Neuroanatomy and Pathology of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

Author: Heiko Braak,Kelly Del Tredici

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319126792

Category: Medical

Page: 162

View: 3233

As indicated by its title, this monograph deals chiefly with morphologically recognizable deviations from the normal anatomical condition of the human CNS. The AD-associated pathology is illustrated from its beginnings (sometimes even in childhood) to its final form, which is reached late in life. The AD process commences much earlier than the clinically recognizable phase of the disorder, and its timeline includes an extended preclinical phase. The further the pendulum swings away from the symptomatic final stages towards the early pathology, the more obvious the lesions become, although from a standpoint of severity they are more unremarkable and thus frequently overlooked during routine neuropathological assessment. For this reason, the authors deal with the hallmark lesions in the early phases of the AD process in considerable detail

Neuroanatomy and Pathology of Sporadic Parkinson's Disease

Author: Heiko Braak,Kelly Del Tredici

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540798501

Category: Medical

Page: 119

View: 4038

The synucleinopathy sporadic Parkinson’s disease (sPD) is the second most frequent degenerative disorder of the human nervous system after Alzheimer’s disease. The propensity for developing sPD exists in all ethnic groups worldwide, and the prevalence of the disorder increases considerably with age, thereby imposing an enormous social and economic burden on societies with increased life expectancy. The sPD-associated pathological process is progressive, does not go into remission, and can take decades to reach its culmination if it is not be terminated prematurely by death owing to other causes. Against the background of the normal morphology and anatomy, the authors analyze the pathoanatomy of sPD in the nervous system at various neuropathological stages and summarize the potential functional consequences of the lesions.

Nonmotor Parkinson's: The Hidden Face

Management and the Hidden Face of Related Disorders

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128126043

Category: Science

Page: 764

View: 948

Non-motor Parkinson's: The Hidden Face-Management and the Hidden Face of Related Disorders, Volume 134, the latest release in the International Review of Neurobiology series, is an up-to-date and comprehensive textbook addressing non-motor aspects of Parkinson’s disease, a key unmet need. Specific chapters in this updated release include Therapeutics and NMS in PD, Non-motor effects of conventional and transdermal therapies in PD, Infusion therapy, CDD and NMS in PD, DBS and NMS in PD, TMS and implications for NMS in PD, Botulinum toxin therapy and NMS in PD, and Nutrition and NMS in PD, amongst others. Including practical tips for non-specialists and clinical algorithms, the book contains contributions from over 40 opinion leaders in the field of movement disorders. It provides practitioners and researchers with a laboratory, to bedside, to caregiver perspective. Presents a comprehensive textbook on the non motor aspects of Parkinson’s disease Includes practical tips and clinical algorithms, and is the only textbook to bring a holistic approach Contains contributions from over 40 global opinion leaders in the field of movement disorders Provides special chapters on exercise, personalized medicine, osteoporosis, genetics, treatment aspects and nutrition

Regulation of Implantation and Establishment of Pregnancy in Mammals

Tribute to 45 Year Anniversary of Roger V. Short's "Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy"

Author: Rodney D. Geisert,Fuller W. Bazer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319158562

Category: Medical

Page: 270

View: 9835

Over the past few decades technological advances in transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and glycomics along with the ability to selectively knockout genes of interest has greatly advanced our understanding of maternal-conceptus interactions that are essential for the establishment and maintenance of a successful pregnancy. This knowledge provides a foundation from which to build research endeavors to help resolve infertility, embryonic loss and recurrent abortion in humans, captive wild animals and important farm species. The present volume on “Regulation of Implantation and Establishment of Pregnancy in Mammals” brings together current reviews from leading experts to address the diversity of mechanisms by which species establish and maintain pregnancy. Implantation in rodents, dogs, pigs, cattle, sheep, horses, primates, humans and embryonic diapause in wild species are discussed. Reviews will provide current knowledge on the role of endometrial steroid receptors, adhesion factors, cytokines, interferons, steroids, prostaglandins, growth factors and immune cells involved with regulation of conceptus development.

The Realisation of Concepts

Infinity, Cognition, and Health

Author: W.M. Bernstein

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429922000

Category: Psychology

Page: 250

View: 9860

There has recently been a flurry of theoretical activity in affective neuroscience and neuropsychoanalysis. This book argues that the ability to integrate biological and psychological levels of understanding is inhibited by two important issues. First is the assumption made by most theorists that physical and mental phenomena are essentially different ("the Hard Problem"). Second, is the ambiguity of the widely used "Affect Concept". Ideas about the autonomic nervous system are integrated with those from the author's previous text A Basic Theory of Neuropsychoanalysis. The Realization of Concepts is based on four key assumptions: (1) There is no "Hard Problem"; (2) Motivational theory and cognitive theory can be integrated to create more valid models of body, brain and mind interactions; (3) "Affect Concepts" are superfluous and work to inhibit theory integration; and, (4) Affect theory developed as a "compromise formation" in response to radical reductionism. Dynamic parasympathetic braking processes are seen as centrally important causes of competence to use semantic self and nonself-concepts to regulate sensory data, feelings, other concepts, and overt behaviour. A model is presented which describes how levels of sympathetic arousal and parasympathetic tone interact to cause normal, pathological and highly competent brain and mind states. Combining talk therapies with real time biofeedback data is described as a method for enhancing the parasympathetic tone.

Cell Biology of Herpes Viruses

Author: Klaus Osterrieder

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319531689

Category: Medical

Page: 224

View: 5848

Herpes viruses are widely distributed in nature, causing disease in organisms as diverse as bivalves and primates, including humans. Each virus appears to have established a long-standing relationship with its host, and the viruses have the ability to manipulate and control the metabolism of host cells, as well as innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses. Herpes viruses maintain themselves within hosts in a latent state resulting in virus persistence for years – usually for the life span of the hosts. Herpes viruses comprise a large number of pathogens with diverse cellular targets and biological consequences of infection. What they have in common is their structure and the fact that they establish a dormant (latent) infection in their hosts that usually persists for life. The reviews here will highlight the general principles of herpes virus infection, with equal attention to overall principle and important difference. Also, the cell type- and life-style dependent differences in the establishment and maintenance of virus persistence will be covered.

Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123851580

Category: Medical

Page: 4740

View: 9417

The Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, Second Edition develops from the first edition, covering all areas of neurological sciences through over 1000 entries focused on a wide variety of topics in neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and other related areas of neuroscience. The contributing authors represent all aspects of neurology from many viewpoints and disciplines to provide a complete overview of the field. Entries are designed to be understandable without detailed background knowledge in the subject matter, and cross-referencing and suggested further reading lead the reader from a basic knowledge of the subject to more advanced understanding. The easy-to-use 'encyclopedic-dictionary' format of the Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, Second Edition features alphabetic entries, extensive cross-referencing, and a thorough index for quick reference. The wealth of information provided by these four volumes makes this reference work a trusted source of valuable information for a wide range of researchers, from undergraduate students to academic researchers. Provides comprehensive coverage of the field of neurological science in over 1,000 entries in 4 volumes "Encyclopedic-dictionary" format provides for concise, readable entries and easy searching Presents complete, up-to-date information on 32 separate areas of neurology Entries are supplemented with extensive cross-referencing, useful references to primary research articles, and an extensive index

Architectonics of the Human Telencephalic Cortex

Author: H. Braak

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642815227

Category: Science

Page: 147

View: 5246

This is a timely opus. Most of us now are too young to remember the unpleasant ring of a polemic between those who produced "hair-splitting" parcellations of the cortex (to paraphrase one of O. Vogt's favourite expressions) and those who saw the cortex as a homogeneous matrix sus taining the reverberations of EEG waves (to paraphrase Bailey and von Bonin). One camp accused the other of producing bogus preparations with a paint brush, and the other way around the accusation was that of poor eye-sight. Artefacts of various sorts were invoked to explain the opponent's error, ranging from perceptual effects (Mach bands crispening the areal borders) to poor fixation supposedly due to perfusion too soon (!) after death. I have heard most of this directly from the protagonists' mouths. The polemic was not resolved but it has mellowed with age and ultimately faded out. I was relieved to see that Professor Braak elegantly avoids dis cussion of an extrememist tenet, that of "hair-sharp" areal boundaries, which makes little sense in developmental biology and is irrelevant to neurophysiology. It was actually detrimental to cortical neuroanatomy, since its negation led to the idea that structurally distinct areas are not at all existent. Yet, nobody would deny the reality of five fingers on one hand even if the detailed assignment of every epidermal cell to one finger or another is obviously impossible.

Sperm Acrosome Biogenesis and Function During Fertilization

Author: Mariano G. Buffone

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319305670

Category: Medical

Page: 172

View: 4105

Over the last decades, acrosomal exocytosis (also called the “acrosome reaction”) has been recognized as playing an essential role in fertilization. Secretion of this granule is an absolute requirement for physiological fertilization. In recent years, the study of mammalian acrosomal exocytosis has yielded some major advances that challenge the long-held, general paradigms in the field. Principally, the idea that sperm must be acrosome-intact to bind to the zona pellucida of unfertilized eggs, based largely on in vitro fertilization studies of mouse oocytes denuded of the cumulus oophorus, has been overturned by experiments using state-of-the-art imaging of cumulus-intact oocytes and fertilization experiments where eggs were reinseminated by acrosome-reacted sperm recovered from the perivitelline space of zygotes. From a molecular point of view, acrosome exocytosis is a synchronized and tightly regulated process mediated by molecular mechanisms that are homologous to those reported in neuroendocrinal cell secretions. The authors provide a broader perspective, focusing on a limited number of important topics that are essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms governing this step in the fertilization process. They also discuss molecular aspects such as the signaling pathways leading to exocytosis, including the participation of ion channels, lipids, the fusion machinery proteins and the actin cytoskeleton as well as cellular aspects such as the site of acrosomal exocytosis and the use of gene-manipulated animals to study this process.

Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic Vascular System

Author: Friedemann Kiefer,Stefan Schulte-Merker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3709116465

Category: Medical

Page: 204

View: 3359

The book focuses on the lymphatic vascular system from a developmental biologist’s point of view. It provides an overview on the many recent advances in understanding the development of lymphatic vessels, using advanced genetic models in conjunction with state of the art imaging. For each chapter a synopsis is provided, highlighting the main points in a concise manner. The book is intended for professors and researchers in vascular biology, angiogenesis research and developmental biology. It furthermore offers an excellent basis for entry level researchers and newcomers to this field, as well as for teachers, graduate students, advanced science and medical students.

The Neuropathology of Huntington’s Disease: Classical Findings, Recent Developments and Correlation to Functional Neuroanatomy

Author: Udo Rüb,Jean Paul G. Vonsattel,Helmut Heinsen,Horst-Werner Korf

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331919285X

Category: Medical

Page: 146

View: 8826

This monograph describes the progress in neuropathological HD research made during the last century, the neuropathological hallmarks of HD and their pathogenic relevance. Starting with the initial descriptions of the progressive degeneration of the striatum as one of the key events in HD, the worldwide practiced Vonsattel HD grading system of striatal neurodegeneration will be outlined. Correlating neuropathological data with results on the functional neuroanatomy of the human brain, subsequent chapters will highlight recent HD findings: the neuronal loss in the cerebral neo-and allocortex, the neurodegeneration of select thalamic nuclei, the affection of the cerebellar cortex and nuclei, the involvement of select brainstem nuclei, as well as the pathophysiological relevance of these pathologies for the clinical picture of HD. Finally, the potential pathophysiological role of neuronal huntingtin aggregations and the most important and enduring challenges of neuropathological HD research are discussed.

Pharmacological Mechanisms in Alzheimer's Therapeutics

Author: Claudio Cuello

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387715223

Category: Medical

Page: 324

View: 5480

The need for effective therapy to treat Alzheimer’s disease is greater than ever, but there is still no drug therapy that can stop or reverse the progression of the disease. There is, however, a great deal of anticipation over the imminent development of effective therapies as a result of the identification of promising targets for drug development. This book investigates these targets and examines ongoing strategies to develop effective therapies for this devastating neurodegenerative condition.

Development of the Cerebellum from Molecular Aspects to Diseases

Author: Hassan Marzban

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319597493

Category: Medical

Page: 504

View: 1371

The authors present the most current and cutting-edge knowledge regarding the molecular basis of cerebellar development, focusing on information relevant to laboratory scientists and clinicians providing service to patients with cerebellar disorders. Knowledge obtained from advanced neuroimaging techniques that are used during development, and from molecular- and genetic-based studies has provided rapidly-growing evidence that the cerebellum is a brain region that is highly impacted by developmental defects. Cerebellar defects result in significant intellectual and motor function impairment that affects both the patients and their families.

Diabetes, Insulin and Alzheimer's Disease

Author: Suzanne Craft

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642043003

Category: Medical

Page: 218

View: 5735

This text provides a broad survey of the role of insulin in the brain. And it discusses the mechanisms through which insulin dysregulation contributes to the development of cognitive impairment and late-life neurodegenerative disease.

Heart Rate and Rhythm

Molecular Basis, Pharmacological Modulation and Clinical Implications

Author: Onkar N. Tripathi,Ursula Ravens,Michael C. Sanguinetti

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642175756

Category: Science

Page: 678

View: 1304

Pathological heart rhythms are a major health issue. In this book experts from various fields provide an important context for understanding the complicated molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie normal and pathophysiological cardiac rhythms. Individual chapters cover a full range of topics, including the ionic basis of pacemaking, the role of specific channels and transporters in sinoatrial node pacemaking, altered intracellular Ca2+ handling in response to disease, computer modeling of the action potentials of pacemaker and working cardiomyocytes, genetic and molecular basis of inherited arrhythmias and a review of established and novel antiarrhythmic agents. Due to the key importance of the specialized pacemaker cells and tissue (sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes) in maintaining heart rate and rhythm, special emphasis is placed on the peculiar electrophysiology of these cells.

Robbins and Cotran Atlas of Pathology E-Book

Author: Edward C. Klatt

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1455750344

Category: Medical

Page: 600

View: 2254

Designed to complement Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 9th Edition and Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th Edition, the full-color Robbins and Cotran Atlas of Pathology offers more than 1,500 outstanding illustrations that vividly depict the most common diseases covered in pathology courses and USMLE exams. It's a quick visual reference or review for students and professionals alike. Quickly compare gross, microscopic, and radiologic images with examples of normal organs and tissues. Review just the key information you need to know with help from extensive legends that provide convenient summarizations. Understand the correlation between pathology and clinical history, physical exam findings, and clinical laboratory tests. Visualize key pathologic findings with crystal clarity through over 400 new or updated images. Study effectively with this unique companion product! All chapters have been reviewed and revised to reflect the new content found in Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 9th Edition (ISBN: 978-1-4557-2613-4).

Genetic Variants in Alzheimer's Disease

Author: Kevin Morgan,Minerva M. Carrasquillo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461473098

Category: Medical

Page: 254

View: 2386

Alzheimer’s Disease is the most common form of dementia. The disease is characterised by the loss of synapses and neurons in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions. In the last three years, the genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease has made significant advances; in fact, one could argue more than in the previous two decades. This has resulted in the identification of nine new genes and perhaps more importantly the realization that new pathways could be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s. These new pathways are now legitimate targets for therapeutic intervention, which can possibly lead to treatment or a possible cure. The aim of this book is to put all of the recent genetic data on these new genes into context. Different genetic variants will be discussed, as well as biomarkers and future possibilities. ​

Self-Reported Population Health: An International Perspective based on EQ-5D

Author: Agota Szende,Bas Janssen,Juan Cabases

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9400775962

Category: Medical

Page: 196

View: 489

The EQ-5D instrument, as a standardized, cross-culturally validated measure of self-assessed health has a hugely important role in understanding population health within and across countries. Over the past two decades a wealth of international population health survey data have been accumulated by the EuroQol Group from research conducted in many countries across four continents. One of the success factors of the EQ-5D instruments has been the easy availability of national or international sets of EQ-5D data, as well as clear explanations and guidance for users. There is an unmet need to produce a comprehensive book that captures up-to-date and expanded information of EQ-5D self-reported health and index values. EQ-5D population norms and cross-country analyses are provided from representative national surveys of 20 countries and additional regional surveys. This book will be a must for those who believe that how people report and value health is very important.

Alzheimer’s Disease - From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

Author: Hermann J. Gertz,Thomas Arendt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3709175089

Category: Medical

Page: 320

View: 6037

As human longevity continues to be extended, so will the impact of age-associated dementia on individual lives and society. Alzheimer’s disease as the most common cause of dementia in the elderly remains a sentinal problem and its underlying pathology is still poorly understood. Available therapeutic strategies require considerable refinement and the development of new therapeutic strategies need input from basic research. Thus continued efforts are necessary both to understand basic mechanisms of the condition and to achieve more powerfull therapies. This volume brings together the reports of basic scientists and clinical investigators. The chapters provide a spectrum of information valuable for clinicians and scientists. This issue bridges the gap between laboratory work in basic science and the development of urgently needed therapeutic strategies. Areas presented are the molecular and cellular biology of the disease, pathogenetic mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets, genetics, risk factors, strategies of prevention and treatment as well as practical aspects of medical and social care for patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

Neuroanatomy E-Book

An Illustrated Colour Text

Author: Alan R. Crossman,David Neary

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 070204489X

Category: Medical

Page: 200

View: 7524

'Key point' boxes for reinforcement and quick revision Glossary of important terms 'Clinical detail' boxes closely integrated with relevant neuroanatomy Complete revision and updating of text. Revision nad expansion of summary chapter, providing overview of entire subject. Clinical material updated to reflect current prevalence of neurological disease. Artwork entirely redrawn for improved clarity and closer integration with text.