This second edition retains the general structure of the first edition, but has been updated in the light of recent oceanographic research, and improved as a teaching text on the basis of feedback from past students and other readers. Notable additions include new sections addressing the topic of numerical modelling, and more discussion of natural oscillations in the ocean-atmosphere system (previously confined to the El Niño phenomenon). In particular, the Chapter on the North Atlantic now includes a discussion of the North Atlantic Oscillation, as well as of the Great Salinity Anomaly. In the final Chapter, treatment of water mass formation has been updated to reflect recent ideas about the processes involved and how they relate to climatic change over different time-scales, from decades to millennia. High quality full colour diagrams Substantial chapter summaries ideal for revision Answers, hints and notes for questions at back of the book
Facts101 is your complete guide to Ocean Circulation. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.
Accessibly written by a team of international authors, the Encyclopedia of Environmental Change provides a gateway to the complex facts, concepts, techniques, methodology and philosophy of environmental change. This three-volume set illustrates and examines topics within this dynamic and rapidly changing interdisciplinary field. The encyclopedia includes all of the following aspects of environmental change: Diverse evidence of environmental change, including climate change and changes on land and in the oceans Underlying natural and anthropogenic causes and mechanisms Wide-ranging local, regional and global impacts from the polar regions to the tropics Responses of geo-ecosystems and human-environmental systems in the face of past, present and future environmental change Approaches, methodologies and techniques used for reconstructing, dating, monitoring, modelling, projecting and predicting change Social, economic and political dimensions of environmental issues, environmental conservation and management and environmental policy Over 4,000 entries explore the following key themes and more: Conservation Demographic change Environmental management Environmental policy Environmental security Food security Glaciation Green Revolution Human impact on environment Industrialization Landuse change Military impacts on environment Mining and mining impacts Nuclear energy Pollution Renewable resources Solar energy Sustainability Tourism Trade Water resources Water security Wildlife conservation The comprehensive coverage of terminology includes layers of entries ranging from one-line definitions to short essays, making this an invaluable companion for any student of physical geography, environmental geography or environmental sciences.
A Derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences
Author: John H. Steele,Steve A. Thorpe,Karl K. Turekian
Publisher: Academic Press
Ocean Currents is a derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 2nd Edition and serves as an important reference on current ocean current knowledge and expertise in one convenient and accessible source. Its selection of articles—all written by experts in their field—focuses on key ocean current concepts. Its topics include ocean currents, the circulation of deep water, the contrasting circulations of the seas, the circulation in fjords, estuaries and the effects of rivers, and the intermittency and variability of the oceans. Ocean Currents serves as an ideal reference for topical research. References related articles on ocean currents to facilitate further research Richly illustrated with figures and tables that aid in understanding key concepts Includes an introductory overview of ocean currents and then explores each topic in detail, making it useful to experts and graduate-level researchers Topical arrangement makes it the perfect desk reference
A History of Scientific Discoveries, a Future of Climate Change and Global Warming
Author: William W. Hay
This book is a thorough introduction to climate science and global change. The author is a geologist who has spent much of his life investigating the climate of Earth from a time when it was warm and dinosaurs roamed the land, to today's changing climate. Bill Hay takes you on a journey to understand how the climate system works. He explores how humans are unintentionally conducting a grand uncontrolled experiment which is leading to unanticipated changes. We follow the twisting path of seemingly unrelated discoveries in physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and even mathematics to learn how they led to our present knowledge of how our planet works. He explains why the weather is becoming increasingly chaotic as our planet warms at a rate far faster than at any time in its geologic past. He speculates on possible future outcomes, and suggests that nature itself may make some unexpected course corrections. Although the book is written for the layman with little knowledge of science or mathematics, it includes information from many diverse fields to provide even those actively working in the field of climatology with a broader view of this developing drama. Experimenting on a Small Planet is a must read for anyone having more than a casual interest in global warming and climate change - one of the most important and challenging issues of our time. This new edition includes actual data from climate science into 2014. Numerous powerpoint slides allow lecturers and teachers to more effectively use the book as a basis for climate change education.
Ein Besuch der Apnoe-Weltmeisterschaft wird für James Nestor zum Beginn eines persönlichen Abenteuers: Fasziniert von der Kompromisslosigkeit dieses Sports, erlernt er selbst das Freitauchen. Und fortan zieht es ihn immer tiefer in die verborgene Welt der Ozeane hinab: Er besucht eine Forschungsstation 20 Meter unter der Meeresoberfläche, trifft renommierten Meeresbiologen bei ihrer Arbeit, schwimmt mit Walen und geht im U-Boot auf Tauchstation. Dabei entdeckt er einen unfassbar reichen Lebensraum, mit telepathischen Korallen, leuchtenden Fischen und rätselhaften Riesenkraken. Bis er schließlich den tiefsten Punkt der Erde erreicht – die absolute Grenze für Mensch und Technik. Eine grandiose Entdeckungsreise, die zugleich unseren Wurzeln nachspürt.
The world's oceans account for roughly 71 percent of the planet's surface and 99 percent of its livable volume. Any study of this huge habitat requires a solid foundation in the principles that underlie marine biology and physical and chemical oceanography, yet until now undergraduate textbooks have largely presented compilations of facts rather than explanations of principles.How the Ocean Worksfills this gap, providing a concise and accessible college-level introduction to marine science that is also ideal for general readers. How are winds and currents driven? What is the dilemma of the two-layered ocean? Mark Denny explains key concepts like these in rich and fascinating detail. He explores early scientific knowledge of oceans, photosynthesis, trophic interactions and energy flow, and the impacts of human activities on marine and atmospheric systems. Focusing each chapter on a major topic and carefully explaining the principles and theory involved, Denny gives readers the conceptual building blocks needed to develop a coherent picture of the living ocean.How the Ocean Worksis an indispensable resource that teaches readers how to think about the ocean--its biology, mechanics, and conservation. Provides a concise, up-to-date introduction to marine science Develops the conceptual basis needed to understand how the ocean works Explains fundamental principles and theory Includes color illustrations and informative diagrams Serves as a college textbook and a reference for general readers
The book is an extended and updated edition of the book published in 1996 under the same title (World Scientific, ISBN 9810216866). It contains a very comprehensive and extensive study on surface ocean waves induced by wind, earthquakes and possible landslides and asteroids impacts. The basic mathematical principles, physical description of the observed phenomena, practical forecasting techniques of the various wave parameters and extended application in ocean and coastal engineering, are discussed from the stochastic point of view. All chapters were completely rewritten and supplemented with many new discoveries which were published since the first edition in 1996. In particular, new chapters are added on very interesting and contemporary topics such as: wave breaking mechanisms in deep- and shallow water, freak waves, tsunami, water circulation in porous sea bottom induced by surface waves, and waves propagation through mangrove forests. In terms of numerical modeling, the state of the art of the modern methodology of wave prediction models WAM and SWAN, as well as of the high sophisticated satellite methods of waves measurement and modern methods of signal processing, including wavelets approach and Hilbert Transform approach are presented. The book is supplemented with an extended list of relevant and extended, contemporary bibliography, subject index and author index. Contents:IntroductionInteraction of Wind and Ocean WavesSpectral Properties of Ocean WavesStatistical Properties of Ocean WavesProperties of Breaking WavesPrediction of Waves in Deep WaterPrediction of Waves in Shallow WaterFreak WavesTsunamiWaves at Islands and Coral ReefsWaves in Mangrove ForestsWave-induced Pressure and Flow in a Porous BottomWave Observations and Long-Term StatisticsWave Measurement TechniquesData Processing and Simulation Techniques Readership: Graduate students, professionals and researchers, including marine research specialist, in ocean and coastal engineering and oceanography. Keywords:Surface Waves;Freak Waves;Tsunami;Deep Sea Dynamics;Coastal Water Dynamics;Coastal Engineering;Coral Reef Hydrodynamics;Flow in Mangrove Forest;Circulation in Porous Media;Stochastic Processes Fundamentals;Data Processing;Simulation TechniquesKey Features:In comparison with the first book edition, this second edition contains a substantial amount of new material on the topics contemporary discussed within the marine communityAll material is treated in an uniform way based on the modern stochastic approachMany practical examples, interesting for oceanographers and marine engineers, illustrate the theoretical and numerical results
Bei der Geografie geht es längst nicht nur darum, zu wissen, wo welches Land oder welcher Fluss zu finden ist. "Geografie für Dummies" erklärt Ihnen, wie das geografische Koordinatensystem aufgebaut ist, wie man damit Orte bestimmt und so Karten richtig deutet. Im Mittelpunkt des Buches stehen die Geofaktoren Boden, Wasser und Klima und deren Wechselwirkungen miteinander: Wie formen Vulkane, Erosion und Wetter die Erdoberfläche? Wie beeinflussen die Ozeane das Klima? Und wie ist es möglich, dass Wüste und Regenwald nur durch eine Bergkette voneinander getrennt sind? Aber auch der Einfluss des Menschen kommt nicht zu kurz, so wird auch die urbane, politische und wirtschaftliche Geografie erläutert. Egal, ob Sie wissen möchten, wie das Klima die Erde beeinflusst oder wo ein günstiger Standort für das nächste Eigenheim wäre, dieses Buch liefert Ihnen alle Antworten.
Author: Chunzai Wang,Shang-Ping Xie,James A. Carton
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 147. It is more than 30 years since the publication of Jacob Bjerknes' groundbreaking ideas made clear the importance of ocean-atmosphere interaction in the tropics. It is now more than 20 years since the arrival of a massive El Niño in the fall of 1982 set off a cascade of observational and theoretical studies. During the following decades, the climate research community has made exceptional progress in refining our capacity to observe earth's climate and theorize about it, including new satellite-based and in situ monitoring systems and coupled ocean-atmosphere predictive numerical models. Of equal importance. is the expanding scope ofresearch, which now reaches far beyond the Pacific El Niño and includes climate phenomena in other ocean basins. In order to cover the now global context of ocean-atmosphere interaction we have organized this monograph around five principal themes, each introduced by one or more broad overview papers. Theme I covers interaction and climate variability in the Pacific sector, with extensive discussion of El Niño-Southern Oscillation, and with the possible causes and consequences of variability on both shorter and longer timescales. Theme II is devoted to interaction in the Atlantic sector. This basin exhibits complex behavior, reflecting its geographic location between two major zones of convection as well as neighboring the tropical Pacific. Theme III reviews the recent, exciting progress in our understanding of climate variability in the Indian sector. Theme IV addresses the interaction between the tropics and the extratropics, which are linked through the presence of shallow meridional overturning cells in the ocean. Finally, Theme V discusses overarching issues of cross-basin interaction.
The author of Great Waters: An Atlantic Passage identifies a living partnership between the earth and its life, explaining the comparatively new responsibility of human beings in protecting the sea in order to safeguard climate and environmental interests. 30,000 first printing.
Alfredo L. Aretxabaleta,Gregg R. Brooks,Nancy W. West
Author: Alfredo L. Aretxabaleta,Gregg R. Brooks,Nancy W. West
Publisher: NSTA Press
Project Earth Science: Physical Oceanography, Revised 2nd Edition, immerses students in activities that focus on water, the substance that covers nearly three-quarters of Earth's surface. Eighteen ready-to-use, teacher-tested classroom activities and supplemental readings offer explorations and straightforward explanations to foster intuitive understanding of key science concepts. Students cover topics such as the structure of water molecules, saltwater and freshwater mixing, and tidal forces as they create waves, dissolve substances, float eggs, and more.
In diesem Buch wird einerseits die spannende Entdeckung der Stratosphäre selbst und verschiedener unerwarteter Phänomene in der Stratosphäre beschrieben: ein bemannter Ballonflug im Jahr 1901 bis in 11 km Höhe; eine Expedition zum Victoriasee im Jahr 1908; die Entdeckung der Ozonschicht um 1930, des "Berliner Phänomens" im Jahr 1952, des Einflusses von Vulkaneruptionen im Jahr 1982, des Ozonlochs im Jahr 1985 und des Einflusses der Sonnenaktivität im Jahr 1987. Andererseits wird gezeigt, wie diese Erscheinungen miteinander verknüpft sind und wie sie anthropogene und natürliche Schwankungen in unserem Klimasystem verursachen. Am Beispiel der Stratosphäre soll das Buch zum Verständnis der Erforschung komplizierter Zusammenhänge in der Natur beitragen.