Adopting an integrated approach to natural hazards that incorporates facets of both the physical and social sciences, this text examines how different societies have responded to such extremes of nature. The authors bring together the behavioural, political, psychological and economic approaches, leading to increased comprehension of a range of natural hazards, rather than a detailed analysis of particular events or hazard categories.
In the twentieth century, the disastrous effects of natural hazards have increased, reflecting the substantial growth in world population, the vulnerability of marginal groups, and the mismanagement of the environment. This book provides potential answers to the questions concerning natural disaster preparedness and management. It develops a conceptual model for understanding hazards and describes specific dangers within the framework of the model. A chapter is devoted to each of the hazards, and decisions and management strategies are outlined, emphasizing risk analysis and decision theory. Students and teachers of geography, agriculture, and environmental studies will find important information in this relevant book.
Jonathan Rougier,Steve Sparks,Lisa J. Hill,Robert Stephen John Sparks
Written by a father-son team of prominent geologists, Donald and David Hyndman, NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS, Third Edition, emphasizes Earth, the atmosphere, and the hazardous natural processes and events that dramatically alter them. In teaching introductory environmental and physical geology courses, the authors found that topics involving natural hazards are among the most interesting for students. They also realized that employing natural hazards as a thematic focus and context motivates students to learn basic scientific concepts. Students begin each chapter by reading about the underlying geological processes as well as the key terms that describe them. Next, they explore the impact these processes have on humans (as well as the impact that humans have on the processes). Finally, the authors analyze strategies for mitigating these hazards’ physical and financial harm, and present prospects for the future. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
This book is a collection of twenty one papers presented during the symposium on Coping with Natural Hazards at University of Pune on 5 and 6 October 2001. This very successful symposium, organised by the National Academy of Sciences, outlined the strategies our country should adopt to be prepared to face hazards like earthquakes, floods, landslides, avalanches, cyclones, droughts and desertification. It contains papers by pre-eminent scientists and leading lights like Professors M G K Menon, P K Das, D R Sikka and R K Bhandari and many others. Each paper has been critically reviewed by atleast two experts in their respective fields.
The term 'natural disaster' is often used to refer to natural events such as earthquakes, hurricanes or floods. However, the phrase 'natural disaster' suggests an uncritical acceptance of a deeply engrained ideological and cultural myth. At Risk questions this myth and argues that extreme natural events are not disasters until a vulnerable group of people is exposed. The updated new edition confronts a further ten years of ever more expensive and deadly disasters and discusses disaster not as an aberration, but as a signal failure of mainstream 'development'. Two analytical models are provided as tools for understanding vulnerability. One links remote and distant 'root causes' to 'unsafe conditions' in a 'progression of vulnerability'. The other uses the concepts of 'access' and 'livelihood' to understand why some households are more vulnerable than others. Examining key natural events and incorporating strategies to create a safer world, this revised edition is an important resource for those involved in the fields of environment and development studies.
Vancouver Geotechnical Society (Vancouver, B.C.),Canadian Geotechnical Society
"A combination of case studies, data on many scales, and application of economic principles...[this report] provides an understanding of the relative roles of the market, government intervention, and social institutions in determining and improving both the prevention and the response to hazardous occurrences."-Kenneth J. Arrow, Nobel Prize in Economics, 1972
Classroom Resources for Teachers on Natural Hazards & Disasters
Author: Chris Dolan
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
Provides the teachers with a ready-to-use classroom resource which covers many aspects of major national hazards and disasters. Through a series of exercises, students are stimulated to investigate the causes and effects of hazards and the way in which people can respond effectively to them. Well-know Australian case studies are used to illustrate the impact of natural disasters. Each section also contains activities designed to arouse greater interest in the topic such as crossword puzzles, research activities, and role-play exercises.
A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States
Author: Dennis Mileti
Publisher: Joseph Henry Press
Disasters by Design provides an alternative and sustainable way to view, study, and manage hazards in the United States that would result in disaster-resilient communities, higher environmental quality, inter- and intragenerational equity, economic sustainability, and improved quality of life. This volume provides an overview of what is known about natural hazards, disasters, recovery, and mitigation, how research findings have been translated into policies and programs; and a sustainable hazard mitigation research agenda. Also provided is an examination of past disaster losses and hazards management over the past 20 years, including factors--demographic, climate, social--that influence loss. This volume summarizes and sets the stage for the more detailed books in the series.
Gerassimos A. Papadopoulos,Tad S. Murty,Srinivasan Venkatesh,R. Blong
State-of-the-Art at the End of the Second Millennium
Author: Gerassimos A. Papadopoulos,Tad S. Murty,Srinivasan Venkatesh,R. Blong
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This special volume contains a selection of papers that were presented as part of the Seventh International Symposium on Natural and Man-Made Hazards (HAZARDS-98), held in Chania, Crete Island, Greece, during May 1998. The Symposium attracted broad international interest because many cases of natural disaster events, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, storm surges, forest fires, etc., that occurred in several parts of the world during the 1990s were presented not only for their physics but also from the point of view of their impact on society and their environmental consequences. Among these cases are the 1997 Red River Valley flood in Canada and the large earthquake of 18 November 1997, in Zakynthos, Greece. In addition, the volume contains contributions that apply advanced statistical methods and artificial intelligence techniques, such as GIS, and systems analysis to approach the description of physical processes, the discrimination of experimental data and the assessment and management of risk. Audience: This volume forms an excellent reference for scientists, students, engineers, the insurance industry, authorities specializing in public safety and natural hazards preparedness and mitigation plans.
Earth's Processes as Hazards, Disasters, and Catastrophes
Author: Edward A. Keller,Duane E. DeVecchio
Natural Hazards: Earth Processes as Hazards, Disasters and Catastrophes, Fourth Edition, is an introductory-level survey intended for university and college courses that are concerned with earth processes that have direct, and often sudden and violent, impacts on human society. The text integrates principles of geology, hydrology, meteorology, climatology, oceanography, soil science, ecology and solar system astronomy. The book is designed for a course in natural hazards for non-science majors, and a primary goal of the text is to assist instructors in guiding students who may have little background in science to understand physical earth processes as natural hazards and their consequences to society. Natural Hazards uses historical to recent examples of hazards and disasters to explore how and why they happen and what we can do to limit their effects. The text's up-to-date coverage of recent disasters brings a fresh perspective to the material. The Fourth Edition continues our new active learning approach that includes reinforcement of learning objective with a fully updated visual program and pedagogical tools that highlight fundamental concepts of the text. This program will provide an interactive and engaging learning experience for your students. Here's how: Provide a balanced approach to the study of natural hazards: Focus on the basic earth science of hazards as well as roles of human processes and effects on our planet in a broader, more balanced approach to the study of natural hazards. Enhance understanding and comprehension of natural hazards: Newly revised stories and case studies give students a behind the scenes glimpse into how hazards are evaluated from a scientific and human perspective; the stories of real people who survive natural hazards, and the lives and research of professionals who have contributed significantly to the research of hazardous events. Strong pedagogical tools reinforce the text's core features: Chapter structure and design organizes the material into three major sections to help students learn, digest, and review learning objectives.
Emphasizes Resilient Policies, Rather Than Rigid Philosophy Economic and environmental consequences of natural and man-made disasters have grown exponentially during the past few decades. Whether from hurricanes, chemical spills, terrorist incidents, or other catastrophes, the negative impacts can often be felt on a global scale. Natural Hazards Analysis: Reducing the Impacts of Disasters evaluates critical preparedness issues that emergency managers must face before, during, and after disasters of any kind. Using a cross-disciplinary approach, this book effectively demonstrates how to use the results of GIS tools, spatial analysis, and remote sensing to reduce adverse disaster outcomes and to foster social, economic, and environmental sustainability. Complete with clearly set objectives, key terms, discussion questions, satellite images and maps, and ancillary websites for further study, this authoritative guide covers every element of the hazard analysis process in a step-by-step format. Provides Framework for Understanding Hazard Consequences in Variety of Environments This handbook-style volume stresses the key roles problem solving, decision making, and risk communication serve as means of ensuring all hazard elements are accurately identified and appropriately addressed. It is filled with proven techniques for effective community planning and hazard mitigation and for ongoing restorative efforts in disaster-ridden areas. In one comprehensive source, this book contains all the information needed to analyze risks and establish successful disaster prevention and relief strategies prior to a disaster event. This resource provides ready-to-implement tools that will benefit for a wide audience, including: National, federal, and local emergency management teams Environmental planning professionals in the public and private sectors Recovery response entities including the Red Cross and Salvation Army Students enrolled in university emergency management programs
Burrell E. Montz,Graham A. Tobin,Ronald R. Hagelman
Author: Burrell E. Montz,Graham A. Tobin,Ronald R. Hagelman
Publisher: Guilford Publications
Category: Social Science
What can we learn from the spatial patterns of disasters? What human and structural factors need to be addressed to explain hazard vulnerability? As populations grow and the climate warms, how can natural hazards be mitigated? Thoroughly revised and updated, and now with a more global perspective, the second edition of this accessible text provides an integrated framework for understanding and managing natural hazards. Numerous case studies from around the world illustrate the complexities of extreme geophysical events and highlight their physical, social, political, and economic dimensions. The text identifies essential principles for tackling the fundamental causes of differential vulnerabilities that perpetuate human distress, and for promoting recovery and resilience. New to This Edition *New frameworks for understanding human resilience and adaptive capacity in recovery, dynamics of risk and uncertainty, and more. *Chapter on spatial and temporal aspects of hazards. *Discussions of cutting-edge topics, such as chronic disasters, controversies in international aid, and how hazards affect regions differentially. *Many new case studies, including Hurricanes Katrina and Charley, Superstorm Sandy, the 2011 Japan tsunami, Ecuador's chronic volcanic hazard, and others. *Reflects 20 years of research advances across the physical and social sciences, development trends, new technologies, and ongoing global climate change.
1. Introduction. 2. Plate Tectonics and Physical Hazards. 3. Earthquakes and Earthquake Waves. 4. Earthquake Prediction and Tectonic Environments. 5. Tsunami. 6. Volcanoes: Materials, Hazards, and Eruptive Mechanisms. 7. Volcanoes: Types, Behavior, and Risks. 8. Landslides. 9. Sinkholes, Land Subsidence, and Swelling Soils. 10. Climate and Weather Related To Hazards. 11. Streams and Flood Processes. 12. Floods and Human Interactions. 13. Waves, Beaches, and Coastal Erosion. 14. Hurricanes and Nor'easters. 15. Thunder Storms and Tornadoes. 16. Wildfires. 17. Impact of Asteroids and Comets. 18. The Future: Where Do We Go From Here?
James D Wright,Eleanor Weber-Burdin,Peter H. Rossi
Author: James D Wright,Eleanor Weber-Burdin,Peter H. Rossi
Category: Business & Economics
Natural Hazards and Public Choice: The State and Local Politics of Hazard Mitigation presents a research project that emerged from a concern for estimating the balance of support versus opposition to prospective social policies that aim to reduce the risks of damage or injuries from major natural hazard events via the regulation of land use and establishment of building and occupancy standards in high-risk areas. The volume begins with an overview of the research project and the main findings. Separate chapters describe the study design; assess the views of politically influential people regarding the seriousness of natural hazards; measure the support for federal disaster policies; and consider public opinion on hazards-mitigation issues in California. Subsequent chapters cover the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); patterns of activity, influence, and power among key positions and groups in local communities with respect to issues involving disasters; and hazard mitigation activities at the state level.
Scientists predict the earth is facing 40-to-60 years of climate change, even if emissions of carbon dioxide and other global warming gases stopped today. One inevitable consequence of the greenhouse gases already in the atmosphere will be an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disaster events. Global Warming, Natural Hazards, and Emergency Management documents the imperative need for communities to prepare for the coming effects of climate change and provides a series of in-depth, road-tested recommendations on how to reduce risks for communities and businesses. Frontline Advice for Increasing Defenses and Reducing Impacts of Global Warming Authored and edited by emergency management and environmental protection professionals from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Sierra Club, this book offers case histories from communities across America that have successfully reduced the extent and consequences of natural disasters. These examples are becoming increasingly important to understand and replicate as the risks to communities created by a changing climate rise. This book recognizes three fundamental principles essential to developing a disaster-prevention strategy: The protection of natural systems is an important security measure The reduction of disaster risk, not just response, is of great importance Local communities must take the lead in prevention efforts Provides Local Governments with Replicable Case Histories of Hazard Mitigation Efforts This no-nonsense reference is a procedural roadmap for emergency managers, policy makers, and community officials. It explains how to develop community partnerships among a myriad of stakeholders; identifies staffing and resource requirements for successful programs; and provides a step-by-step demonstration of the disaster-planning process at the community level.
Die Dominikanische Republik wird häufig von Starkniederschlägen heimgesucht, welche in großen Teilen der Gebirge Rutschungen hervorrufen. Dadurch wird großflächig Boden degradiert, Stauseen mit besonderer Bedeutung für die Wasserversorgung der Bevölkerung erhalten eine stärkere Sedimentzufuhr und die Lebensräume der dort lebenden Menschen werden bedroht.In der vorliegenden Studie wurde für das obere Einzugsgebiet des Río Yaque del Norte die potentielle Gefahr von Hangrutschungsprozessen abgeschätzt.Mit Hilfe eines Geographischen Informationssystems (GIS) sowie unter Einbezug von Fernerkundungsdaten und eines Digitalen Geländemodells(DGM) wurde eine Gefahrenzonenkarte anhand der Faktoren Hangneigung, Einzugsgebietsgröße und Landnutzung erstellt, welche die potentielle Hangrutschungsdisposition in drei Klassen (schwach, mittel, stark) beschreibt.En la República Dominicana aparecen frecuentemente ciclones tropicales (huracanes), los cuales a su paso ocasionan precipitaciones de gran intensidad. En las zonas montañosas deforestadas las precipitaciones causan deslizamientos de terreno, originando ésto que grandes masas de suelo sean degradadas, asimismo se ven afectados por la depositacion de sedimentos, pantanales y embalses de gran relevancia para el abastecimiento de agua, adem s, reas residenciales se ven enfrentadas a considerables peligros (derrumbes).Con la utilización de un SIG y las informaciones proporcionadas por sensores remotos se ha podido elaborar un mapa de zonas amenazadas por la aparición de derrumbes o deslizamientos de terreno, definiendo para este efecto tres grados de riesgo: bajo, medio y alto. Todo esto para la cuenca alta del Río Yaque del Norte, a partir de la consideración de los factores inclinación, extensión de la cuenca y uso del suelo. La estimación del grado de riesgo, es dependiente de la frecuencia relativa de la presencia de deslizamientos de terreno, para cada uno factores en las clases predefinidas.
The beginning of the new millennium has been particularly devastating in terms of natural disasters associated with tectonic plate boundaries, such as earthquakes in Sumatra, Chile, Japan, Tahiti, and Nepal; the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean tsunamis; and volcanoes in Indonesia, Chile, Iceland that have produced large quantities of ash causing major disruption to aviation. In total, half a million people were killed by such natural disasters. These recurring events have increased our awareness of the destructive power of natural hazards and the major risks associated with them. While we have come a long way in the search for understanding such natural phenomena, and although our knowledge of Earth dynamics and plate tectonics has improved enormously, there are still fundamental uncertainties in our understanding of natural hazards. Increased understanding is crucial to improve our capacity for hazard prediction and mitigation. Volume highlights include: Main concepts associated with tectonic plate boundaries Novel studies on boundary-related natural hazards Fundamental concepts that improve hazard prediction and mitigation Plate Boundaries and Natural Hazards will be a valuable resource for scientists and students in the fields of geophysics, geochemistry, plate tectonics, natural hazards, and climate science.