An exploration of the history of "indecency" laws and other restrictions aimed at protecting youth ranges from Plato's argument for censorship to modern battles over sex education in the schools and violence in the media.
Research and Policy Challenges in Comparative Perspective
Author: Sonia M. Livingstone
Publisher: Policy Press
With increasingly younger children using the Internet on their own, there is a growing need for research that examines both the risks and opportunities young children face on the web. Such information is critical for determining the ways in which children can navigate this wonderful—and dangerous— world. With expert contributions from a diverse range of disciplines and a cross-national breadth, Children, Risk and Safety on the Internet examines the many online opportunities children have for learning, creativity, and communication and how they can safely access them amid the dangers of cyberbullying, pornography, and privacy invasion. Based on an impressive, in-depth survey of twenty-five thousand children carried out by the EU Kids Online network, this book presents wholly new findings that offer important counters to both the optimistic and pessimistic arguments surrounding child safety on the Internet. It finds compelling evidence that children are gaining important digital skills as well as strong strategies and social support for dealing with the Internet's fast-changing terrain. At the same time, it identifies the many struggles children face, pinpointing important areas where harm can follow from risky online encounters. With a simultaneous breadth and depth of evidence and analysis, Children, Risk and Safety on the Internet provides comprehensive and important information for anyone interested in safe and positive digital experiences for our youth.
Is the internet really powerful enough to allow a sixteen year old to become the biggest threat to world peace since Adolf Hitler? Are we all now susceptible to cyber-criminals who can steal from us without even having to leave the comfort of their own armchairs? These are fears which have been articulated since the popular development of the internet, yet criminologists have been slow to respond to them. Consequently, questions about what cybercrimes are, what their impacts will be and how we respond to them remain largely unanswered. Organised into three sections, this book engages with the various criminological debates that are emerging over cybercrime. The first section looks at the general problem of crime and the internet. It then describes what is understood by the term 'cybercrime' by identifying some of the challenges for criminology. The second section explores the different types of cybercrime and their attendant problems. The final section contemplates some of the challenges that cybercrimes give rise to for the criminal justice system.
Policing and the Creation of a Cosmopolitan Liberal Politics, 1950-1972
Author: Christopher Lowen Agee
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
During the Sixties the nation turned its eyes to San Francisco as the city's police force clashed with movements for free speech, civil rights, and sexual liberation. These conflicts on the street forced Americans to reconsider the role of the police officer in a democracy. In The Streets of San Francisco Christopher Lowen Agee explores the surprising and influential ways in which San Francisco liberals answered that question, ultimately turning to the police as partners, and reshaping understandings of crime, policing, and democracy. The Streets of San Francisco uncovers the seldom reported, street-level interactions between police officers and San Francisco residents and finds that police discretion was the defining feature of mid-century law enforcement. Postwar police officers enjoyed great autonomy when dealing with North Beach beats, African American gang leaders, gay and lesbian bar owners, Haight-Ashbury hippies, artists who created sexually explicit works, Chinese American entrepreneurs, and a wide range of other San Franciscans. Unexpectedly, this police independence grew into a source of both concern and inspiration for the thousands of young professionals streaming into the city's growing financial district. These young professionals ultimately used the issue of police discretion to forge a new cosmopolitan liberal coalition that incorporated both marginalized San Franciscans and rank-and-file police officers. The success of this model in San Francisco resulted in the rise of cosmopolitan liberal coalitions throughout the country, and today, liberal cities across America ground themselves in similar understandings of democracy, emphasizing both broad diversity and strong policing.
Defending the First provides a collection of new perspectives on the First Amendment in legal and communication contexts. Editor Joseph Russomanno brings together a roster of major figures who have participated in the shaping of First Amendment law over the past 30 years. Readers are taken into a realm of personal experience and analysis through the stories of these attorneys at the forefront of the battle to defend the "First." The contributors to this volume--all of whom have argued cases before the Supreme Court--tell about their experiences appearing before the highest court in the United States. Some write many years after being there, while others offer insights from a more recent vantage point. One Supreme Court Attorney offers a historical analysis of a case replete with a variety of First Amendment issues. This work contributes to a deeper understanding of First Amendment issues and the types of expression that the First Amendment protects, and why these rights must be protected. In addition, it provides readers with the unique perspective of those who have been on the front lines of some of the most important and influential cases in this era. The challenges of presenting an argument in this venue become clear, and it is evident that understanding one's own case, its lineage, and its likely impact all become part of the formula for success. This distinctive collection provides personal and compelling insights into the making of communication law, and it will be engaging reading for students in communication law courses. It will also appeal to any reader interested in First Amendment law.
The Forgotten Heyday of American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s
Author: Michael Stewart Foley
Publisher: Hill and Wang
"Reading this book revives the spirit of civic action today for those who are unjustifiably forlorn about overcoming injustice."—Ralph Nader An on-the-ground history of ordinary Americans who took to the streets when political issues became personal The 1960s are widely seen as the high tide of political activism in the United States. According to this view, Americans retreated to the private realm after the tumult of the civil rights and antiwar movements, and on the rare occasions when they did take action, it was mainly to express their wish to be left alone by government—as recommended by Ronald Reagan and the ascendant New Right. In fact, as Michael Stewart Foley shows in Front Porch Politics, this understanding of post-1960s politics needs drastic revision. On the community level, the 1970s and 1980s witnessed an unprecedented upsurge of innovative and impassioned grass roots political activity. In Southern California and on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, tenants challenged landlords with sit-ins and referenda; in the upper Midwest, farmers vandalized power lines and mobilized tractors to protect their land; and in the deindustrializing cities of the Rust Belt, laid-off workers boldly claimed the right to own their idled factories. Meanwhile, activists fought to defend the traditional family or to expand the rights of women, while entire towns organized to protest the toxic sludge in their basements. Recalling Love Canal, the tax revolt in California, ACT UP, and other crusades famous or forgotten, Foley shows how Americans were propelled by personal experiences and emotions into the public sphere. Disregarding conventional ideas of left and right, they turned to political action when they perceived, from their actual or figurative front porches, an immediate threat to their families, homes, or dreams. Front Porch Politics is a vivid and authoritative people's history of a time when Americans followed their outrage into the streets. Addressing today's readers, it is also a field guide for effective activism in an era when mass movements may seem impractical or even passé. The distinctively visceral, local, and highly personal politics that Americans practiced in the 1970s and 1980s provide a model of citizenship participation worth emulating if we are to renew our democracy.
The Supreme Court, Academic Freedom, and the Anti-Communist Purge
Author: Marjorie Heins
Publisher: NYU Press
Priests of Our Democracy tells of the teachers and professors who battled the anti-communist witch hunt of the 1950s. It traces the political fortunes of academic freedom beginning in the late 19th century, both on campus and in the courts. Combining political and legal history with wrenching personal stories, the book details how the anti-communist excesses of the 1950s inspired the Supreme Court to recognize the vital role of teachers and professors in American democracy. The crushing of dissent in the 1950s impoverished political discourse in ways that are still being felt, and First Amendment academic freedom, a product of that period, is in peril today. In compelling terms, this book shows why the issue should matter to everyone.
The First Amendment is vital to our political system, our cultural institutions, and our routine social interactions with others. In this provocative book, Kevin Saunders asserts that freedom of expression can be very harmful to our children, making it more likely that they will be the perpetrators or victims of violence, will grow up as racists, or will use alcohol or tobacco. Saving Our Children from the First Amendment examines both the value and cost of free expression in America, demonstrating how an unregulated flow of information can be detrimental to youth. While the great value of the First Amendment is found in its protection of our most important political freedoms, this is far more significant for adults, who can fully grasp and benefit from the freedom of expression, than for children. Constitutional prohibitions on distributing sexual materials to children, Saunders proposes, should be expanded to include violent, vulgar, or profane materials, as well as music that contains hate speech. Saunders offers an insightful meditation on the problem of protecting our children from the negative effects of freedom of expression without curtailing First Amendment rights for adults.
This is the story of Nancy Richardson, Director of Student and Community Life at a major university, who was fired for "pedagogical and ideological differences" after objecting to the school's process of hiring new faculty and demanding that more attention be paid to the University's stated desire to attract qualified women and minority faculty.