Molten Salt Reactors and Thorium Energy

Author: Thomas James Dolan

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081012438

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 840

View: 4832

Molten Salt Reactors is a comprehensive reference on the status of molten salt reactor (MSR) research and thorium fuel utilization. There is growing awareness that nuclear energy is needed to complement intermittent energy sources and to avoid pollution from fossil fuels. Light water reactors are complex, expensive, and vulnerable to core melt, steam explosions, and hydrogen explosions, so better technology is needed. MSRs could operate safely at nearly atmospheric pressure and high temperature, yielding efficient electrical power generation, desalination, actinide incineration, hydrogen production, and other industrial heat applications. Coverage includes: Motivation -- why are we interested? Technical issues – reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials, environment, ... Generic designs -- thermal, fast, solid fuel, liquid fuel, ... Specific designs – aimed at electrical power, actinide incineration, thorium utilization, ... Worldwide activities in 23 countries Conclusions This book is a collaboration of 58 authors from 23 countries, written in cooperation with the International Thorium Molten Salt Forum. It can serve as a reference for engineers and scientists, and it can be used as a textbook for graduate students and advanced undergrads. Molten Salt Reactors is the only complete review of the technology currently available, making this an essential text for anyone reviewing the use of MSRs and thorium fuel, including students, nuclear researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers. Written in cooperation with the International Thorium Molten-Salt Forum Covers MSR-specific issues, various reactor designs, and discusses issues such as the environmental impact, non-proliferation, and licensing Includes case studies and examples from experts across the globe

Molten Salt Reactors and Thorium Energy

Author: Thomas James Dolan

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing Limited

ISBN: 9780081011263

Category: Science

Page: 940

View: 3843

Molten Salt Reactors is a comprehensive reference on the status of molten salt reactor (MSR) research and thorium fuel utilization. There is growing awareness that nuclear energy is needed to complement intermittent energy sources and to avoid pollution from fossil fuels. Light water reactors are complex, expensive, and vulnerable to core melt, steam explosions, and hydrogen explosions, so better technology is needed. MSRs could operate safely at nearly atmospheric pressure and high temperature, yielding efficient electrical power generation, desalination, actinide incineration, hydrogen production, and other industrial heat applications. Coverage includes: Motivation -- why are we interested? Technical issues - reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials, environment, ... Generic designs -- thermal, fast, solid fuel, liquid fuel, ... Specific designs - aimed at electrical power, actinide incineration, thorium utilization, ... Worldwide activities in 23 countries Conclusions This book is a collaboration of 58 authors from 23 countries, written in cooperation with the International Thorium Molten Salt Forum. It can serve as a reference for engineers and scientists, and it can be used as a textbook for graduate students and advanced undergrads. Molten Salt Reactors is the only complete review of the technology currently available, making this an essential text for anyone reviewing the use of MSRs and thorium fuel, including students, nuclear researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers. Written in cooperation with the International Thorium Molten-Salt Forum Covers MSR-specific issues, various reactor designs, and discusses issues such as the environmental impact, non-proliferation, and licensing Includes case studies and examples from experts across the globe

Thorium

Energy, Cheaper Than Than Coal

Author: Robert Hargraves

Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub

ISBN: 9781478161295

Category: Science

Page: 482

View: 5264

Thorium energy can help check CO2 and global warming, cut deadly air pollution, provide inexhaustible energy, and increase human prosperity. Our world is beset by global warming, pollution, resource conflicts, and energy poverty. Millions die from coal plant emissions. We war over mideast oil. Food supplies from sea and land are threatened. Developing nations' growth exacerbates the crises. Few nations will adopt carbon taxes or energy policies against their economic self-interests to reduce global CO2 emissions. Energy cheaper than coal will dissuade all nations from burning coal. Innovative thorium energy uses economic persuasion to end the pollution, to provide energy and prosperity to developing nations, and to create energy security for all people for all time. "This book presents a lucid explanation of the workings of thorium-based reactors. It is must reading for anyone interested in our energy future." Leon Cooper, Brown University physicist and 1972 Nobel laureate for superconductivity "As our energy future is essential I can strongly recommend the book for everybody interested in this most significant topic." George Olah, 1994 Nobel laureate for carbon chemistry

Magnetic Fusion Technology

Author: Thomas J. Dolan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447155564

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 801

View: 3952

Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: • magnet systems, • plasma heating systems, • control systems, • energy conversion systems, • advanced materials development, • vacuum systems, • cryogenic systems, • plasma diagnostics, • safety systems, and • power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

Thorium Energy for the World

Proceedings of the ThEC13 Conference, CERN, Globe of Science and Innovation, Geneva, Switzerland, October 27-31, 2013

Author: Jean-Pierre Revol,Maurice Bourquin,Yacine Kadi,Egil Lillestol,Jean-Christophe de Mestral,Karel Samec

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319265423

Category: Science

Page: 446

View: 1470

The Thorium Energy Conference (ThEC13) gathered some of the world’s leading experts on thorium technologies to review the possibility of destroying nuclear waste in the short term, and replacing the uranium fuel cycle in nuclear systems with the thorium fuel cycle in the long term. The latter would provide abundant, reliable and safe energy with no CO2 production, no air pollution, and minimal waste production. The participants, representatives of 30 countries, included Carlo Rubbia, Nobel Prize Laureate in physics and inventor of the Energy Amplifier; Jack Steinberger, Nobel Prize Laureate in physics; Hans Blix, former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Rolf Heuer, Director General of CERN; Pascal Couchepin, former President of the Swiss Confederation; and Claude Haegi, President of the FEDRE, to name just a few. The ThEC13 proceedings are a source of reference on the use of thorium for energy generation. They offer detailed technical reviews of the status of thorium energy technologies, from basic R&D to industrial developments. They also describe how thorium can be used in critical reactors and in subcritical accelerator-driven systems (ADS), answering the important questions: – Why is thorium so attractive and what is the role of innovation, in particular in the nuclear energy domain? – What are the national and international R&D programs on thorium technologies and how are they progressing? ThEC13 was organized jointly by the international Thorium Energy Committee (iThEC), an association based in Geneva, and the International Thorium Energy Organisation (IThEO). It was held in the Globe of Science and Innovation at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland, in October 2013.

Materials Issues for Generation IV Systems

Status, Open Questions and Challenges

Author: Véronique Ghetta,Dominique Gorse,Dominique Mazière,Vassilis Pontikis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402084226

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 586

View: 2755

Global warming, shortage of low-cost oil resources and the increasing demand for energy are currently controlling the world's economic expansion while often opposing desires for sustainable and peaceful development. In this context, atomic energy satisfactorily fulfills the criteria of low carbon gas production and high overall yield. However, in the absence of industrial fast-breeders the use of nuclear fuel is not optimal, and the production of high activity waste materials is at a maximum. These are the principal reasons for the development of a new, fourth generation of nuclear reactors, minimizing the undesirable side-effects of current nuclear energy production technology while increasing yields by increasing operation temperatures and opening the way for the industrial production of hydrogen through the decomposition of water. The construction and use of such reactors is hindered by several factors, including performance limitations of known structural materials, particularly if the life of the projected systems had to extend over the periods necessary to achieve low costs (at least 60 years). This book collects lectures and seminars presented at the homonymous NATO ASI held in autumn 2007 at the Institut d’Etudes Scientifiques in Cargèse, France. The adopted approach aims at improving and coordinating basic knowledge in materials science and engineering with specific areas of condensed matter physics, the physics of particle/matter interaction and of radiation damage. It is our belief that this methodology is crucially conditioning the development and the industrial production of new structural materials capable of coping with the requirements of these future reactors.

Molten Salt Reactors and Thorium Energy

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781642241433

Category:

Page: 278

View: 973

Molten salt reactors have seen a marked resurgence of interest over the past decade, highlighted by their inclusion as one of six Generation IV reactor types. The most active development period however was between the mid-1950s and early 1970s at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) and any new re-examination of this concept must bear in mind the far different priorities then in place. A molten salt reactor (MSR) is one in which fluorides of fissile and/or fertile elements such as UF4, PuF3 and/or ThF4 are combined with carrier salts to form fluids. Single Fluid designs have both fertile and fissile combined in one salt. The fluid fuel in these reactors, consisting of UF4 and ThF4 dissolved in fluorides of beryllium and lithium, is circulated through a reactor core moderated by graphite. Technology developments over the past 20 years have culminated in the successful operation of the 8-MWt Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), and have indicated that operation with a molten fuel is practical, that the salt is stable under reactor conditions, and that corrosion is very low. This book brings together state-of-art information on the technical characteristics, nuclear performance, and economics of molten-salt converters and breeders. The contributed chapters are written by eminent researchers and authors covering topics MSR-specific issues, various reactors designs, and discusses issues such as the environmental impact, non-proliferation, and licensing. This edition is packed with the comprehensive information of the technology currently available, making this an essential resource for students, nuclear researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers.

The First Nuclear Era

The Life and Times of a Technological Fixer

Author: Alvin M. Weinberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1563963582

Category: Science

Page: 291

View: 6498

Alvin Weinberg is one of the most influential nuclear engineers & physicists in the U.S., having participated in many high profile projects from the early days of nuclear research on into the 1980s. This book is his autobiography and it's peppered with first-hand accounts of major historical events. He writes about the events of December 2, 1942, when Fermi set into motion the first chain reaction in a uranium pile and goes on to describe what happened during the "First Nuclear Era" a period he admits that has now largely run its course. A proponent of nuclear power, Weinberg also exposed its down- side risks and for years remained in the forefront of strong science administration.

Multi-physics Approach to the Modelling and Analysis of Molten Salt Reactors

Author: Lelio Luzzi,Valentino Di Marcello,Antonio Cammi

Publisher: Nova Novinka

ISBN: 9781614700005

Category: Science

Page: 140

View: 6751

Multi-Physics Modelling (MPM) is an innovative simulation technique that looks very promising for the employment in the field of nuclear engineering as an integrative analysis support in the design development of current and innovative nuclear reactors. This book presents a Multi-Physics Modelling (MPM) approach to the analysis of nuclear reactor core behaviour, developed to study the coupling between neutronics and thermo-hydrodynamics. Reference is made to the Molten Salt Reactor, one of the innovative nuclear systems under development in the framework of the Generation IV International Forum, but the same methodology can be applied to other reactor systems.

The Technology Pork Barrel

Author: Linda R. Cohen,Roger G. Noll

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815723684

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 420

View: 3010

American public policy has had a long history of technological optimism. The success of the United States in research and development contributes to this optimism and leads many to assume that there is a technological fix for significant national problems. Since World War II the federal government has been the major supporter of commercial research and development efforts in a wide variety of industries. But how successful are these projects? And equally important, how do economic and policy factors influence performance and are these influences predictable and controllable? Linda Cohen, Roger Noll, and three other economists address these questions while focusing on the importance of R&D to the national economy. They examine the codependency between technological progress and economic growth and explain such matters as why the private sector often fails to fund commercially applicable research adequately and why the government should focus support on some industries and not others. They also analyze political incentives facing officials who enact and implement programs and the subsequent forces affecting decisions to continue, terminate, or redirect them. The central part of this book presents detailed case histories of six programs: the supersonic transport, communications satellites, the space shuttle, the breeder reactor, photovoltaics, and synthetic fuels. The authors conclude with recommendations for program restructuring to minimize the conflict between economic objectives and political constraints.

Kyoto2

How to Manage the Global Greenhouse

Author: Oliver Tickell

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1848137184

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 8621

The Kyoto Protocol, the world's first tentative step towards avoiding the threat of climate change, has failed. We urgently need a new course of action. In Kyoto2 the author presents us with a strikingly original new solution. Using a system of finite production rights for greenhouse gases, which would be traded by organisations on a global auction, Kyoto2 seeks to succeed where the original agreement failed. Regulated by an independent body, the funds could be poured back into healing the wounds inflicted by climate change. In his combination of idealism with realistic proposals, Tickell exposes the flaws in current approaches, and envisions a fairer and more effective system. Kyoto2 promises to banish the dejection of the post-Kyoto era, reviving hope that the cure for the crisis facing our planet is still achievable.

Nuclear Back-end and Transmutation Technology for Waste Disposal

Beyond the Fukushima Accident

Author: Ken Nakajima

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 4431551115

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 341

View: 2817

This book covers essential aspects of transmutation technologies, highlighting especially the advances in Japan. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has caused us to focus attention on a large amount of spent nuclear fuels stored in NPPs. In addition, public anxiety regarding the treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes that require long-term control is growing. The Japanese policy on the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle is still unpredictable in the aftermath of the accident. Therefore, research and development for enhancing the safety of various processes involved in nuclear energy production are being actively pursued worldwide. In particular, nuclear transmutation technology has been drawing significant attention after the accident. This publication is timely with the following highlights: 1) Development of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs), which is a brand-new reactor concept for transmutation of highly radioactive wastes; 2) Nuclear reactor systems from the point of view of the nuclear fuel cycle. How to reduce nuclear wastes or how to treat them including the debris from TEPCO’s Fukushima nuclear power stations is discussed; and 3) Environmental radioactivity, radioactive waste treatment and geological disposal policy. State-of-the-art technologies for overall back-end issues of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the technologies of transmutation are presented here. The chapter authors are actively involved in the development of ADSs and transmutation-related technologies. The future of the back-end issues in Japan is very uncertain after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP and this book provides an opportunity for readers to consider the future direction of those issues.

Reprocessing and Recycling of Spent Nuclear Fuel

Author: Robin Taylor

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 178242217X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 684

View: 9889

Reprocessing and Recycling of Spent Nuclear Fuel presents an authoritative overview of spent fuel reprocessing, considering future prospects for advanced closed fuel cycles. Part One introduces the recycling and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, reviewing past and current technologies, the possible implications of Generation IV nuclear reactors, and associated safely and security issues. Parts Two and Three focus on aqueous-based reprocessing methods and pyrochemical methods, while final chapters consider the cross-cutting aspects of engineering and process chemistry and the potential for implementation of advanced closed fuel cycles in different parts of the world. Expert introduction to the recycling and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel Detailed overview of past and current technologies, the possible implications of Generation IV nuclear reactors, and associated safely and security issues A lucid exploration of aqueous-based reprocessing methods and pyrochemical methods

Atomic Awakening: A New Look at the History and Future of Nuclear Power

Author: James Mahaffey

Publisher: Pegasus Books

ISBN: 1605982032

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 6011

“Persuasive and based on deep research. Atomic Awakening taught me a great deal."—Nature The American public's introduction to nuclear technology was manifested in destruction and death. With Hiroshima and the Cold War still ringing in our ears, our perception of all things nuclear is seen through the lens of weapons development. Nuclear power is full of mind-bending theories, deep secrets, and the misdirection of public consciousness, some deliberate, some accidental. The result of this fixation on bombs and fallout is that the development of a non-polluting, renewable energy source stands frozen in time. Outlining nuclear energy's discovery and applications throughout history, Mahaffey's brilliant and accessible book is essential to understanding the astounding phenomenon of nuclear power in an age where renewable energy and climate change have become the defining concerns of the twenty-first century.

The Second Nuclear Era

A New Start for Nuclear Power

Author: Alvin Martin Weinberg,Irving Spiewak

Publisher: Praeger Publishers

ISBN: 9780275901837

Category: Science

Page: 439

View: 1966

Nuclear energy is in a state of crisis in the United States. No new nuclear reactors have been ordered since 1978. The reason for this moratorium is that the safe operation of nuclear energy plants has been in doubt since the Three Mile Island crisis. The result of a study conducted by the Institute for Energy Analysis, this book examines the possibility of designing reactors that are completely safe--so safe that any rational arguments against the safety of nuclear power would no longer be valid.

Radiation and Reason

The Impact of Science on a Culture of Fear

Author: Wade Allison

Publisher: YPD-BOOKS

ISBN: 0956275613

Category: Nuclear industry

Page: 211

View: 844

MSR Review

Author: Rory O'Sullivan,Jasper Tomlinson

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 1326409638

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 7357

Plentiful Energy

The Story of the Integral Fast Reactor, the Complex History of a Simple Reactor Technoloogy, with Emphasis on Its Scientific Basis for Non-specialists

Author: Charles E. Till,Yoon Il Chang

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781466384606

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 391

View: 2091

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a fast reactor system developed at Argonne National Laboratory in the decade 1984 to 1994. The IFR project developed the technology for a complete system; the reactor, the entire fuel cycle and the waste management technologies were all included in the development program. The reactor concept had important features and characteristics that were completely new and fuel cycle and waste management technologies that were entirely new developments. The reactor is a “fast” reactor – that is, the chain reaction is maintained by “fast” neutrons with high energy – which produces its own fuel. The IFR reactor and associated fuel cycle is a closed system. Electrical power is generated, new fissile fuel is produced to replace the fuel burned, its used fuel is processed for recycling by pyroprocessing – a new development – and waste is put in final form for disposal. All this is done on one self-sufficient site.The scale and duration of the project and its funding made it the largest nuclear energy R and D program of its day. Its purpose was the development of a long term massive new energy source, capable of meeting the nation's electrical energy needs in any amount, and for as long as it is needed, forever, if necessary. Safety, non-proliferation and waste toxicity properties were improved as well, these three the characteristics most commonly cited in opposition to nuclear power.Development proceeded from success to success. Most of the development had been done when the program was abruptly cancelled by the newly elected Clinton Administration. In his 1994 State of the Union address the president stated that “unnecessary programs in advanced reactor development will be terminated.” The IFR was that program.This book gives the real story of the IFR, written by the two nuclear scientists who were most deeply involved in its conception, the development of its R and D program, and its management.Between the scientific and engineering papers and reports, and books on the IFR, and the non-technical and often impassioned dialogue that continues to this day on fast reactor technology, we felt there is room for a volume that, while accurate technically, is written in a manner accessible to the non-specialist and even to the non-technical reader who simply wants to know what this technology is.

Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

Author: Igor Pioro

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081001622

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 940

View: 8116

Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors presents information on the current fleet of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) with water-cooled reactors (Generation III and III+) (96% of 430 power reactors in the world) that have relatively low thermal efficiencies (within the range of 32 36%) compared to those of modern advanced thermal power plants (combined cycle gas-fired power plants – up to 62% and supercritical pressure coal-fired power plants – up to 55%). Moreover, thermal efficiency of the current fleet of NPPs with water-cooled reactors cannot be increased significantly without completely different innovative designs, which are Generation IV reactors. Nuclear power is vital for generating electrical energy without carbon emissions. Complete with the latest research, development, and design, and written by an international team of experts, this handbook is completely dedicated to Generation IV reactors. Presents the first comprehensive handbook dedicated entirely to generation IV nuclear reactors Reviews the latest trends and developments Complete with the latest research, development, and design information in generation IV nuclear reactors Written by an international team of experts in the field

Molten Salts Chemistry

From Lab to Applications

Author: Frederic Lantelme,Henri Groult

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0124017223

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 6114

Molten salts and fused media provide the key properties and the theory of molten salts, as well as aspects of fused salts chemistry, helping you generate new ideas and applications for fused salts. Molten Salts Chemistry: From Lab to Applications examines how the electrical and thermal properties of molten salts, and generally low vapour pressure are well adapted to high temperature chemistry, enabling fast reaction rates. It also explains how their ability to dissolve many inorganic compounds such as oxides, nitrides, carbides and other salts make molten salts ideal as solvents in electrometallurgy, metal coating, treatment of by-products and energy conversion. This book also reviews newer applications of molten salts including materials for energy storage such as carbon nano-particles for efficient super capacitors, high capacity molten salt batteries and for heat transport and storage in solar plants. In addition, owing to their high thermal stability, they are considered as ideal candidates for the development of safer nuclear reactors and for the treatment of nuclear waste, especially to separate actinides from lanthanides by electrorefining. Explains the theory and properties of molten salts to help scientists understand these unique liquids Provides an ideal introduction to this expanding field Illustrated text with key real-life applications of molten salts in synthesis, energy, nuclear, and metal extraction