Plain Pottery Traditions of the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East

Production, Use, and Social Significance

Author: Claudia Glatz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315422557

Category: Social Science

Page: 257

View: 5049

The evolution and proliferation of plain and predominantly wheel-made pottery presents a characteristic feature of the societies of the Near East and Eastern Mediterranean since the fourth millennium B.C. This plain pottery has received little detailed archaeological attention in comparison to aesthetically more pleasing and chronologically sensitive decorated traditions. Yet, their simplicity and standardization suggest they are products of craft specialists, the result of high-volume production, and therefore important in understanding the social systems in early complex societies. This volume-reevaluates the role and significance of plain pottery traditions from both historically specific perspectives and from a comparative point of view;-examines the uses and functions of this pottery in relation to social negotiation and group identity formation;-helps scholars understand cross-regional similarities in development and use.

Overturning Certainties in Near Eastern Archaeology

A Festschrift in Honor of K. Aslihan Yener

Author: Çiğdem Maner,Mara T. Horowitz,Allan S. Gilbert

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004353577

Category: Archaeology

Page: N.A

View: 6317

This volume, Overturning Certainties in Near Eastern Archaeology, is a festschrift dedicated to Professor K. Aslıhan Yener in honor of over four decades of exemplary research, teaching, fieldwork, and publication. The thirty-five chapters presented by her colleagues includes a broad, interdisciplinary range of studies in archaeology, archaeometry, art history, and epigraphy of the Ancient Near East, especially reflecting Prof Yener's interests in metallurgy, small finds, trade, Anatolia, and the site of Tell Atchana/Alalakh.

Times of Neolithic Transition along the Western Mediterranean

Author: Oreto García Puchol,Domingo Carlos Salazar García

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319529390

Category: Social Science

Page: 421

View: 8167

The study of the Neolithic transition constitutes a major theme in prehistoric research. The process of economic change, from foraging to farming, involved one of the main transformations in human behavior patterns. This volume focuses on investigating the neolithization process at the periphery of one of the main routes in the expansion of the Neolithic in Europe: the Western Mediterranean region. Recent advances in radiocarbon dating, mathematical and computational models, archaeometric analysis and biomolecular techniques, together with new archaeological discoveries, provide novel insights into this topic. This volume is organized into five sections: · new discoveries and new ideas about the Mediterranean Neolithic · reconstructing times and modeling processes · landscape interaction: farming and herding · dietary subsistence of early farming communities · human dispersal mechanisms and cultural transmission This volume will also provide new empirical data to help readers assess different theoretical frameworks and narratives which underlie the models proposed to explain the expansion of farming from the Middle East into Europe.

The Archaeology of Imperial Landscapes

A Comparative Study of Empires in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean World

Author: Bleda S. Düring,Tesse D. Stek

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107189705

Category: History

Page: 410

View: 4593

This book examines the poorly understood transformations in rural landscapes and societies that formed the backbone of ancient empires.

Religion in the Emergence of Civilization

Çatalhöyük as a Case Study

Author: Ian Hodder

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139492179

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 2255

This book presents an interdisciplinary study of the role of spirituality and religious ritual in the emergence of complex societies. Involving an eminent group of natural scientists, archaeologists, anthropologists, philosophers, and theologians, this volume examines Çatalhöyük as a case study. A nine-thousand-year old town in central Turkey, Çatalhöyük was first excavated in the 1960s and has since become integral to understanding the symbolic and ritual worlds of the early farmers and village-dwellers in the Middle East. It is thus an ideal location for exploring theories about the role of religion in early settled life. This book provides a unique overview of current debates concerning religion and its historical variations. Through exploration of themes including the integration of the spiritual and the material, the role of belief in religion, the cognitive bases for religion, and religion's social roles, this book situates the results from Çatalhöyük within a broader understanding of the Neolithic in the Middle East.

Metals in Past Societies

A Global Perspective on Indigenous African Metallurgy

Author: Shadreck Chirikure

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331911641X

Category: Social Science

Page: 166

View: 4303

This book seeks to communicate to both a global and local audience, the key attributes of pre-industrial African metallurgy such as technological variation across space and time, methods of mining and extractive metallurgy and the fabrication of metal objects. These processes were transformative in a physical and metaphoric sense, which made them total social facts. Because the production and use of metals was an accretion of various categories of practice, a chaine operatoire conceptual and theoretical framework that simultaneously considers the embedded technological and anthropological factors was used. The book focuses on Africa’s different regions as roughly defined by cultural geography. On the one hand there is North Africa, Egypt, the Egyptian Sudan, and the Horn of Africa which share cultural inheritances with the Middle East and on the other is Africa south of the Sahara and the Sudan which despite interacting with the former is remarkably different in terms of technological practice. For example, not only is the timing of metallurgy different but so is the infrastructure for working metals and the associated symbolic and sociological factors. The cultural valuation of metals and the social positions of metal workers were different too although there is evidence of some values transfer and multi-directional technological cross borrowing. The multitude of permutations associated with metals production and use amply demonstrates that metals participated in the production and reproduction of society. Despite huge temporal and spatial differences there are so many common factors between African metallurgy and that of other regions of the world. For example, the role of magic and ritual in metal working is almost universal be it in Bolivia, Nepal, Malawi, Timna, Togo or Zimbabwe. Similarly, techniques of mining were constrained by the underlying geology but this should not in any way suggest that Africa’s metallurgy was derivative or that the continent had no initiative. Rather it demonstrates that when confronted with similar challenges, humanity in different regions of the world responded to identical challenges in predictable ways mediated as mediated by the prevailing cultural context. The success of the use of historical and ethnographic data in understanding variation and improvisation in African metallurgical practices flags the potential utility of these sources in Asia, Latin America and Europe. Some nuance is however needed because it is simply naïve to assume that everything depicted in the history or ethnography has a parallel in the past and vice versa. Rather, the confluence of archaeology, history and ethnography becomes a pedestal for dialogue between different sources, subjects and ideas that is important for broadening our knowledge of global categories of metallurgical practice.

Revolutionizing a World

From Small States to Universalism in the Pre-Islamic Near East

Author: Mark Altaweel,Andrea Squitieri

Publisher: UCL Press

ISBN: 1911576631

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 779

This book investigates the long-term continuity of large-scale states and empires, and its effect on the Near East’s social fabric, including the fundamental changes that occurred to major social institutions. Its geographical coverage spans, from east to west, modern-day Libya and Egypt to Central Asia, and from north to south, Anatolia to southern Arabia, incorporating modern-day Oman and Yemen. Its temporal coverage spans from the late eighth century BCE to the seventh century CE during the rise of Islam and collapse of the Sasanian Empire. The authors argue that the persistence of large states and empires starting in the eighth/seventh centuries BCE, which continued for many centuries, led to new socio-political structures and institutions emerging in the Near East. The primary processes that enabled this emergence were large-scale and long-distance movements, or population migrations. These patterns of social developments are analysed under different aspects: settlement patterns, urban structure, material culture, trade, governance, language spread and religion, all pointing at movement as the main catalyst for social change. This book’s argument is framed within a larger theoretical framework termed as ‘universalism’, a theory that explains many of the social transformations that happened to societies in the Near East, starting from the Neo-Assyrian period and continuing for centuries. Among other influences, the effects of these transformations are today manifested in modern languages, concepts of government, universal religions and monetized and globalized economies.

Things that Travelled

Mediterranean Glass in the First Millennium AD

Author: Daniela Rosenow,Matt Phelps,Andrew Meek,Ian Freestone

Publisher: UCL Press

ISBN: 1787351173

Category: Social Science

Page: 362

View: 3569

Recent research has demonstrated that, in the Roman, Late Antique, Early Islamic and Medieval worlds, glass was traded over long distances, from the Eastern Mediterranean, mainly Egypt and Israel, to Northern Africa, the Western Mediterranean and Northern Europe. Things that Travelled, a collaboration between the UCL Early Glass Technology Research Network, the Association for the History of Glass and the British Museum, aims to build on this knowledge. Covering all aspects of glass production, technology, distribution and trade in Roman, Byzantine and Early Medieval/Early Islamic times, including studies from Britain, Egypt, Cyprus, Italy and many others, the volume combines the strengths of the sciences and cultural studies to offer a new approach to research on ancient glass. By bringing together such a varied mix of contributors, specialising in a range of geographical areas and chronological time frames, this volume also offers a valuable contribution to broader discussions on glass within political, economic, cultural and historical arenas.

The Social Archaeology of Food

Thinking about Eating from Prehistory to the Present

Author: Christine A. Hastorf

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316710416

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 8172

This book offers a global perspective on the role food has played in shaping human societies, through both individual and collective identities. It integrates ethnographic and archaeological case studies from the European and Near Eastern Neolithic, Han China, ancient Cahokia, Classic Maya, the Inka and many other periods and regions, to ask how the meal in particular has acted as a social agent in the formation of society, economy, culture and identity. Drawing on a range of social theorists, Hastorf provides a theoretical toolkit essential for any archaeologist interested in foodways. Studying the social life of food, this book engages with taste, practice, the meal and the body to discuss power, identity, gender and meaning that creates our world as it created past societies.

Ebla and its Landscape

Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East

Author: Paolo Matthiae,Nicoló Marchetti

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131542987X

Category: Social Science

Page: 563

View: 3031

The discovery of 17,000 tablets at the mid-third millennium BC site of Ebla in Syria has revolutionized the study of the ancient Near East. This is the first major English-language volume describing the multidisciplinary archaeological research at Ebla. Using an innovative regional landscape approach, the 29 contributions to this expansive volume examine Ebla in its regional context through lenses of archaeological, textual, archaeobiological, archaeometric, geomorphological, and remote sensing analysis. In doing so, they are able to provide us with a detailed picture of the constituent elements and trajectories of early state development at Ebla, essential to those studying the ancient Near East and to other archaeologists, historians, anthropologists, and linguists. This work was made possible by an IDEAS grant from the European Research Council.

Mapping the Chinese and Islamic Worlds

Cross-Cultural Exchange in Pre-Modern Asia

Author: Hyunhee Park

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107018684

Category: History

Page: 276

View: 981

This book documents the relationship and wisdom of Asian cartographers in the Islamic and Chinese worlds before the Europeans arrived.

Reinterpreting Chronology and Society at the Mortuary Complex of Jebel Moya (Sudan)

Author: Michael Jonathan Brass

Publisher: Archaeopress Archaeology

ISBN: 9781784914318

Category:

Page: 210

View: 2422

Jebel Moya (south-central Sudan) is the largest known pastoral cemetery in sub- Saharan Africa with more than 3100 excavated human burials. This research revises our understanding of Jebel Moya and its context. After reviewing previous applications of social complexity theory to mortuary data, new questions are posed for the applicability of such theory to pastoral cemeteries. Reliable radiometric dating of Jebel Moya for the first time by luminescence dates is tied in to an attribute-based approach to discern three distinctive pottery assemblages. Three distinct phases of occupation are recognized: the first two (early fifth millennium BC, and the mid-second to early first millennium BC) from pottery sherds, and the third (first century BC - sixth century AD) with habitation and the vast majority of the mortuary remains. Analytically, new statistical and spatial analyses such as cross-pair correlation function and multidimensional scaling provide information on zones of interaction across the mortuary assemblages. Finally, an analysis of mortuary locales contemporary with phase three (Meroitic and post-Meroitic periods) from the central Sudan and Upper and Lower Nubia are examined to show how changing social, economic and power relations were conceptualized, and to highlight Jebel Moya's potential to serve as a chronological and cultural reference point for future studies in south-central and southern Sudan.

From Concepts of the Past to Practical Strategies

The Teaching of Archaeological Field Techniques

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781872843704

Category: Antiquities, Prehistoric

Page: 348

View: 7111

Although most definitions of archaeology would specify excavation and fieldwork as the core of archaeological enquiry, this book undertakes a comparative assessment of how such techniques are taught to university students in different parts of the world. It is suitable for students of archaeology and heritage management, and historians.

New Approaches to Old Stones

Recent Studies of Ground Stone Artifacts

Author: Yorke M. Rowan,Jennie R. Ebeling

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134949715

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 2441

Ground stone artefacts were widely used in food production in prehistory. However, the archaeological community has widely neglected the dataset of ground stone artefacts until now. 'New Approaches to Old Stones' offers a theoretical and methodological analysis of the archaeological data pertaining to ground stone tools. The essays draw on a range of case studies - from the Levant, Egypt, Crete, Anatolia, Mexico and North America - to examine ground stone technologies. From medieval Islamic stone cooking vessels and late Minoan stone vases, to the use of stone in ritual and as a symbol of luxury, 'New Approaches to Old Stones' offers a radical reassessment of the impact of ground-stone artefacts on technological change, production and exchange.

At Empires' Edge : Project Paphlagonia

Regional Survey in North-Central Turkey

Author: Roger Matthews,Claudia Glatz

Publisher: British Inst of Archaeology at

ISBN: 9781898249238

Category: History

Page: 273

View: 4263

Project Paphlagonia was a multi-period, large-scale programme of regional survey in northcentral Turkey, today the provinces of Ã_ankiri and parts of Karabuek, previously a little explored region. In total, an area of almost 8,500km2 was surveyed between 1997 and 2001, using both extensive and intensive survey techniques. More than 330 sites of archaeological and historical significance were located and recorded. The sites range in date from early prehistoric to Ottoman, and include Palaeolithic camp-sites, Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age settlements and cemeteries, fortified defensive sites of the Hittite and other periods, Phrygian villages and burial tumuli, and a wealth of small towns, villages, farmsteads and hill-top refuges of the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and early Turkish periods. This volume, to be used in conjunction with the Project Paphlagonia website presents synthetic treatments of all these periods as well as studies of the geology, geomorphology and climatology of the region. Studies of long-term settlement trends and patterns complete this publication of an important and productive programme of archaeological and historical survey.

The Grace Effect

How the Power of One Life Can Reverse the Corruption of Unbelief

Author: Larry Alex Taunton

Publisher: Thomas Nelson Inc

ISBN: 1595554408

Category: Religion

Page: 272

View: 6167

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World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum

A Characterization

Author: Dan Hicks,Alice Stevenson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781905739585

Category: Social Science

Page: 572

View: 1997

World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum: a characterization introduces the range, history and significance of the archaeological collections of the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford. In 29 newly-commissioned essays written by a specialist team, the volume explores more than 136,000 artefacts from 145 countries, from the Stone Age to the modern period, and from England to Easter Island. Pioneering a new approach in museum studies, this landmark volume is an essential reference work for archaeologists around the world, and a unique introduction to the archaeological collections of one of the world's most famous museums.

The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean

Author: A. Bernard Knapp,Peter van Dommelen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 131619406X

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 7666

The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean offers new insights into the material and social practices of many different Mediterranean peoples during the Bronze and Iron Ages, presenting in particular those features that both connect and distinguish them. Contributors discuss in depth a range of topics that motivate and structure Mediterranean archaeology today, including insularity and connectivity; mobility, migration, and colonization; hybridization and cultural encounters; materiality, memory, and identity; community and household; life and death; and ritual and ideology. The volume's broad coverage of different approaches and contemporary archaeological practices will help practitioners of Mediterranean archaeology to move the subject forward in new and dynamic ways. Together, the essays in this volume shed new light on the people, ideas, and materials that make up the world of Mediterranean archaeology today, beyond the borders that separate Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.

Material Culture and Authenticity

Fake Branded Fashion in Europe

Author: Magdalena Craciun

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1472517121

Category: Design

Page: 192

View: 7377

The study of material culture demonstrates that objects make people just as much as people make, exchange and consume objects. But what if these objects are, in the eyes of others, only fakes? What kind of material mirror are people looking into? Are their real selves really reflected in this mirror? This book provides an original and revealing study into engagements with objects that are not what they are claimed and presumed to be and, subsequently, are believed to betray their makers as well as users. Drawing upon an ethnography of fake branded garments in Turkey and Romania, Material Culture and Authenticity shows how people can make authentic positions for themselves in and through fake objects. The book will be of interest to students and scholars working in the fields of anthropology, material culture and cultural studies as well as to general readers interested in ethnographic alternatives to biographies of famous fakers and fakes.

Naukratis

Author: Alexandra Villing,Udo Schlotzhauer

Publisher: British Museum Publications Limited

ISBN: 9780861591626

Category: History

Page: 235

View: 1713

A collection of 22 essays presenting the latest research on a comprehensive range of questions relating to the Greek presence at the site of Egyptian Naukratis as it is reflected in the pottery from there. The volume includes scientific analysis and is richly illustrated with photographs including colour illustrations, line drawings, maps and tables.