dealing with offenders. This book challenges this established view, and presents a fundamental reinterpretation of changes to crime control in the age of the new police. It breaks new ground by providing a highly detailed, empirical analysis of everyday crime control in Victorian provincial cities - revealing the tremendous activity which ordinary people displayed in responding to crime - alongside a rich survey of police organization and policing in practice. With unique conceptual clarity, it seeks to reorient modern criminal justice history away from its established preoccupation with state systems of policing and punishment, and move towards a more nuanced analysis of the governance of crime. More widely, the book provides a unique and valuable vantage point from which to rethink the role of civil society and the state in modern governance, the nature of agency and authority in Victorian England, and the historical antecedents of pluralized modes of crime control which characterize contemporary society.
Effects on Crime and Communities
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime, Communities, and Civil Liberties
Publisher: National Academies Press
Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism regarding the effectiveness of standard approaches to policing. In response, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, innovative police practices and policies that took a more proactive approach began to develop. This report uses the term â€œproactive policingâ€ to refer to all policing strategies that have as one of their goals the prevention or reduction of crime and disorder and that are not reactive in terms of focusing primarily on uncovering ongoing crime or on investigating or responding to crimes once they have occurred. Proactive policing is distinguished from the everyday decisions of police officers to be proactive in specific situations and instead refers to a strategic decision by police agencies to use proactive police responses in a programmatic way to reduce crime. Today, proactive policing strategies are used widely in the United States. They are not isolated programs used by a select group of agencies but rather a set of ideas that have spread across the landscape of policing. Proactive Policing reviews the evidence and discusses the data and methodological gaps on: (1) the effects of different forms of proactive policing on crime; (2) whether they are applied in a discriminatory manner; (3) whether they are being used in a legal fashion; and (4) community reaction. This report offers a comprehensive evaluation of proactive policing that includes not only its crime prevention impacts but also its broader implications for justice and U.S. communities.
Rethinking the Cornerstone of Policing
Author: Jerry H. Ratcliffe,Evan T. Sorg
Category: Social Science
This Brief reviews the history of foot patrol and the recent, research-driven resurgence of foot patrol in places such as Philadelphia. It summarizes and critiques existing literature on the subject, examining the efficacy of foot patrol. At the time the Philadelphia Foot Patrol Experiment was published, popular opinion about foot patrol was that it might improve community perception of police and reduce fear of crime, but it did not have a concrete crime prevention benefit. The Philadelphia Experiment represented a major examination of this concept, involving over 200 officers in 60 locations over a two-year period, in some of the highest violent crime areas of Philadelphia. The results suggested that a targeted hot spots-oriented foot patrol strategy did contribute to violent crime reduction. Four years later, the lead author of that seminal experiment explores its findings, together with the findings of the Philadelphia Policing Tactics Experiment, and examines their differences. This work also explores officer experiences with foot patrol. This Brief concludes with policy recommendations about foot patrol, when and how to implement it, and the benefits it can add to a police department. This Brief will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly with an interest in Police Studies, and related fields such as sociology and public policy. It will also be of interest to practitioners and policy makers interested in evidence-based policing.
An Introduction to Theory and Practice
Author: Richard R.E. Kania,Richards P. Davis
Category: Political Science
This book studies the formal and informal nature of the organizations involved in criminal justice. It will acquaint readers with the historical developments and application of managerial theories, principles, and problems of managing criminal justice organizations. Covers management positions in criminal justice, historical antecedents, decisionmaking and planning, staffing and personnel, training and education.
Author: Nick Tilley,Aiden Sidebottom
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Social Science
This second edition of the Handbook of Crime Prevention and Community Safety provides a completely revised and updated collection of essays focusing on the theory and practice of crime prevention and the creation of safer communities. This book is divided into five comprehensive parts: Part I, brand new to this edition, is concerned with theoretical perspectives on crime prevention and community safety. Part II considers general approaches to preventing crime, including a new chapter on the theory and practice of deterrence. Part III focuses on specific crime prevention strategies, including a new chapter on regulation for crime prevention. Part IV focuses on the prevention of specific categories of crime and the fear they generate, including new chapters on organised crime and cybercrime. Part V considers the preventative process: the methods through which presenting problems can be analysed, responses formulated and implemented, and their effectiveness evaluated. Bringing together leading academics and practitioners from the UK, US, Australia and the Netherlands, this volume will be an invaluable reference for researchers and practitioners whose work relates to crime prevention and community safety, as well as for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in crime prevention.
Exploring the Role of Police in Crime Prevention
Author: Heath Grant
Category: Social Science
This Brief explores the role of social crime prevention as a crime reduction strategy in the developing world. "Social crime prevention" focuses on the social and economic factors that may contribute to violence and criminal behavior in a community. Particularly in the developing world, an understanding of the socioeconomic and political context holds long-term potential for crime reduction (rather than crime displacement); however, the strategies are complex and the results may be slow. Generally, police and law enforcement are relied upon to present quick results, where social crime prevention strategies can be viewed as being "soft on crime" or too slow. This Brief discusses the tension between the traditional role of police and proactive social crime prevention strategies in an international context, through a variety of case studies. It also provides recommendations for balancing or reshaping this role. This work will be of interest to researchers and policy makers interested in crime prevention, particularly in the developing world, criminal theory, police studies and related disciplines such as demography, sociology and political science.
Strategies and Tradeoffs
Author: Philip J. Cook,Jens Ludwig,Justin McCrary
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Category: Business & Economics
Criminal justice expenditures have more than doubled since the 1980s, dramatically increasing costs to the public. With state and local revenue shortfalls resulting from the recent recession, the question of whether crime control can be accomplished either with fewer resources or by investing those resources in areas other than the criminal justice system is all the more relevant. Controlling Crime considers alternative ways to reduce crime that do not sacrifice public safety. Among the topics considered here are criminal justice system reform, social policy, and government policies affecting alcohol abuse, drugs, and private crime prevention. Particular attention is paid to the respective roles of both the private sector and government agencies. Through a broad conceptual framework and a careful review of the relevant literature, this volume provides insight into the important trends and patterns of some of the interventions that may be effective in reducing crime.
A Covert Race War
Author: Larry Hoover,Tim Brown
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
The Racial Race reveals the constant struggle between the rulers and the ruled. A few minority leaders have finally acknowledged there is an organized effort to keep them subservient to the current rulers. A zero sum game begins. Will these minority leaders fight each other over past incidents, or will they unite for their mutual benefit? Truth seeks to be the kind of leader that Marcus Garvey and Thomas Jefferson would admire. He has his skeptics. His son's uncle, Miguel, does not trust his leadership. An African and a Mexican trying to unite to help their people. A delicate situation: to convince former rivals that they have been played against each other by their mutual covert enemy. Truth has a plan, but he needs gang leaders help. Can he pull off the ultimate victory, and win the Racial Race?
Author: Jerry H. Ratcliffe
Category: Social Science
What is intelligence-led policing? Who came up with the idea? Where did it come from? How does it relate to other policing paradigms? What distinguishes an intelligence-led approach to crime reduction? How is it designed to have an impact on crime? Does it prevent crime? These are just a few of the questions that this book seeks to answer. This revised and updated second edition includes new case studies and viewpoints, a revised crime funnel based on new data, and a new chapter examining the expanding role of technology and big data in intelligence-led policing. Most importantly, the author builds upon an updated definition of intelligence-led policing as it has evolved into a framework capable of encompassing more operational police activity than simply organized crime and recidivist offenders. Topics covered in this book include: • The origins and aims of intelligence-led policing • A comparison of intelligence-led policing with other conceptual models of policing • An exploration of analysis concepts and the role of analysis in target-selection • Evaluations of intelligence-led policing as a crime-control strategy Written by an expert in the field, this book offers a comprehensive and engaging introduction to intelligence-led policing for students, practitioners and scholars of policing, criminal intelligence and crime analysis. This book will be of particular interest to professionals within the law enforcement environment; senior officers, middle management, analysts and operational staff. A companion website offers a range of resources for students and instructors, including slides, chapter headings with supporting notes, key terms and names, critical-thinking questions, and quizzes.
Author: Anthony Allan Braga
Publisher: Criminal Justice Press
Category: Political Science
According to Dr Braga's comprehensive overview of worldwide research, problem-oriented policing (POP) has been proven effective in a wide range of programs to prevent crime. The author also explains why POP programs have obtained such positive results.This is the only book recommended by the Center for Problem-Oriented Policing for all modules of its Model POP Curriculum, including courses for undergraduates and graduate students, and training programs for pre-service and in-service police personnel. The second edition has been greatly expanded to include many more analyses of key concepts, results from real-world applications, and recommendations for improved POP programming.