POLICE CRIME CONTROL STRATEGIES is a practical, realistic, one-of-a-kind book that provides readers with a balanced assessment of approaches to police crime reduction. Written by an expert in the field of law enforcement, this book covers the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of approaches including crime-specific, community-oriented, problem-oriented, hot spot targeting, concentrated patrol deployment, broken windows enforcement, and intelligence-guided. Opening chapters trace the accumulating evidence for the substantial impact upon crime that focused police efforts can have. Community and problem-oriented programs are reviewed in the context of their employment for crime reduction. State-of-the-art strategies are organized by three targeting foci: geographic, offense, and offender. The role of investigative units in proactive crime reduction is critically assessed and Compstat as a framework receives special attention. Also discussed are crime strategy meetings, and staffing and deployment for crime control. Care is taken to review both the successes and failures of structured efforts both in suburban environments and major cities so that readers are provided with an unbiased overview of policing in the real world. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
In 1996, Garland published the second edition of the Encyclopedia of Police Science, edited by the late William G. Bailey. The work covered all the major sectors of policing in the US. Since then much research has been done on policing issues, and there have been significant changes in techniques and in the American police system. Technological advances have refined and generated methods of investigation. Political events, such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States, have created new policing needs while affecting public opinion about law enforcement. These developments appear in the third, expanded edition of the Encyclopedia of Police Science. 380 entries examine the theoretical and practical aspects of law enforcement, discussing past and present practices. The added coverage makes the Encyclopedia more comprehensive with a greater focus on today's policing issues. Also added are themes such as accountability, the culture of police, and the legal framework that affects police decision. New topics discuss recent issues, such as Internet and crime, international terrorism, airport safety, or racial profiling. Entries are contributed by scholars as well as experts working in police departments, crime labs, and various fields of policing.
First published in 1996, this work covers all the major sectors of policing in the United States. Political events such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, have created new policing needs while affecting public opinion about law enforcement. This third edition of the "Encyclopedia" examines the theoretical and practical aspects of law enforcement, discussing past and present practices.
Author: Marc Cools,Marleen Easton,Brice De Ruyver,Lieven Pauwels
Category: Political Science
In nowadays' globalised society an international exchange of ideas and views in indispensable within the field of social sciences, including criminology and criminal justice studies. The Research Group Governance of Security wants to foster contemporary international discourses on issues of crime and crime control. Therefore, GofS started a Research Paper Series, combining theoretical and empirical articles on issues reflecting the research activities of GofS. This research group is collaboration between Ghent University and Ghent University College in Belgium. GofS is concentrating its research around the study of administrative and judicial policy that has been developed with respect to new issues of crime and insecurity. Volume 4 focuses on topical issues in EU and International Crime Control. The first five articles deal with intrinsic EU criminal policy aspects, including in its transatlantic cooperation with the US.The remaining three articles deal with anti money laundering control, counter-strategies of criminal organisations and police torture.
With a comprehensive analysis, this book links theory, evidence and practical application to bridge gaps between planning, design and criminology. The authors investigate connections between crime prevention and development planning with an international approach, looking at initiatives in the field and incorporating an understanding of current responses to the growth of technology and terrorism.
Community-based crime control has become one of the principal policy responses to crime and disorder across western societies, and is regarded now as one of the keys to successful crime prevention and reduction. The aim of this book is to bring together findings from case studies of community-based crime control in England as a means of examining the prospects for this approach, its evolving relationship with criminal justice and social policies, and to assess the lessons internationally that can be drawn from this in the theory, research methods, politics and practice of crime control. At the same time the book advances an important new conceptual framework for understanding community-based crime control, focusing on an understanding of the diversity of control and preventative strategies, the locally particular conditions in which they are conducted, and the degree of choices open to local political actors involved in their conduct. Understanding diversity in this way is central to drawing lessons about the transferability of crime control theory and practice from one social context to another, avoiding the naïve emulation of practices in different contexts.
There are many controversial aspects of our criminal justice system, and this encyclopedia examines the most significant controversies throughout American history with emphasis on current debates, trends, and issues. Arranged alphabetically, approximately 100 entries cover background, explanations, notable cases and events, various sides of an issue, and what to expect in the future. Entries are objective and factual, allowing readers to formulate their own conclusions. Sidebars and case examples help to illustrate each entry, and sources for further reading point readers to other important materials. Given the prevalance of controversial criminal justice topics in the news, this timely reference is an important resource for anyone interested in crime and justice. Entries include: Boot Camps, Corporal Punishment, DNA Evidence, Domestic Violence, Expert Testimony, Eye Witness Identifications, Gun Control, Homeland Security, International Criminal Court, Legalization of Marijuana, Mental Health and Insanity, Police Brutality, Prison Violence, Racial Profiling, School Violence, Sex Offender Laws, Stalking Laws, Supermax Prisons, Three Strikes, Treating Juveniles as Adults, War on Drugs, and more.
In recent years, crime scholars and practitioners have pointed to the potential benefits of focusing crime prevention efforts on crime places. A number of studies suggest that crime is not spread evenly across city landscapes. Rather, there is significant clustering of crime in small places, or "hot spots," that generate a vastly disproportionate number of criminal events. Even within the most crime-ridden neighborhoods, crime clusters at a few discrete locations and other areas are relatively crime free. A number of researchers have argued that many crime problems can be addressed more efficiently if police officers focus their attention on these deviant places. The appeal of focusing limited resources on a small number of high-activity crime places is straightforward. If crime can be prevented at these problem places, then police will be well positioned to lower citywide crime rates. In Policing Problem Places, Anthony A. Braga and David L. Weisburd make the case that hotspots policing is an effective approach to crime prevention that should be engaged by police departments in the United States and other countries. There is a strong and growing body of rigorous scientific evidence that the police can control crime hot spots without simply displacing crime problems to other places. Indeed, putting police officers in high crime locations is an old and well-established idea. However, the age and popularity of this idea does not necessarily mean that it is being done properly. Police officers should strive to use problem-oriented policing and situational crime prevention techniques to address the place dynamics, situations, and characteristics that cause a "spot" to be "hot." Braga and Weisburd further suggest that the strategies used to police problem places can have more or less desirable effects on police-community relations. Particularly in minority neighborhoods where residents have long suffered from elevated crime problems and historically poorpolice service, police officers should make an effort to develop positive and collaborative relationships with residents and not engage strategies that will undermine the legitimacy of police agencies, such as indiscriminant enforcement tactics. This book argues that it is time for police departments to shift away from a focus on catching criminal offenders and move towards dealing with crime at problem places as a central crime prevention strategy.
Over the last three decades American policing has gone through a period of significant change and innovation. In what is a relatively short historical time frame the police began to reconsider their fundamental mission, the nature of the core strategies of policing, and the character of their relationships with the communities that they serve. This volume brings together leading police scholars to examine eight major innovations which emerged during this period: community policing, broken windows policing, problem oriented policing, pulling levers policing, third party policing, hot spots policing, Compstat and evidence-based policing. Including advocates and critics of each of the eight police innovations, this comprehensive book assesses the evidence on impacts of police innovation on crime and public safety, the extent of the implementation of these new approaches in police departments, and the dilemmas these approaches have created for police management. This book will appeal to students, scholars and researchers.
Despite widespread concern over urban crime, public participation in local crime prevention programs is generally low and limited to a small, homogeneous group of middle-class home-owing residents. Conspicuously absent from these programs are the very people who are the most vulnerable to crime: the poor, immigrants, and visible minorities. In Refocusing Crime Prevention Stephen Schneider explores the capacity of disadvantaged neighbourhoods to organize around issues related to local crime and disorder. It identifies obstacles to community mobilization, many of which are strongly related to demographic and socio-psychological factors, including low socio-economic status.
In the last five years, New York City has experienced the nation's most dramatic reduction in crime. While the New York Police Department is receiving extensive publicity and praise as the key agent for the sharp decline, many experts downplay the NYPD's role, arguing instead that prevailing social, economic, and demographic conditions are the primary reasons for the unprecedented drop in crime rates. This timely book informs the debate by detailing how innovative strategies adopted in 1994 by then-police commissioner William Bratton had the immediate and sustained effect of lowering incidents of crime in every city precinct. Eli B. Silverman begins his study with a historical review of the evolution of police reform movements in New York City, showing that the achievements and failures of earlier external and internal initiatives formed the foundation for today's re-engineered NYPD. Drawing on privileged access to police documents and meetings, he then examines how the dynamic interaction of specific strategic, organizational, and managerial changes redefined the approach to policing, transforming the department from a reactive to a proactive force. In particular, Silverman focuses on Compstat, a sophisticated computer program that compiles crime statistics, as the crucial mechanism for linking the development of new policies with effective tactics to control crime. The up-to-date and accurate information provided by Compstat drives twice-weekly crime strategy meetings that ensure essential planning, coordination, evaluation, and accountability. NYPD Battles Crime is a fascinating story of organizational change, innovation, and continuity.
Discusses the drug problem: drug trafficking trends, transshipment, domestic production, etc.; the resources: compliance with the National Drug Strategy, TNCP & legislative initiatives, the coordinated effort; & the priorities for 1997, including authorized program areas & recommendations to the U.S. Congress & the Office of National Drug Control Policy. Maps, graphs, charts, & photos.