Molten Salt Reactors is a comprehensive reference on the status of molten salt reactor (MSR) research and thorium fuel utilization. There is growing awareness that nuclear energy is needed to complement intermittent energy sources and to avoid pollution from fossil fuels. Light water reactors are complex, expensive, and vulnerable to core melt, steam explosions, and hydrogen explosions, so better technology is needed. MSRs could operate safely at nearly atmospheric pressure and high temperature, yielding efficient electrical power generation, desalination, actinide incineration, hydrogen production, and other industrial heat applications. Coverage includes: Motivation -- why are we interested? Technical issues – reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials, environment, ... Generic designs -- thermal, fast, solid fuel, liquid fuel, ... Specific designs – aimed at electrical power, actinide incineration, thorium utilization, ... Worldwide activities in 23 countries Conclusions This book is a collaboration of 58 authors from 23 countries, written in cooperation with the International Thorium Molten Salt Forum. It can serve as a reference for engineers and scientists, and it can be used as a textbook for graduate students and advanced undergrads. Molten Salt Reactors is the only complete review of the technology currently available, making this an essential text for anyone reviewing the use of MSRs and thorium fuel, including students, nuclear researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers. Written in cooperation with the International Thorium Molten-Salt Forum Covers MSR-specific issues, various reactor designs, and discusses issues such as the environmental impact, non-proliferation, and licensing Includes case studies and examples from experts across the globe
Molten salt reactors have seen a marked resurgence of interest over the past decade, highlighted by their inclusion as one of six Generation IV reactor types. The most active development period however was between the mid-1950s and early 1970s at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) and any new re-examination of this concept must bear in mind the far different priorities then in place. A molten salt reactor (MSR) is one in which fluorides of fissile and/or fertile elements such as UF4, PuF3 and/or ThF4 are combined with carrier salts to form fluids. Single Fluid designs have both fertile and fissile combined in one salt. The fluid fuel in these reactors, consisting of UF4 and ThF4 dissolved in fluorides of beryllium and lithium, is circulated through a reactor core moderated by graphite. Technology developments over the past 20 years have culminated in the successful operation of the 8-MWt Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), and have indicated that operation with a molten fuel is practical, that the salt is stable under reactor conditions, and that corrosion is very low. This book brings together state-of-art information on the technical characteristics, nuclear performance, and economics of molten-salt converters and breeders. The contributed chapters are written by eminent researchers and authors covering topics MSR-specific issues, various reactors designs, and discusses issues such as the environmental impact, non-proliferation, and licensing. This edition is packed with the comprehensive information of the technology currently available, making this an essential resource for students, nuclear researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers.
This book looks at the early history of nuclear power, at what happened next, and at its longer-term prospects. The main question is: can nuclear power overcome the problems that have emerged? It was once touted as the ultimate energy source, freeing mankind from reliance on dirty, expensive fossil energy. Sixty years on, nuclear only supplies around 11.5% of global energy and is being challenged by cheaper energy options. While the costs of renewable sources, like wind and solar, are falling rapidly, nuclear costs have remained stubbornly high. Its development has also been slowed by a range of other problems, including a spate of major accidents, security concerns and the as yet unresolved issue of what to do with the wastes that it produces. In response, a new generation of nuclear reactors is being developed, many of them actually revised versions of the ideas first looked at in the earlier phase. Will this new generation of reactors bring nuclear energy to the forefront of energy production in the future?
Forschung – Entwicklung – Gesellschaftliche Implikationen
Author: Ortwin Renn
Publisher: Herbert Utz Verlag
Als die deutsche Bundesregierung im Juni 2011 die Energiewende verkündete, läutete sie damit gleichzeitig das Ende der Kernenergienutzung zur Stromproduktion ein. Bis zum Jahr 2022 soll kein deutsches Kernkraftwerk mehr Strom produzieren. Allerdings ist die Frage nach der Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfälle nicht beantwortet. Bislang ist weltweit noch kein Endlager für wärmeentwickelnde Abfälle in Betrieb. Hinsichtlich der Langzeitsicherheit eines Endlagers ist neben Art und Menge der Abfälle auch die Dauer entscheidend, über die die Abfälle sicher aufbewahrt werden müssen. Eine Möglichkeit, das Langzeit-Gefährdungspotenzial wärmeentwickelnder Abfälle zu verringern, könnte Partitionierung und Transmutation (P&T) sein, eine Technik, die sich derzeit in Forschung und Entwicklung befindet. In einem interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekt wurden die technischen und gesellschaftlichen Chancen und Risiken von P&T anhand von Szenarien untersucht. Das übergeordnete Ziel war es, eine sachgerechte und ausgewogene Grundlage zu erarbeiten, anhand derer entschieden werden kann, wie sich Deutschland in Fragen der P&T-Forschung zukünftig positionieren möchte. Die vorliegende acatech STUDIE fasst die Ergebnisse des Forschungsprojekts zusammen und gibt Aufschluss über die Möglichkeiten und Perspektiven von P&T in Deutschland.
A riveting look at how an alternative source of energy is revoluntionising nuclear power, promising a safe and clean future for millions, and why thorium was sidelined at the height of the Cold War In this groundbreaking account of an energy revolution in the making, award-winning science writer Richard Martin introduces us to thorium, a radioactive element and alternative nuclear fuel that is far safer, cleaner, and more abundant than uranium. At the dawn of the Atomic Age, thorium and uranium seemed to be in close competition as the fuel of the future. Uranium, with its ability to undergo fission and produce explosive material for atomic weapons, won out over its more pacific sister element, relegating thorium to the dustbin of science. Now, as we grapple with the perils of nuclear energy and rogue atomic weapons, and mankind confronts the specter of global climate change, thorium is re-emerging as the overlooked energy source as a small group of activists and outsiders is working, with the help of Silicon Valley investors, to build a thorium-power industry. In the first book mainstream book to tackle these issues, Superfuel is a story of rediscovery of a long lost technology that has the power to transform the world's future, and the story of the pacifists, who were sidelined in favour of atomic weapon hawks, but who can wean us off our fossil-fuel addiction and avert the risk of nuclear meltdown for ever.
Molten salts and fused media provide the key properties and the theory of molten salts, as well as aspects of fused salts chemistry, helping you generate new ideas and applications for fused salts. Molten Salts Chemistry: From Lab to Applications examines how the electrical and thermal properties of molten salts, and generally low vapour pressure are well adapted to high temperature chemistry, enabling fast reaction rates. It also explains how their ability to dissolve many inorganic compounds such as oxides, nitrides, carbides and other salts make molten salts ideal as solvents in electrometallurgy, metal coating, treatment of by-products and energy conversion. This book also reviews newer applications of molten salts including materials for energy storage such as carbon nano-particles for efficient super capacitors, high capacity molten salt batteries and for heat transport and storage in solar plants. In addition, owing to their high thermal stability, they are considered as ideal candidates for the development of safer nuclear reactors and for the treatment of nuclear waste, especially to separate actinides from lanthanides by electrorefining. Explains the theory and properties of molten salts to help scientists understand these unique liquids Provides an ideal introduction to this expanding field Illustrated text with key real-life applications of molten salts in synthesis, energy, nuclear, and metal extraction
Global warming, shortage of low-cost oil resources and the increasing demand for energy are currently controlling the world's economic expansion while often opposing desires for sustainable and peaceful development. In this context, atomic energy satisfactorily fulfills the criteria of low carbon gas production and high overall yield. However, in the absence of industrial fast-breeders the use of nuclear fuel is not optimal, and the production of high activity waste materials is at a maximum. These are the principal reasons for the development of a new, fourth generation of nuclear reactors, minimizing the undesirable side-effects of current nuclear energy production technology while increasing yields by increasing operation temperatures and opening the way for the industrial production of hydrogen through the decomposition of water. The construction and use of such reactors is hindered by several factors, including performance limitations of known structural materials, particularly if the life of the projected systems had to extend over the periods necessary to achieve low costs (at least 60 years). This book collects lectures and seminars presented at the homonymous NATO ASI held in autumn 2007 at the Institut d’Etudes Scientifiques in Cargèse, France. The adopted approach aims at improving and coordinating basic knowledge in materials science and engineering with specific areas of condensed matter physics, the physics of particle/matter interaction and of radiation damage. It is our belief that this methodology is crucially conditioning the development and the industrial production of new structural materials capable of coping with the requirements of these future reactors.
Author: Marcelle Gaune-Escard,Geir Martin Haarberg
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Both high temperature molten salts and room temperature ionic liquids (collectively termed liquid salts) have unique properties, including good heat capacity, good electrical conductivity and, in some cases, chemical catalytic properties. They are critical for the efficient production and processing of many different materials, for example the electrolytic extraction and refining of aluminium and silicon, particularly important in the post fossil fuel era. Other industrial applications range from solvents and fuel cells to alloy heat treatments and pyroprocessing in nuclear fuel. With a focus on sustainable processes for the production and processing of materials, this book contains over 60 chapters and is organized into seven areas: Aluminium Electrolysis New Processes for Electrowinning Modeling and Thermodynamics High Temperature Experimental Techniques Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquids Nuclear Energy Energy Technology Intended to provide a solid understanding of the properties, experimental methods, theoretical methods and applications of these materials, Molten Salts: Chemistry and Technology is an unrivalled reference for chemists, engineers and materials scientists in academia, research and industry.
In anschaulicher Form – unterstützt durch zahlreiche Abbildungen – wird in diesem aktualisierten Lehrbuch in die Methode der Kristallstrukturbestimmung eingeführt. Die kristallographischen Grundlagen und einzelne praktische Schritte der modernen Kristallstrukturbestimmung werden verständlich und nachvollziehbar erklärt.
Leading Thinkers Talk About How to Make a Better World
Author: Helen Caldicott
Publisher: New Press, The
Ever since quitting her job as a pediatrician at Harvard Medical School in 1980, Helen Caldicott has worked for a safe, sustainable, nuclear-free planet, most recently by hosting a weekly radio show featuring environmentalists and leading activists from around the globe. Together with guests including Naomi Klein, Daniel Ellsberg, Maude Barlow, Lester Brown, and Martin Sheen, Caldicott, whom Meryl Streep has called “my inspiration to speak out,” scrutinizes our unsustainable dependence on nuclear energy and the absurdity of nuclear arms, as well as raising awareness about other planetary issues, including deforestation, sea level rise, and privatization of water reserves. We learn from Miriam Pemberton that the United States spends more money per year on military bands than on its entire diplomatic corps, and we learn from Janette Sherman that the IAEA and WHO have drastically underestimated the number of deaths caused by the 1986 Chernobyl fallout, and that its true number comes close to one million people. Loving This Planet collects the key interviews from Caldicott’s popular radio show for the first time and offers an informative and accessible overview of the chief environmental issues critical to our well-being.