Requiring no prior training, Modern Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences provides a two-semester, graduate-level introduction to basic statistical techniques that takes into account recent advances and insights that are typically ignored in an introductory course. Hundreds of journal articles make it clear that basic techniques, routinely taught and used, can perform poorly when dealing with skewed distributions, outliers, heteroscedasticity (unequal variances) and curvature. Methods for dealing with these concerns have been derived and can provide a deeper, more accurate and more nuanced understanding of data. A conceptual basis is provided for understanding when and why standard methods can have poor power and yield misleading measures of effect size. Modern techniques for dealing with known concerns are described and illustrated. Features: Presents an in-depth description of both classic and modern methods Explains and illustrates why recent advances can provide more power and a deeper understanding of data Provides numerous illustrations using the software R Includes an R package with over 1300 functions Includes a solution manual giving detailed answers to all of the exercises This second edition describes many recent advances relevant to basic techniques. For example, a vast array of new and improved methods is now available for dealing with regression, including substantially improved ANCOVA techniques. The coverage of multiple comparison procedures has been expanded and new ANOVA techniques are described. Rand Wilcox is a professor of psychology at the University of Southern California. He is the author of 13 other statistics books and the creator of the R package WRS. He currently serves as an associate editor for five statistics journals. He is a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute.
Statistical methods in modern research increasingly entail developing, estimating and testing models for data. Rather than rigid methods of data analysis, the need today is for more flexible methods for modelling data. In this logical, easy-to-follow and exceptionally clear book, David Flora provides a comprehensive survey of the major statistical procedures currently used. His innovative model-based approach teaches you how to: Understand and choose the right statistical model to fit your data Match substantive theory and statistical models Apply statistical procedures hands-on, with example data analyses Develop and use graphs to understand data and fit models to data Work with statistical modeling principles using any software package Learn by applying, with input and output files for R, SAS, SPSS, and Mplus. Statistical Methods for the Social and Behavioural Sciences: A Model Based Approach is the essential guide for those looking to extend their understanding of the principles of statistics, and begin using the right statistical modeling method for their own data. It is particularly suited to second or advanced courses in statistical methods across the social and behavioural sciences.
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences is an introduction to statistics text that will engage students in an ongoing spirit of discovery by illustrating how statistics apply to modern-day research problems. By integrating instructions, screenshots, and practical examples for using IBM SPSS® Statistics software, the book makes it easy for students to learn statistical concepts within each chapter. Gregory J. Privitera takes a user-friendly approach while balancing statistical theory, computation, and application with the technical instruction needed for students to succeed in the modern era of data collection, analysis, and statistical interpretation.
This unique volume addresses the inadequacies of basic statistical methods that standard textbooks tend to ignore. The author introduces new procedures with accompanying tables that illustrate the practicality of the methods. Concentrating on basic experimental designs that are central to research in the social sciences, Wilcox describes new nonparametric techniques, two-way ANOVA designs, and new results related to the analysis of covariance and repeated measure design. This book serves as the ideal reference and supplement to standard texts by making the statistical advances of the last thirty years accessible to graduate students and researchers.
Author: Micah Altman,Jeff Gill,Michael P. McDonald
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
At last—a social scientist's guide through the pitfalls ofmodern statistical computing Addressing the current deficiency in the literature onstatistical methods as they apply to the social and behavioralsciences, Numerical Issues in Statistical Computing for the SocialScientist seeks to provide readers with a unique practicalguidebook to the numerical methods underlying computerizedstatistical calculations specific to these fields. The authorsdemonstrate that knowledge of these numerical methods and how theyare used in statistical packages is essential for making accurateinferences. With the aid of key contributors from both the socialand behavioral sciences, the authors have assembled a rich set ofinterrelated chapters designed to guide empirical social scientiststhrough the potential minefield of modern statisticalcomputing. Uniquely accessible and abounding in modern-day tools, tricks,and advice, the text successfully bridges the gap between thecurrent level of social science methodology and the moresophisticated technical coverage usually associated with thestatistical field. Highlights include: A focus on problems occurring in maximum likelihoodestimation Integrated examples of statistical computing (using softwarepackages such as the SAS, Gauss, Splus, R, Stata, LIMDEP, SPSS,WinBUGS, and MATLAB®) A guide to choosing accurate statistical packages Discussions of a multitude of computationally intensivestatistical approaches such as ecological inference, Markov chainMonte Carlo, and spatial regression analysis Emphasis on specific numerical problems, statisticalprocedures, and their applications in the field Replications and re-analysis of published social scienceresearch, using innovative numerical methods Key numerical estimation issues along with the means ofavoiding common pitfalls A related Web site includes test data for use in demonstratingnumerical problems, code for applying the original methodsdescribed in the book, and an online bibliography of Web resourcesfor the statistical computation Designed as an independent research tool, a professionalreference, or a classroom supplement, the book presents awell-thought-out treatment of a complex and multifaceted field.
Contributors thoroughly survey the most important statistical models used in empirical reserch in the social and behavioral sciences. Following a common format, each chapter introduces a model, illustrates the types of problems and data for which the model is best used, provides numerous examples that draw upon familiar models or procedures, and includes material on software that can be used to estimate the models studied. This handbook will aid researchers, methodologists, graduate students, and statisticians to understand and resolve common modeling problems.
Recent Publications in the Social and Behavioral Sciences presents a guide to books, articles, some government reports, and a few pamphlets and unbound items about the theory; methodology; the principal areas of investigation and areas of investigation of potential reward; and about the role of the social sciences in contemporary society. The book provides a list of cited periodicals, bibliography, and title and subject indices. The text also covers a bibliography of special issues of The Americal Behavioral Scientist. The book will be useful to behavioral scientists, psychologists, and psychiatrists.
This is the first book to demonstrate the application of power analysis to the newer more advanced statistical techniques that are increasingly used in the social and behavioral sciences. Both basic and advanced designs are covered. Readers are shown how to apply power analysis to techniques such as hierarchical linear modeling, meta-analysis, and structural equation modeling. Each chapter opens with a review of the statistical procedure and then proceeds to derive the power functions. This is followed by examples that demonstrate how to produce power tables and charts. The book clearly shows how to calculate power by providing open code for every design and procedure in R, SAS, and SPSS. Readers can verify the power computation using the computer programs on the book's website. There is a growing requirement to include power analysis to justify sample sizes in grant proposals. Most chapters are self-standing and can be read in any order without much disruption.This book will help readers do just that. Sample computer code in R, SPSS, and SAS at www.routledge.com/9781848729810 are written to tabulate power values and produce power curves that can be included in a grant proposal. Organized according to various techniques, chapters 1 – 3 introduce the basics of statistical power and sample size issues including the historical origin, hypothesis testing, and the use of statistical power in t tests and confidence intervals. Chapters 4 - 6 cover common statistical procedures -- analysis of variance, linear regression (both simple regression and multiple regression), correlation, analysis of covariance, and multivariate analysis. Chapters 7 - 11 review the new statistical procedures -- multi-level models, meta-analysis, structural equation models, and longitudinal studies. The appendixes contain a tutorial about R and show the statistical theory of power analysis. Intended as a supplement for graduate courses on quantitative methods, multivariate statistics, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and/or multilevel modeling and SEM taught in psychology, education, human development, nursing, and social and life sciences, this is the first text on statistical power for advanced procedures. Researchers and practitioners in these fields also appreciate the book‘s unique coverage of the use of statistical power analysis to determine sample size in planning a study. A prerequisite of basic through multivariate statistics is assumed.
Multiple Regression and Limited-dependent Variable Models
Author: William H. Crown
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
Category: Business & Economics
Multiple regression analysis has been widely used by researchers to analyze complex social problems since the 1950s. A specialization in economics, known as econometrics, developed out of a recognition that multiple regression is based upon a large number of assumptions--many of which are commonly violated in specific applications. Econometricians developed tests for violations of the regression model assumptions, as well as a variety of corrective measures for estimating regression models in the presence of many of the violations. Unfortunately, the mathematical sophistication required to understand the econometrics literature started out high and has continued to rise over the years. As a consequence, an understanding of the assumptions of the regression model, tests for violations, and corrective estimation approaches have failed to permeate widely many other policy-related disciplines such as political science, social work, public administration, and sociology. One of the key objectives of this book is to translate the results from the econometrics literature into language that policy analysts from other disciplines can understand easily. A second objective is to present a discussion of so-called limited-dependent variable models. One of the assumptions of the regression model is that the dependent variable is measured on an interval scale. But often the dependent variable of interest is discrete or categorical. Whether someone is in poverty or, whether they are working full-time, part-time, or out of the labor force, marital status--all are examples of categorical variables that might be of policy interest. Moreover, the growing availability of large-scale public use data sets containing information on individuals and families has heightened the relevance of categorical variables in policy analysis. The mathematical preparation required to understand procedures for estimating categorical models is, however, even more daunting than that for fully understanding and using the regression model. As with the theoretical development of the regression model, most presentations of categorical models, such as Logit and Probit, are to be found in econometric literature. Moreover, this literature offers little in the way of practical advice on how to estimate and interpret model results. This book is the first to present a detailed and accessible discussion of multiple regression and limited-dependent variable models in the context of policy analysis. As such it will be an invaluable resource for most scholars, researchers, and students in the social and behavioral sciences.
Mark Stemmler,Alexander von Eye,Wolfgang Wiedermann
Author: Mark Stemmler,Alexander von Eye,Wolfgang Wiedermann
Category: Social Science
This volume presents contributions on handling data in which the postulate of independence in the data matrix is violated. When this postulate is violated and when the methods assuming independence are still applied, the estimated parameters are likely to be biased, and statistical decisions are very likely to be incorrect. Problems associated with dependence in data have been known for a long time, and led to the development of tailored methods for the analysis of dependent data in various areas of statistical analysis. These methods include, for example, methods for the analysis of longitudinal data, corrections for dependency, and corrections for degrees of freedom. This volume contains the following five sections: growth curve modeling, directional dependence, dyadic data modeling, item response modeling (IRT), and other methods for the analysis of dependent data (e.g., approaches for modeling cross-section dependence, multidimensional scaling techniques, and mixed models). Researchers and graduate students in the social and behavioral sciences, education, econometrics, and medicine will find this up-to-date overview of modern statistical approaches for dealing with problems related to dependent data particularly useful.
überraschende Antworten auf alltägliche Lebensfragen ; [warum wohnen Drogenhändler bei ihren Müttern? Führt mehr Polizei zu weniger Kriminalität? Sind Swimmingpools gefährlicher als Revolver? Macht gute Erziehung glücklich?]
Author: Steven D. Levitt,Stephen J. Dubner
Sind Swimmingpools gefährlicher als Revolver? Warum betrügen Lehrer? Der preisgekrönte Wirtschaftswissenschaftler Steven D. Levitt kombiniert Statistiken, deren Zusammenführung und Gegenüberstellung auf den ersten Blick absurd erscheint, durch seine Analysetechnik aber zu zahlreichen Aha-Effekten führt. Ein äußerst unterhaltsamer Streifzug durch die Mysterien des Alltags, der uns schmunzeln lässt und stets über eindimensionales Denken hinausführt.
Seit kurzem versuchen Hirnforscher, Verhaltenspsychologen und Soziologen gemeinsam neue Antworten auf eine uralte Frage zu finden: Warum tun wir eigentlich, was wir tun? Was genau prägt unsere Gewohnheiten? Anhand zahlreicher Beispiele aus der Forschung wie dem Alltag erzählt Charles Duhigg von der Macht der Routine und kommt dem Mechanismus, aber auch den dunklen Seiten der Gewohnheit auf die Spur. Er erklärt, warum einige Menschen es schaffen, über Nacht mit dem Rauchen aufzuhören (und andere nicht), weshalb das Geheimnis sportlicher Höchstleistung in antrainierten Automatismen liegt und wie sich die Anonymen Alkoholiker die Macht der Gewohnheit zunutze machen. Nicht zuletzt schildert er, wie Konzerne Millionen ausgeben, um unsere Angewohnheiten für ihre Zwecke zu manipulieren. Am Ende wird eines klar: Die Macht von Gewohnheiten prägt unser Leben weit mehr, als wir es ahnen.
Thomas Wassong,Daniel Frischemeier,Pascal R. Fischer,Reinhard Hochmuth,Peter Bender
Author: Thomas Wassong,Daniel Frischemeier,Pascal R. Fischer,Reinhard Hochmuth,Peter Bender
Dieser Band mit Beiträgen aus der nationalen und internationalen Forschung zum 60. Geburtstag von Prof. Dr. Rolf Biehler (Universität Paderborn) präsentiert wissenschaftliche Arbeiten zum Werkzeugeinsatz beim Lehren und Lernen von Mathematik im Allgemeinen sowie von Statistik und Stochastik im Besonderen. Wie ein roter Faden durchzieht den Festband, wie auch schon das wissenschaftliche Oeuvre von Rolf Biehler, ein breites Verständnis des Begriffs „Werkzeug“ (engl. „tools“). Die Themen decken das komplette Spektrum der Mathematikdidaktik auf allen Schulstufen sowie auf dem tertiären Sektor ab. Es gibt Beiträge zum Einsatz von Tools in der Grundschule, ebenso wie aus den Sekundarstufen, der Hochschule und der Lehreraus- und -weiterbildung. Im Band werden sowohl Beispiele zum konkreten Einsatz von Werkzeugen im Unterricht aufgezeigt, als auch Studien zur Wirksamkeit von Werkzeugen im Kontext von Mathematiklernen, theoretische Artikel zum Einsatz von Werkzeugen und Neuentwicklungen von Werkzeug-Software vorgelegt.
Modern Analytical Equipment for the Survey Statistician
Author: Nicholas T. Longford
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book evolved from lectures, courses and workshops on missing data and small-area estimation that I presented during my tenure as the ?rst C- pion Fellow (2000–2002). For the Fellowship I proposed these two topics as areas in which the academic statistics could contribute to the development of government statistics, in exchange for access to the operational details and background that would inform the direction and sharpen the focus of a- demic research. After a few years of involvement, I have come to realise that the separation of ‘academic’ and ‘industrial’ statistics is not well suited to either party, and their integration is the key to progress in both branches. Most of the work on this monograph was done while I was a visiting l- turer at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. The hospitality and stimulating academic environment of their Institute of Information S- ence and Technology is gratefully acknowledged. I could not name all those who commented on my lecture notes and on the presentations themselves; apart from them, I want to thank the organisers and silent attendees of all the events, and, with a modicum of reluctance, the ‘grey ?gures’ who kept inquiring whether I was any nearer the completion of whatever stage I had been foolish enough to attach a date.
Theorien verstehen und Techniken anwenden Was haben die Gehälter von Spitzensportlern und der Mindestlohn gemeinsam? Richtig, man kann sie mit Ökonometrie erforschen. Im Buch steht, wie es geht. Und nicht nur dafür, sondern für viele weitere Gebiete lohnt es sich, der zunächst etwas trocken und sperrig anmutenden Materie eine Chance zu geben. Lernen Sie von den Autoren, wie Sie spannende Fragen formulieren, passende Variablen festlegen, treffsichere Modelle entwerfen und Ihre Aussagen auf Herz und Nieren prüfen. Werden Sie sicher im Umgang mit Hypothesentests, Regressionsmodellen, Logit- & Probit-Modellen und allen weiteren gängigen Methoden der Ökonometrie. So begleitet Ökonometrie für Dummies Sie Schritt für Schritt und mit vielen Beispielen samt R Output durch dieses spannende Thema.
L. Andries van der Ark,Marcel A. Croon,Klaas Sijtsma
Author: L. Andries van der Ark,Marcel A. Croon,Klaas Sijtsma
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Business & Economics
Categorical data are quantified as either nominal variables--distinguishing different groups, for example, based on socio-economic status, education, and political persuasion--or ordinal variables--distinguishing levels of interest, such as the preferred politician or the preferred type of punishment for committing burglary. This new book is a collection of up-to-date studies on modern categorical data analysis methods, emphasizing their application to relevant and interesting data sets. This volume concentrates on latent class analysis and item response theory. These methods use latent variables to explain the relationships among observed categorical variables. Latent class analysis yields the classification of a group of respondents according to their pattern of scores on the categorical variables. This provides insight into the mechanisms producing the data and allows the estimation of factor structures and regression models conditional on the latent class structure. Item response theory leads to the identification of one or more ordinal or interval scales. In psychological and educational testing these scales are used for individual measurement of abilities and personality traits. The focus of this volume is applied. After a method is explained, the potential of the method for analyzing categorical data is illustrated by means of a real data example to show how it can be used effectively for solving a real data problem. These methods are accessible to researchers not trained explicitly in applied statistics. This volume appeals to researchers and advanced students in the social and behavioral sciences, including social, developmental, organizational, clinical and health psychologists, sociologists, educational and marketing researchers, and political scientists. In addition, it is of interest to those who collect data on categorical variables and are faced with the problem of how to analyze such variables--among themselves or in relation to metric variables.
Die Architektur der Märkte fasst grundlegende Schriften Neil Fligsteins aus verschiedenen Arbeitsphasen zusammen, in denen er eine wirtschaftssoziologische Sicht auf kapitalistische Gesellschaften entwickelt hat. Fligstein hat mit der These von der sozialen Konstruktion oder Architektur von Märkten auf die Bedeutung des Staates und der modernen Unternehmen aufmerksam gemacht und die institutionelle Rahmung des Wirtschaftslebens in den Mittelpunkt gerückt. Der Band hat nach seinem Erscheinen für große Aufmerksamkeit gesorgt und gilt zu Recht als eine der wegweisenden Aufsatzsammlungen der neueren Wirtschaftssoziologie.