Numbers and Proofs

Author: Reg Allenby

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080928773

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 3550

'Numbers and Proofs' presents a gentle introduction to the notion of proof to give the reader an understanding of how to decipher others' proofs as well as construct their own. Useful methods of proof are illustrated in the context of studying problems concerning mainly numbers (real, rational, complex and integers). An indispensable guide to all students of mathematics. Each proof is preceded by a discussion which is intended to show the reader the kind of thoughts they might have before any attempt proof is made. Established proofs which the student is in a better position to follow then follow. Presented in the author's entertaining and informal style, and written to reflect the changing profile of students entering universities, this book will prove essential reading for all seeking an introduction to the notion of proof as well as giving a definitive guide to the more common forms. Stressing the importance of backing up "truths" found through experimentation, with logically sound and watertight arguments, it provides an ideal bridge to more complex undergraduate maths.

Mathematical Problems and Proofs

Combinatorics, Number Theory, and Geometry

Author: Branislav Kisacanin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306469634

Category: Mathematics

Page: 220

View: 2971

A gentle introduction to the highly sophisticated world of discrete mathematics, Mathematical Problems and Proofs presents topics ranging from elementary definitions and theorems to advanced topics -- such as cardinal numbers, generating functions, properties of Fibonacci numbers, and Euclidean algorithm. This excellent primer illustrates more than 150 solutions and proofs, thoroughly explained in clear language. The generous historical references and anecdotes interspersed throughout the text create interesting intermissions that will fuel readers' eagerness to inquire further about the topics and some of our greatest mathematicians. The author guides readers through the process of solving enigmatic proofs and problems, and assists them in making the transition from problem solving to theorem proving. At once a requisite text and an enjoyable read, Mathematical Problems and Proofs is an excellent entrée to discrete mathematics for advanced students interested in mathematics, engineering, and science.

Problems and Proofs in Numbers and Algebra

Author: Richard S. Millman,Peter J. Shiue,Eric Brendan Kahn

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319144278

Category: Mathematics

Page: 223

View: 1140

Focusing on an approach of solving rigorous problems and learning how to prove, this volume is concentrated on two specific content themes, elementary number theory and algebraic polynomials. The benefit to readers who are moving from calculus to more abstract mathematics is to acquire the ability to understand proofs through use of the book and the multitude of proofs and problems that will be covered throughout. This book is meant to be a transitional precursor to more complex topics in analysis, advanced number theory, and abstract algebra. To achieve the goal of conceptual understanding, a large number of problems and examples will be interspersed through every chapter. The problems are always presented in a multi-step and often very challenging, requiring the reader to think about proofs, counter-examples, and conjectures. Beyond the undergraduate mathematics student audience, the text can also offer a rigorous treatment of mathematics content (numbers and algebra) for high-achieving high school students. Furthermore, prospective teachers will add to the breadth of the audience as math education majors, will understand more thoroughly methods of proof, and will add to the depth of their mathematical knowledge. In the past, PNA has been taught in a "problem solving in middle school” course (twice), to a quite advanced high school students course (three semesters), and three times as a secondary resource for a course for future high school teachers. PNA is suitable for secondary math teachers who look for material to encourage and motivate more high achieving students.

Fundamentals of Mathematics

An Introduction to Proofs, Logic, Sets, and Numbers

Author: Bernd S. W. Schröder

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 9780470551387

Category: Mathematics

Page: 338

View: 546

An accessible introduction to abstract mathematics with an emphasis on proof writing Addressing the importance of constructing and understanding mathematical proofs, Fundamentals of Mathematics: An Introduction to Proofs, Logic, Sets, and Numbers introduces key concepts from logic and set theory as well as the fundamental definitions of algebra to prepare readers for further study in the field of mathematics. The author supplies a seamless, hands-on presentation of number systems, utilizing key elements of logic and set theory and encouraging readers to abide by the fundamental rule that you are not allowed to use any results that you have not proved yet. The book begins with a focus on the elements of logic used in everyday mathematical language, exposing readers to standard proof methods and Russell's Paradox. Once this foundation is established, subsequent chapters explore more rigorous mathematical exposition that outlines the requisite elements of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory and constructs the natural numbers and integers as well as rational, real, and complex numbers in a rigorous, yet accessible manner. Abstraction is introduced as a tool, and special focus is dedicated to concrete, accessible applications, such as public key encryption, that are made possible by abstract ideas. The book concludes with a self-contained proof of Abel's Theorem and an investigation of deeper set theory by introducing the Axiom of Choice, ordinal numbers, and cardinal numbers. Throughout each chapter, proofs are written in much detail with explicit indications that emphasize the main ideas and techniques of proof writing. Exercises at varied levels of mathematical development allow readers to test their understanding of the material, and a related Web site features video presentations for each topic, which can be used along with the book or independently for self-study. Classroom-tested to ensure a fluid and accessible presentation, Fundamentals of Mathematics is an excellent book for mathematics courses on proofs, logic, and set theory at the upper-undergraduate level as well as a supplement for transition courses that prepare students for the rigorous mathematical reasoning of advanced calculus, real analysis, and modern algebra. The book is also a suitable reference for professionals in all areas of mathematics education who are interested in mathematical proofs and the foundation upon which all mathematics is built.

An Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning

Numbers, Sets and Functions

Author: Peter J. Eccles

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139643363

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 1661

The purpose of this book is to introduce the basic ideas of mathematical proof to students embarking on university mathematics. The emphasis is on helping the reader in understanding and constructing proofs and writing clear mathematics. This is achieved by exploring set theory, combinatorics and number theory, topics which include many fundamental ideas which are part of the tool kit of any mathematician. This material illustrates how familiar ideas can be formulated rigorously, provides examples demonstrating a wide range of basic methods of proof, and includes some of the classic proofs. The book presents mathematics as a continually developing subject. Material meeting the needs of readers from a wide range of backgrounds is included. Over 250 problems include questions to interest and challenge the most able student as well as plenty of routine exercises to help familiarize the reader with the basic ideas.

Proofs from THE BOOK

Author: Martin Aigner,Günter M. Ziegler

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662442051

Category: Mathematics

Page: 308

View: 8361

This revised and enlarged fifth edition features four new chapters, which contain highly original and delightful proofs for classics such as the spectral theorem from linear algebra, some more recent jewels like the non-existence of the Borromean rings and other surprises. From the Reviews "... Inside PFTB (Proofs from The Book) is indeed a glimpse of mathematical heaven, where clever insights and beautiful ideas combine in astonishing and glorious ways. There is vast wealth within its pages, one gem after another. ... Aigner and Ziegler... write: "... all we offer is the examples that we have selected, hoping that our readers will share our enthusiasm about brilliant ideas, clever insights and wonderful observations." I do. ... " Notices of the AMS, August 1999 "... This book is a pleasure to hold and to look at: ample margins, nice photos, instructive pictures and beautiful drawings ... It is a pleasure to read as well: the style is clear and entertaining, the level is close to elementary, the necessary background is given separately and the proofs are brilliant. ..." LMS Newsletter, January 1999 "Martin Aigner and Günter Ziegler succeeded admirably in putting together a broad collection of theorems and their proofs that would undoubtedly be in the Book of Erdös. The theorems are so fundamental, their proofs so elegant and the remaining open questio ns so intriguing that every mathematician, regardless of speciality, can benefit from reading this book. ... " SIGACT News, December 2011.

The Real Numbers and Real Analysis

Author: Ethan D. Bloch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387721762

Category: Mathematics

Page: 553

View: 8276

This rigorous, detailed introduction to real analysis presents the fundamentals clearly and includes definitions, theorems and proofs. Mirroring the structure of standard calculus courses makes it especially accessible to university students of mathematics.

Proofs and Fundamentals

A First Course in Abstract Mathematics

Author: Ethan D. Bloch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461221307

Category: Mathematics

Page: 424

View: 5231

The aim of this book is to help students write mathematics better. Throughout it are large exercise sets well-integrated with the text and varying appropriately from easy to hard. Basic issues are treated, and attention is given to small issues like not placing a mathematical symbol directly after a punctuation mark. And it provides many examples of what students should think and what they should write and how these two are often not the same.

Introduction to Mathematical Structures and Proofs

Author: Larry J. Gerstein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461442656

Category: Mathematics

Page: 401

View: 4172

As a student moves from basic calculus courses into upper-division courses in linear and abstract algebra, real and complex analysis, number theory, topology, and so on, a "bridge" course can help ensure a smooth transition. Introduction to Mathematical Structures and Proofs is a textbook intended for such a course, or for self-study. This book introduces an array of fundamental mathematical structures. It also explores the delicate balance of intuition and rigor—and the flexible thinking—required to prove a nontrivial result. In short, this book seeks to enhance the mathematical maturity of the reader. The new material in this second edition includes a section on graph theory, several new sections on number theory (including primitive roots, with an application to card-shuffling), and a brief introduction to the complex numbers (including a section on the arithmetic of the Gaussian integers). Solutions for even numbered exercises are available on springer.com for instructors adopting the text for a course.

Fundamentals of Mathematics, An Introduction to Proofs, Logic, Sets, and Numbers

Mathematics, Mathematics

Author: CTI Reviews

Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews

ISBN: 1467211346

Category: Education

Page: 62

View: 1003

Facts101 is your complete guide to Fundamentals of Mathematics, An Introduction to Proofs, Logic, Sets, and Numbers. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

Certified Programs and Proofs

Second International Conference, CPP 2012, Kyoto, Japan, December 13-15, 2012, Proceedings

Author: Chris Hawblitzel,Dale Miller

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642353088

Category: Computers

Page: 305

View: 1162

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Certified Programs and Proofs, CPP 2012, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 2012. The 18 revised regular papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 37 submissions. They deal with those topics in computer science and mathematics in which certification via formal techniques is crucial.

Roads to Infinity

The Mathematics of Truth and Proof

Author: John C. Stillwell

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439865507

Category: Mathematics

Page: 250

View: 891

Winner of a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title Award for 2011! This book offers an introduction to modern ideas about infinity and their implications for mathematics. It unifies ideas from set theory and mathematical logic, and traces their effects on mainstream mathematical topics of today, such as number theory and combinatorics. The treatment is historical and partly informal, but with due attention to the subtleties of the subject. Ideas are shown to evolve from natural mathematical questions about the nature of infinity and the nature of proof, set against a background of broader questions and developments in mathematics. A particular aim of the book is to acknowledge some important but neglected figures in the history of infinity, such as Post and Gentzen, alongside the recognized giants Cantor and Gödel.

The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs

An Introduction to Mathematical Proofs

Author: Antonella Cupillari

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123822181

Category: Mathematics

Page: 296

View: 8085

The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs: An Introduction to Mathematical Proofs provides basic logic of mathematical proofs and shows how mathematical proofs work. It offers techniques for both reading and writing proofs. The second chapter of the book discusses the techniques in proving if/then statements by contrapositive and proofing by contradiction. It also includes the negation statement, and/or. It examines various theorems, such as the if and only-if, or equivalence theorems, the existence theorems, and the uniqueness theorems. In addition, use of counter examples, mathematical induction, composite statements including multiple hypothesis and multiple conclusions, and equality of numbers are covered in this chapter. The book also provides mathematical topics for practicing proof techniques. Included here are the Cartesian products, indexed families, functions, and relations. The last chapter of the book provides review exercises on various topics. Undergraduate students in engineering and physical science will find this book invaluable. Jumps right in with the needed vocabulary—gets students thinking like mathematicians from the beginning Offers a large variety of examples and problems with solutions for students to work through on their own Includes a collection of exercises without solutions to help instructors prepare assignments Contains an extensive list of basic mathematical definitions and concepts needed in abstract mathematics

The Art of Proof

Basic Training for Deeper Mathematics

Author: Matthias Beck,Ross Geoghegan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441970237

Category: Mathematics

Page: 182

View: 9587

The Art of Proof is designed for a one-semester or two-quarter course. A typical student will have studied calculus (perhaps also linear algebra) with reasonable success. With an artful mixture of chatty style and interesting examples, the student's previous intuitive knowledge is placed on solid intellectual ground. The topics covered include: integers, induction, algorithms, real numbers, rational numbers, modular arithmetic, limits, and uncountable sets. Methods, such as axiom, theorem and proof, are taught while discussing the mathematics rather than in abstract isolation. The book ends with short essays on further topics suitable for seminar-style presentation by small teams of students, either in class or in a mathematics club setting. These include: continuity, cryptography, groups, complex numbers, ordinal number, and generating functions.

Theorems, Corollaries, Lemmas, and Methods of Proof

Author: Richard J. Rossi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118030575

Category: Mathematics

Page: 318

View: 5520

A hands-on introduction to the tools needed for rigorous and theoretical mathematical reasoning Successfully addressing the frustration many students experience as they make the transition from computational mathematics to advanced calculus and algebraic structures, Theorems, Corollaries, Lemmas, and Methods of Proof equips students with the tools needed to succeed while providing a firm foundation in the axiomatic structure of modern mathematics. This essential book: * Clearly explains the relationship between definitions, conjectures, theorems, corollaries, lemmas, and proofs * Reinforces the foundations of calculus and algebra * Explores how to use both a direct and indirect proof to prove a theorem * Presents the basic properties of real numbers * Discusses how to use mathematical induction to prove a theorem * Identifies the different types of theorems * Explains how to write a clear and understandable proof * Covers the basic structure of modern mathematics and the key components of modern mathematics A complete chapter is dedicated to the different methods of proof such as forward direct proofs, proof by contrapositive, proof by contradiction, mathematical induction, and existence proofs. In addition, the author has supplied many clear and detailed algorithms that outline these proofs. Theorems, Corollaries, Lemmas, and Methods of Proof uniquely introduces scratch work as an indispensable part of the proof process, encouraging students to use scratch work and creative thinking as the first steps in their attempt to prove a theorem. Once their scratch work successfully demonstrates the truth of the theorem, the proof can be written in a clear and concise fashion. The basic structure of modern mathematics is discussed, and each of the key components of modern mathematics is defined. Numerous exercises are included in each chapter, covering a wide range of topics with varied levels of difficulty. Intended as a main text for mathematics courses such as Methods of Proof, Transitions to Advanced Mathematics, and Foundations of Mathematics, the book may also be used as a supplementary textbook in junior- and senior-level courses on advanced calculus, real analysis, and modern algebra.

Types for Proofs and Programs

International Workshop, TYPES 2000, Durham, UK, December 8-12, 2000. Selected Papers

Author: Paul Callaghan,Zhaohui Luo,James McKinna,Robert Pollack

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540432876

Category: Computers

Page: 248

View: 2981

Mathematical Analysis and Proof

Author: David S G Stirling

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0857099345

Category: Mathematics

Page: 262

View: 7591

This fundamental and straightforward text addresses a weakness observed among present-day students, namely a lack of familiarity with formal proof. Beginning with the idea of mathematical proof and the need for it, associated technical and logical skills are developed with care and then brought to bear on the core material of analysis in such a lucid presentation that the development reads naturally and in a straightforward progression. Retaining the core text, the second edition has additional worked examples which users have indicated a need for, in addition to more emphasis on how analysis can be used to tell the accuracy of the approximations to the quantities of interest which arise in analytical limits. Addresses a lack of familiarity with formal proof, a weakness observed among present-day mathematics students Examines the idea of mathematical proof, the need for it and the technical and logical skills required

Conjecture and Proof

Author: Miklós Laczkovich

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780883857229

Category: Mathematics

Page: 118

View: 5993

How to prove interesting and deep mathematical results from first principles, with exercises.

Mathematical Analysis and Applications

An Introduction

Author: J. V. Deshpande

Publisher: Alpha Science Int'l Ltd.

ISBN: 9781842651896

Category: Mathematics

Page: 341

View: 1373

Starting with a discussion of Real Numbers and Functions, this text introduces standard topics of Differential and Integral Calculus together with their Applications such as Differential Equations, Numerical Analysis, Approximation Methods.

Essays on Numbers and Figures

Author: Viktor Vasilʹevich Prasolov

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821819449

Category: Mathematics

Page: 75

View: 6392

This is the English translation of the book originally published in Russian. It contains 20 essays, each dealing with a separate mathematical topic. The topics range from brilliant mathematical statements with interesting proofs, to simple and effective methods of problem-solving, to interesting properties of polynomials, to exceptional points of the triangle. The essays are independent of one another for the most part, and each presents a vivid mathematical result that led to current research in number theory, geometry, polynomial algebra, or topology.