The complexity of carbon reduction and economic sustainability is significantly complicated by competing aspects of socioeconomic practices as well as legislative, regulatory, and scientific requirements and protocols. An easy to read and understand guide, Sioshansi, along with an international group of contributors, moves through the maze of carbon reduction methods and technologies, providing steps and insights to meet carbon reduction requirements and maintaining the health and welfare of the firm. The book’s three part treatment is based on a clear and rigorous exposition of a wide range of options to reduce the carbon footprint Part 1 of the book, Challenge of Sustainability, examines the fundamental drivers of energy demand – economic growth, the need for basic energy services, and the interdependence of economic, political, environmental, social, equity, legacy and policy issues. Part 2 of the book, Technological Solutions, examines how energy can be used to support basic energy service needs of homes, commercial and industrial facilities and for other applications. Part 3 of the book, case studies, covers a number of innovative projects, initiatives, concepts or self-imposed targets in different parts of the world with the aim of significantly reducing energy use and carbon footprint of a company, a community, a city or an entire country. There was a widespread recognition among environmental engineers and energy economist of the importance of carbon reduction while sustaining the firm’s economic growth. The only book to bring together both subjects into one easy to understand reference, Carbon Reduction and Economic Sustainability not only clearly explains which option has the lowest energy/carbon footprint but also which option would better suit the business in question. This includes carbon reduction for residential, transport, industrial and public sectors. The only book to clearly explain the economic and environmental engineering aspects of carbon reduction. Case studies taken from a number of international projects. Carbon reduction options for all sectors of society. The role of the planning system in carbon reduction.
Energy and agriculture are both extremely broad subjects and their interactions - the subject of this book - cover almost the full spectrum of the agricultural sciences. Yet the subject is a relatively new one whose importance first received widespread recognition barely a decade ago, following the dramatic increase in oil prices during 1973. The impact of this increase was such as to promote a world-wide debate on the future direction that agriculture should take. This debate was, and is, of particular concern in countries where agriculture plays a leading role in economic and social development. During the last half century many national agricultural systems have been transformed from almost closed, self-sufficient systems with few locally produced inputs geared to satisfy local requirements, to intensive, open systems, utilizing large quantities of energy-rich inputs such as fossil fuel for manufactured agro-chemicals, water distribution and imported animal feedstuffs to produce a range of sophisticated products, often for export, which in tum require many energy-rich inputs for their marketing. This industrialization of agriculture has proved to be very successful in many respects and indeed was accepted as a general model for agricultural development allowing increased productivity and efficiency per unit land, labor and water, even in areas with limited natural resources.
The Story of the Integral Fast Reactor, the Complex History of a Simple Reactor Technoloogy, with Emphasis on Its Scientific Basis for Non-specialists
Author: Charles E. Till
Category: Technology & Engineering
The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a fast reactor system developed at Argonne National Laboratory in the decade 1984 to 1994. The IFR project developed the technology for a complete system; the reactor, the entire fuel cycle and the waste management technologies were all included in the development program. The reactor concept had important features and characteristics that were completely new and fuel cycle and waste management technologies that were entirely new developments. The reactor is a “fast” reactor – that is, the chain reaction is maintained by “fast” neutrons with high energy – which produces its own fuel. The IFR reactor and associated fuel cycle is a closed system. Electrical power is generated, new fissile fuel is produced to replace the fuel burned, its used fuel is processed for recycling by pyroprocessing – a new development – and waste is put in final form for disposal. All this is done on one self-sufficient site.The scale and duration of the project and its funding made it the largest nuclear energy R and D program of its day. Its purpose was the development of a long term massive new energy source, capable of meeting the nation's electrical energy needs in any amount, and for as long as it is needed, forever, if necessary. Safety, non-proliferation and waste toxicity properties were improved as well, these three the characteristics most commonly cited in opposition to nuclear power.Development proceeded from success to success. Most of the development had been done when the program was abruptly cancelled by the newly elected Clinton Administration. In his 1994 State of the Union address the president stated that “unnecessary programs in advanced reactor development will be terminated.” The IFR was that program.This book gives the real story of the IFR, written by the two nuclear scientists who were most deeply involved in its conception, the development of its R and D program, and its management.Between the scientific and engineering papers and reports, and books on the IFR, and the non-technical and often impassioned dialogue that continues to this day on fast reactor technology, we felt there is room for a volume that, while accurate technically, is written in a manner accessible to the non-specialist and even to the non-technical reader who simply wants to know what this technology is.
Could everything we know about fossil fuels be wrong? For decades, environmentalists have told us that using fossil fuels is a self-destructive addiction that will destroy our planet. Yet at the same time, by every measure of human well-being, from life expectancy to clean water to climate safety, life has been getting better and better. How can this be? The explanation, energy expert Alex Epstein argues in The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels, is that we usually hear only one side of the story. We’re taught to think only of the negatives of fossil fuels, their risks and side effects, but not their positives—their unique ability to provide cheap, reliable energy for a world of seven billion people. And the moral significance of cheap, reliable energy, Epstein argues, is woefully underrated. Energy is our ability to improve every single aspect of life, whether economic or environmental. If we look at the big picture of fossil fuels compared with the alternatives, the overall impact of using fossil fuels is to make the world a far better place. We are morally obligated to use more fossil fuels for the sake of our economy and our environment. Drawing on original insights and cutting-edge research, Epstein argues that most of what we hear about fossil fuels is a myth. For instance . . . Myth: Fossil fuels are dirty. Truth: The environmental benefits of using fossil fuels far outweigh the risks. Fossil fuels don’t take a naturally clean environment and make it dirty; they take a naturally dirty environment and make it clean. They don’t take a naturally safe climate and make it dangerous; they take a naturally dangerous climate and make it ever safer. Myth: Fossil fuels are unsustainable, so we should strive to use “renewable” solar and wind. Truth: The sun and wind are intermittent, unreliable fuels that always need backup from a reliable source of energy—usually fossil fuels. There are huge amounts of fossil fuels left, and we have plenty of time to find something cheaper. Myth: Fossil fuels are hurting the developing world. Truth: Fossil fuels are the key to improving the quality of life for billions of people in the developing world. If we withhold them, access to clean water plummets, critical medical machines like incubators become impossible to operate, and life expectancy drops significantly. Calls to “get off fossil fuels” are calls to degrade the lives of innocent people who merely want the same opportunities we enjoy in the West. Taking everything into account, including the facts about climate change, Epstein argues that “fossil fuels are easy to misunderstand and demonize, but they are absolutely good to use. And they absolutely need to be championed. . . . Mankind’s use of fossil fuels is supremely virtuous—because human life is the standard of value and because using fossil fuels transforms our environment to make it wonderful for human life.”
The Handbook of Clean Energy Systems brings together an international team of experts to present a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems. Consolidating information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources, the handbook covers a broad range of topics in this interdisciplinary research field including both fossil and renewable energy systems. The development of intelligent energy systems for efficient energy processes and mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants is explored in depth, and environmental, social and economic impacts are also addressed. Topics covered include: Volume 1 - Renewable Energy: Biomass resources and biofuel production; Bioenergy Utilization; Solar Energy; Wind Energy; Geothermal Energy; Tidal Energy. Volume 2 - Clean Energy Conversion Technologies: Steam/Vapor Power Generation; Gas Turbines Power Generation; Reciprocating Engines; Fuel Cells; Cogeneration and Polygeneration. Volume 3 - Mitigation Technologies: Carbon Capture; Negative Emissions System; Carbon Transportation; Carbon Storage; Emission Mitigation Technologies; Efficiency Improvements and Waste Management; Waste to Energy. Volume 4 - Intelligent Energy Systems: Future Electricity Markets; Diagnostic and Control of Energy Systems; New Electric Transmission Systems; Smart Grid and Modern Electrical Systems; Energy Efficiency of Municipal Energy Systems; Energy Efficiency of Industrial Energy Systems; Consumer Behaviors; Load Control and Management; Electric Car and Hybrid Car; Energy Efficiency Improvement. Volume 5 - Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage; Chemical Storage; Mechanical Storage; Electrochemical Storage; Integrated Storage Systems. Volume 6 - Sustainability of Energy Systems: Sustainability Indicators, Evaluation Criteria, and Reporting; Regulation and Policy; Finance and Investment; Emission Trading; Modeling and Analysis of Energy Systems; Energy vs. Development; Low Carbon Economy; Energy Efficiencies and Emission Reduction. Key features: Comprising over 3,500 pages in 6 volumes, HCES presents a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems, consolidating a wealth of information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources. In addition to renewable energy systems, HCES also covers processes for the efficient and clean conversion of traditional fuels such as coal, oil and gas, energy storage systems, mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants, and the development of intelligent energy systems. Environmental, social and economic impacts of energy systems are also addressed in depth. Published in full colour throughout. Fully indexed with cross referencing within and between all six volumes. Edited by leading researchers from academia and industry who are internationally renowned and active in their respective fields. Published in print and online. The online version is a single publication (i.e. no updates), available for one-time purchase or through annual subscription.
From its very beginnings, the Conservation Commission has devoted a large part of its research to long-term energy analyses. Following the first oil shock, it undertook its earliest work on the world demand-supply equilib rium for the period 2000-2020, the results of which were presented to the 10th Congress of the Conference at Istanbul in 1977. Since then, its analyses have become ever deeper, ever more various. In 1980, the stress was on the future for the Third World, while in 1983, its forecasts set out a new panorama for the world and for the main regions in the period 2000-2020. Therefore, what was more natural than that the Conservation Commission should bring its interest to bear on one of the major aspects of energy strategy: the comparison of future needs not merely with the fluctuations of supply but also with stocks of reserves. The problem, of course, had not been entirely ignored, but the field tended to be one in which intuitions and sketchy proofs were more readily available than systematic and comprehen sive analysis.
Why the Origin of Life and the Evolution of Molecular Knowledge Imply Design
Author: Stuart Pullen
This volume examines issues associated with chemical evolution, the origin of life, and the evolution of molecular knowledge. It develops statistical models to describe the evolution of the first genes and proteins, but the fact that naturalistic laws fail to explain the origin of life implies that life was created.