Winner of the Samuel Johnson Prize Winner of the PEN Hessell Tiltman Prize Winner of the Duff Cooper Prize Between January and July 1919, after “the war to end all wars,” men and women from around the world converged on Paris to shape the peace. Center stage, for the first time in history, was an American president, Woodrow Wilson, who with his Fourteen Points seemed to promise to so many people the fulfillment of their dreams. Stern, intransigent, impatient when it came to security concerns and wildly idealistic in his dream of a League of Nations that would resolve all future conflict peacefully, Wilson is only one of the larger-than-life characters who fill the pages of this extraordinary book. David Lloyd George, the gregarious and wily British prime minister, brought Winston Churchill and John Maynard Keynes. Lawrence of Arabia joined the Arab delegation. Ho Chi Minh, a kitchen assistant at the Ritz, submitted a petition for an independent Vietnam. For six months, Paris was effectively the center of the world as the peacemakers carved up bankrupt empires and created new countries. This book brings to life the personalities, ideals, and prejudices of the men who shaped the settlement. They pushed Russia to the sidelines, alienated China, and dismissed the Arabs. They struggled with the problems of Kosovo, of the Kurds, and of a homeland for the Jews. The peacemakers, so it has been said, failed dismally; above all they failed to prevent another war. Margaret MacMillan argues that they have unfairly been made the scapegoats for the mistakes of those who came later. She refutes received ideas about the path from Versailles to World War II and debunks the widely accepted notion that reparations imposed on the Germans were in large part responsible for the Second World War. A landmark work of narrative history, Paris 1919 is the first full-scale treatment of the Peace Conference in more than twenty-five years. It offers a scintillating view of those dramatic and fateful days when much of the modern world was sketched out, when countries were created—Iraq, Yugoslavia, Israel—whose troubles haunt us still. From the Hardcover edition.
After the war to end all wars, men and women from all over the world converged on Paris for the Peace Conference. At its heart were the three great powers - Woodrow Wilson, Lloyd George and Clemenceau - but thousands of others came too, each with a different agenda. Kings, prime ministers and foreign ministers with their crowds of advisers rubbed shoulders with journalists and lobbyists for a hundred causes, from Armenian independence to women's rights. Everyone had business that year - T.E. Lawrence, Queen Marie of Romania, Maynard Keynes, Ho Chi Minh. There had never been anything like it before, and there never has been since. For six extraordinary months the city was effectively the centre of world government as the peacemakers wound up bankrupt empires and created new countries. This book brings to life the personalities, ideals and prejudices of the men who shaped the settlement. They pushed Russia to the sidelines, alienated China and dismissed the Arabs, struggled with the problems of Kosovo, or the Kurds, and of a homeland for the Jews. The peacemakers, it has been said, failed dismally, and above all failed to prevent another war. Margaret MacMillan argues that they have been made scapegoats for the mistakes of those who came later. They tried to be evenhanded, but their goals could never in fact be achieved by diplomacy.
In February 1972, Richard Nixon became the first American president to visit China. His historic one-hour meeting with Mao Zedong ended the breach between the United States and China, which had lasted since the Communist victory in 1949. Just as significantly, the visit changed the face of international relations from a bipolar Cold War to a three-sided struggle involving the Soviet Union, China, and the United States. Drawing on newly available material and interviews with all major survivors, MacMillan re-examines that fateful week. Authoritative and written with great narrative verve, Nixon in China is a landmark work of history. Penguin Group (Canada) has published this edition of Nixon in China in a traditional Penguin design in celebration of being named 2008 Publisher of the Year.
With the publication of her landmark bestseller Paris 1919, Margaret MacMillan was praised as “a superb writer who can bring history to life” (The Philadelphia Inquirer). Now she brings her extraordinary gifts to one of the most important subjects today–the relationship between the United States and China–and one of the most significant moments in modern history. In February 1972, Richard Nixon, the first American president ever to visit China, and Mao Tse-tung, the enigmatic Communist dictator, met for an hour in Beijing. Their meeting changed the course of history and ultimately laid the groundwork for the complex relationship between China and the United States that we see today. That monumental meeting in 1972–during what Nixon called “the week that changed the world”–could have been brought about only by powerful leaders: Nixon himself, a great strategist and a flawed human being, and Mao, willful and ruthless. They were assisted by two brilliant and complex statesmen, Henry Kissinger and Chou En-lai. Surrounding them were fascinating people with unusual roles to play, including the enormously disciplined and unhappy Pat Nixon and a small-time Shanghai actress turned monstrous empress, Jiang Qing. And behind all of them lay the complex history of two countries, two great and equally confident civilizations: China, ancient and contemptuous yet fearful of barbarians beyond the Middle Kingdom, and the United States, forward-looking and confident, seeing itself as the beacon for the world. Nixon thought China could help him get out of Vietnam. Mao needed American technology and expertise to repair the damage of the Cultural Revolution. Both men wanted an ally against an aggressive Soviet Union. Did they get what they wanted? Did Mao betray his own revolutionary ideals? How did the people of China react to this apparent change in attitude toward the imperialist Americans? Did Nixon make a mistake in coming to China as a supplicant? And what has been the impact of the visit on the United States ever since? Weaving together fascinating anecdotes and insights, an understanding of Chinese and American history, and the momentous events of an extraordinary time, this brilliantly written book looks at one of the transformative moments of the twentieth century and casts new light on a key relationship for the world of the twenty-first century. Margaret MacMillan is the author of Women of the Raj and Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World, which won the Duff Cooper Prize, the Samuel Johnson Prize for Non-Fiction, the Hessell-Tiltman Prize for History, a Silver Medal for the Arthur Ross Book Award of the Council on Foreign Relations, and the Governor General’s Literary Award for nonfiction. It was selected by the editors of The New York Times as one of the best books of 2002. Currently the provost of Trinity College and a professor of history at the University of Toronto, MacMillan takes up the position of warden of St. Antony’s College, Oxford, in July 2007. She is an officer of the Order of Canada, a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, and a senior fellow of Massey College at the University of Toronto. From the Hardcover edition.
Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism
Author: Erez Manela
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, while key decisions were debated by the victorious Allied powers, a multitude of smaller nations and colonies held their breath, waiting to see how their fates would be decided. President Woodrow Wilson, in his Fourteen Points, had called for "a free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims," giving equal weight would be given to the opinions of the colonized peoples and the colonial powers. Among those nations now paying close attention to Wilson's words and actions were the budding nationalist leaders of four disparate non-Western societies--Egypt, India, China, and Korea. That spring, Wilson's words would help ignite political upheavals in all four of these countries. This book is the first to place the 1919 Revolution in Egypt, the Rowlatt Satyagraha in India, the May Fourth movement in China, and the March First uprising in Korea in the context of a broader "Wilsonian moment" that challenged the existing international order. Using primary source material from America, Europe, and Asia, historian Erez Manela tells the story of how emerging nationalist movements appropriated Wilsonian language and adapted it to their own local culture and politics as they launched into action on the international stage. The rapid disintegration of the Wilsonian promise left a legacy of disillusionment and facilitated the spread of revisionist ideologies and movements in these societies; future leaders of Third World liberation movements--Mao Zedong, Ho Chi Minh, and Jawaharlal Nehru, among others--were profoundly shaped by their experiences at the time. The importance of the Paris Peace Conference and Wilson's influence on international affairs far from the battlefields of Europe cannot be underestimated. Now, for the first time, we can clearly see just how the events played out at Versailles sparked a wave of nationalism that is still resonating globally today.
إن اسم فيينا يبدو مألوفاً للغاية في مدينة صوفيا البلغارية وذلك من خلال محل للفطائر ومقهى يتمتعان بشهرة كبيرة ويحملان الأسم ذاته «فيينا». من خلال أحد نوافذ ذلك المقهى المطل على شارع «تسار ليبيراتور» يجلس الناس ملتفين حول الموائد الحديدية صغيرة الحجم والمطلية باللون الأبيض، يحتسون مشروب القهوة ذا الحجم الكبير من النوع غير التقليدي مثل القهوة البلغارية أو المقدونية أو التركية أو الصربية أو اليونانية، ويعتمد ذلك في المقام الأول على مكان ونوع المقهى الذي نحتسي فيه القهوه، حيث تقدم هنا بطريقة غير تقليدية في فناجين ذات حجم كبير تعلوها الكريمة المرشوش عليها قدر من الشيكولاته، تماماً مثل التي تقدم في فيينا. هناك أيضاً عدة أنواع من الحلويات والفطائر الفيينية -نسبة إلى فيينا- المحفوظة في فاترينة زجاجية مضاءة بمصابيح نيون. حيث نرى كعكة كريم الفانيليا الصفراء المخلوطة بأخرى خضراء مما يعطي اللون الرمادي الغث وذلك يعود إلى إضافة قطع من الخوخ والفراولة. لكن كل ذلك لا يضاهي الجاتوه الفييني الحقيقي المليء بالمكونات والتفاصيل الرائعة. في الواقع أن كل ما يقدم في مثل هذا المقهى لا علاقة له بالمدن الأوروبية الكبيرة إلا الاسم فقط
Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt and the Progressives Who Shaped Our World
Author: James Srodes
A slice of Washington, DC, history that “traces the careers of a small group that would come to dominate American policy formation” (The Washington Times). On the eve of World War I, a group of young men and women came together in Washington’s tony Dupont Circle neighborhood. They were ambitious for personal and social advancement, and bound together by a sheer determination to remake America and the rest of the world in their progressive image. At one residence—nicknamed The House of Truth—lived Felix Frankfurter, a future Supreme Court Justice, and Walter Lippmann, later the most important political writer of the twentieth century. Another house served as the base for three siblings: John Foster Dulles, future Secretary of State, Allen Dulles, one of the founders of the CIA, and Eleanor Lansing Dulles, one of the most important economists of the age. Nearby lived young Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, even then rising political stars; William Bullitt, a charming and unscrupulous future ambassador; and Herbert Hoover, already the most famous American in the world. The group mixed cocktails, foreign policy, and bedmates as they set out to remake the world. For the next twenty years they pursued increasingly important careers as their private lives become ever more entangled. By the end of this story, on the eve of WWII, the group came together again for a second chance at history—and this time the result was the United Nations. “Illuminate[s] how interactions between an astonishing few could act as catalysts for relationships between nations.” —Publishers Weekly “A well-researched and well-written compact history that turns distant historical figures into real people.” —Foreword Reviews
كتاب سنوات التجديد إنجاز استثنائي لعله أفضل دبلوماسي أمريكي معروف في القرن العشرين، هنري كيسنجر شخصية كبيرة في التاريخ العالمي، وحائز على جائزة نوبل للسلام، ومن أفضل العقول التي عملت في السياسة الخارجية الأمريكية، إضافةً إلى أنه من أذكى الرجال وأكثرهم معرفة ممن عملوا في مراكز السلطة في واشنطن. هذا الكتاب الذي طال انتظاره عن ذكرياته يُكمل عملاً كبيراً في التاريخ المعاصر. وهو وثيقة تاريخية مهمة ورواية رائعة ذات طابع شكسبيري في قوتها، مليئة بالنظرات العميقة غير المعتادة، والصادقة، وإحساس عميق بالتاريخ »سنوات التجديد« هو الاستنتاج الناجح لإنجاز عظيم، والذي سيظل وثيقة تاريخية من الدرجة الأولى. جون لويس غاديس: مراجِعة الكتب في صحيفة نيويورك تايمز ٭ ٭ ٭ «أسلوب يتفوق على الشكل المعروف لكتّاب كبار آخرين... كتاب يستحوذ على الانتباه. ويصعب وضعه جانباً». جوزيف، وول ستريت جورنال «تاريخ السيد كيسنجر في أيام خدمته عمل يتميز بعمق ووضوح الرؤية والمشهد التاريخي ويبرر حجمه. إنه حدث وعمل كلاسيكي في طابعه». ريتشارد بيرنيستين، نيويورك تايمز «انهماك كيسنجر بتأريخ الأحداث وعرضها في هذه السنوات غني بالتفاصيل. لا بد أن يقرأه المهتمون بالسياسة الخارجية». غريغ ايسندارث، فلادلفيا انكوايارار «عمل ناجح وطموح وواسع الإحاطة.. إنه صورة ذاتية ومركّبة مرسومة بقلم إنسان ذكي وفخور بنفسه». باريان فانديمارك، ذا بوستن صندي جلوب ٭ ٭ ٭ العبيكان 2017