These lectures provide students and specialists with preliminary and valuable information from university courses and seminars in mathematics. This set gives new proof of the h-cobordism theorem that is different from the original proof presented by S. Smale. Originally published in 1965. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
One of the most cited books in mathematics, John Milnor's exposition of Morse theory has been the most important book on the subject for more than forty years. Morse theory was developed in the 1920s by mathematician Marston Morse. (Morse was on the faculty of the Institute for Advanced Study, and Princeton published his Topological Methods in the Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable in the Annals of Mathematics Studies series in 1947.) One classical application of Morse theory includes the attempt to understand, with only limited information, the large-scale structure of an object. This kind of problem occurs in mathematical physics, dynamic systems, and mechanical engineering. Morse theory has received much attention in the last two decades as a result of a famous paper in which theoretical physicist Edward Witten relates Morse theory to quantum field theory. Milnor was awarded the Fields Medal (the mathematical equivalent of a Nobel Prize) in 1962 for his work in differential topology. He has since received the National Medal of Science (1967) and the Steele Prize from the American Mathematical Society twice (1982 and 2004) in recognition of his explanations of mathematical concepts across a wide range of scienti.c disciplines. The citation reads, "The phrase sublime elegance is rarely associated with mathematical exposition, but it applies to all of Milnor's writings. Reading his books, one is struck with the ease with which the subject is unfolding and it only becomes apparent after re.ection that this ease is the mark of a master.? Milnor has published five books with Princeton University Press.
This manuscript is a detailed presentation of the ten lectures given by the author at the NSF Regional Conference on Three-Manifold Topology, held October 1977, at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. The purpose of the conference was to present the current state of affairs in three-manifold topology and to integrate the classical results with the many recent advances and new directions.
What a wonderful book! I strongly recommend this book to anyone, especially graduate students, interested in getting a sense of 4-manifolds. --MAA Reviews The book gives an excellent overview of 4-manifolds, with many figures and historical notes. Graduate students, nonexperts, and experts alike will enjoy browsing through it. -- Robion C. Kirby, University of California, Berkeley This book offers a panorama of the topology of simply connected smooth manifolds of dimension four. Dimension four is unlike any other dimension; it is large enough to have room for wild things to happen, but small enough so that there is no room to undo the wildness. For example, only manifolds of dimension four can exhibit infinitely many distinct smooth structures. Indeed, their topology remains the least understood today. To put things in context, the book starts with a survey of higher dimensions and of topological 4-manifolds. In the second part, the main invariant of a 4-manifold--the intersection form--and its interaction with the topology of the manifold are investigated. In the third part, as an important source of examples, complex surfaces are reviewed. In the final fourth part of the book, gauge theory is presented; this differential-geometric method has brought to light how unwieldy smooth 4-manifolds truly are, and while bringing new insights, has raised more questions than answers. The structure of the book is modular, organized into a main track of about two hundred pages, augmented by extensive notes at the end of each chapter, where many extra details, proofs and developments are presented. To help the reader, the text is peppered with over 250 illustrations and has an extensive index.
One of the great achievements of contemporary mathematics is the new understanding of four dimensions. Michael Freedman and Frank Quinn have been the principals in the geometric and topological development of this subject, proving the Poincar and Annulus conjectures respectively. Recognition for this work includes the award of the Fields Medal of the International Congress of Mathematicians to Freedman in 1986. In Topology of 4-Manifolds these authors have collaborated to give a complete and accessible account of the current state of knowledge in this field. The basic material has been considerably simplified from the original publications, and should be accessible to most graduate students. The advanced material goes well beyond the literature; nearly one-third of the book is new. This work is indispensable for any topologist whose work includes four dimensions. It is a valuable reference for geometers and physicists who need an awareness of the topological side of the field. Originally published in 1990. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
The concept of Floer homology was one of the most striking developments in differential geometry. It yields rigorously defined invariants which can be viewed as homology groups of infinite-dimensional cycles. The ideas led to great advances in the areas of low-dimensional topology and symplectic geometry and are intimately related to developments in Quantum Field Theory. The first half of this book gives a thorough account of Floer's construction in the context of gauge theory over 3 and 4-dimensional manifolds. The second half works out some further technical developments of the theory, and the final chapter outlines some research developments for the future - including a discussion of the appearance of modular forms in the theory. The scope of the material in this book means that it will appeal to graduate students as well as those on the frontiers of the subject.
This book contains the proceedings of the Fourth Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry, held at Indiana University in Bloomington on August 8-11, 2007. The Meeting focused on experimental tests of these fundamental symmetries and on important theoretical issues, including scenarios for possible relativity violations. Experimental subjects covered include: astrophysical observations, clock-comparison measurements, cosmological birefringence, electromagnetic resonant cavities, gravitational tests, matter interferometry, muon behavior, neutrino oscillations, oscillations and decays of neutral mesons, particle-antiparticle comparisons, post-Newtonian gravity, space-based missions, spectroscopy of hydrogen and antihydrogen, and spin-polarized matter.Theoretical topics covered include: physical effects at the level of the Standard Model, General Relativity, and beyond; the possible origins and mechanisms for Lorentz and CPT violations; and associated issues in field theory, particle physics, gravity, and string theory. The contributors consist of the leading experts in this very active research field.
In a very broad sense, ```spaces'' are the primary objects of study in geometry, and ``functions'' are the objects of study in analysis. There are, however, deep relations between functions defined on a space and the shape of the space, and the study of these relations is the main theme of Morse theory. In particular, Morse's original insight was to examine the critical points of a function and to derive information about the shape of the space from the information about the critical points. This book describes finite-dimensional Morse theory, which is an indispensable tool in the topological study of manifolds. That is, one can decompose manifolds into fundamental blocks such as cells and handles by Morse theory, and thereby compute a variety of topological invariants and discuss the shapes of manifolds. These aspects of Morse theory date from its origins and continue to be important in geometry and mathematical physics. This textbook provides an introduction to Morse theory suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students.
The theory of characteristic classes provides a meeting ground for the various disciplines of differential topology, differential and algebraic geometry, cohomology, and fiber bundle theory. As such, it is a fundamental and an essential tool in the study of differentiable manifolds. In this volume, the authors provide a thorough introduction to characteristic classes, with detailed studies of Stiefel-Whitney classes, Chern classes, Pontrjagin classes, and the Euler class. Three appendices cover the basics of cohomology theory and the differential forms approach to characteristic classes, and provide an account of Bernoulli numbers. Based on lecture notes of John Milnor, which first appeared at Princeton University in 1957 and have been widely studied by graduate students of topology ever since, this published version has been completely revised and corrected.
Originating with Andreas Floer in the 1980s, Floer homology has proved to be an effective tool in tackling many important problems in three- and four-dimensional geometry and topology. This 2007 book provides a comprehensive treatment of Floer homology, based on the Seiberg–Witten monopole equations. After first providing an overview of the results, the authors develop the analytic properties of the Seiberg–Witten equations, assuming only a basic grounding in differential geometry and analysis. The Floer groups of a general three-manifold are then defined and their properties studied in detail. Two final chapters are devoted to the calculation of Floer groups and to applications of the theory in topology. Suitable for beginning graduate students and researchers, this book provides a full discussion of a central part of the study of the topology of manifolds.
Since the early 1980s, there has been an explosive growth in 4-manifold theory, particularly due to the influx of interest and ideas from gauge theory and algebraic geometry. This book offers an exposition of the subject from the topological point of view. It bridges the gap to other disciplines and presents classical but important topological techniques that have not previously appeared in the literature. Part I of the text presents the basics of the theory at the second-year graduate level and offers an overview of current research. Part II is devoted to an exposition of Kirby calculus, or handlebody theory on 4-manifolds. It is both elementary and comprehensive. Part III offers in-depth treatments of a broad range of topics from current 4-manifold research. Topics include branched coverings and the geography of complex surfaces, elliptic and Lefschetz fibrations, $h$-cobordisms, symplectic 4-manifolds, and Stein surfaces. The authors present many important applications. The text is supplemented with over 300 illustrations and numerous exercises, with solutions given in the book. I greatly recommend this wonderful book to any researcher in 4-manifold topology for the novel ideas, techniques, constructions, and computations on the topic, presented in a very fascinating way. I think really that every student, mathematician, and researcher interested in 4-manifold topology, should own a copy of this beautiful book. --Zentralblatt MATH This book gives an excellent introduction into the theory of 4-manifolds and can be strongly recommended to beginners in this field ... carefully and clearly written; the authors have evidently paid great attention to the presentation of the material ... contains many really pretty and interesting examples and a great number of exercises; the final chapter is then devoted to solutions of some of these ... this type of presentation makes the subject more attractive and its study easier. --European Mathematical Society Newsletter
Rational homotopy theory is a subfield of algebraic topology. Written by three authorities in the field, this book contains all the main theorems of the field with complete proofs. As both notation and techniques of rational homotopy theory have been considerably simplified, the book presents modern elementary proofs for many results that were proven ten or fifteen years ago.
This volume studies the dynamics of iterated holomorphic mappings from a Riemann surface to itself, concentrating on the classical case of rational maps of the Riemann sphere. This subject is large and rapidly growing. These lectures are intended to introduce some key ideas in the field, and to form a basis for further study. The reader is assumed to be familiar with the rudiments of complex variable theory and of two-dimensional differential geometry, as well as some basic topics from topology. This third edition contains a number of minor additions and improvements: A historical survey has been added, the definition of Lattés map has been made more inclusive, and the écalle-Voronin theory of parabolic points is described. The résidu itératif is studied, and the material on two complex variables has been expanded. Recent results on effective computability have been added, and the references have been expanded and updated. Written in his usual brilliant style, the author makes difficult mathematics look easy. This book is a very accessible source for much of what has been accomplished in the field.
This book grew out of courses which I taught at Cornell University and the University of Warwick during 1969 and 1970. I wrote it because of a strong belief that there should be readily available a semi-historical and geo metrically motivated exposition of J. H. C. Whitehead's beautiful theory of simple-homotopy types; that the best way to understand this theory is to know how and why it was built. This belief is buttressed by the fact that the major uses of, and advances in, the theory in recent times-for example, the s-cobordism theorem (discussed in §25), the use of the theory in surgery, its extension to non-compact complexes (discussed at the end of §6) and the proof of topological invariance (given in the Appendix)-have come from just such an understanding. A second reason for writing the book is pedagogical. This is an excellent subject for a topology student to "grow up" on. The interplay between geometry and algebra in topology, each enriching the other, is beautifully illustrated in simple-homotopy theory. The subject is accessible (as in the courses mentioned at the outset) to students who have had a good one semester course in algebraic topology. I have tried to write proofs which meet the needs of such students. (When a proof was omitted and left as an exercise, it was done with the welfare of the student in mind. He should do such exercises zealously.
"A very valuable book. In little over 200 pages, it presents a well-organized and surprisingly comprehensive treatment of most of the basic material in differential topology, as far as is accessible without the methods of algebraic topology....There is an abundance of exercises, which supply many beautiful examples and much interesting additional information, and help the reader to become thoroughly familiar with the material of the main text." —MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS
This book presents the classical theorems about simply connected smooth 4-manifolds: intersection forms and homotopy type, oriented and spin bordism, the index theorem, Wall's diffeomorphisms and h-cobordism, and Rohlin's theorem. Most of the proofs are new or are returbishings of post proofs; all are geometric and make us of handlebody theory. There is a new proof of Rohlin's theorem using spin structures. There is an introduction to Casson handles and Freedman's work including a chapter of unpublished proofs on exotic R4's. The reader needs an understanding of smooth manifolds and characteristic classes in low dimensions. The book should be useful to beginning researchers in 4-manifolds.
Professor Green discusses the definition of consistent aggregation and the problem of grouping variables in a single equation; he deals with the aggregation of equations and the probable errors; and summarizes, with reference to the text, the considerations involved in selecting an appropriate form of aggregation. The author's survey presents a well-balanced overview and analysis of aggregation, and makes readily accessible for the first time much material otherwise difficult to obtain. Originally published in 1964. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
The first five chapters of this book form an introductory course in piece wise-linear topology in which no assumptions are made other than basic topological notions. This course would be suitable as a second course in topology with a geometric flavour, to follow a first course in point-set topology, andi)erhaps to be given as a final year undergraduate course. The whole book gives an account of handle theory in a piecewise linear setting and could be the basis of a first year postgraduate lecture or reading course. Some results from algebraic topology are needed for handle theory and these are collected in an appendix. In a second appen dix are listed the properties of Whitehead torsion which are used in the s-cobordism theorem. These appendices should enable a reader with only basic knowledge to complete the book. The book is also intended to form an introduction to modern geo metric topology as a research subject, a bibliography of research papers being included. We have omitted acknowledgements and references from the main text and have collected these in a set of "historical notes" to be found after the appendices.
A beautiful and comprehensive introduction to this important field. --Dusa McDuff, Barnard College, Columbia University This excellent book gives a detailed, clear, and wonderfully written treatment of the interplay between the world of Stein manifolds and the more topological and flexible world of Weinstein manifolds. Devoted to this subject with a long history, the book serves as a super introduction to this area and also contains the authors' new results. --Tomasz Mrowka, MIT This book is devoted to the interplay between complex and symplectic geometry in affine complex manifolds. Affine complex (a.k.a. Stein) manifolds have canonically built into them symplectic geometry which is responsible for many phenomena in complex geometry and analysis. The goal of the book is the exploration of this symplectic geometry (the road from ``Stein to Weinstein'') and its applications in the complex geometric world of Stein manifolds (the road ``back''). This is the first book which systematically explores this connection, thus providing a new approach to the classical subject of Stein manifolds. It also contains the first detailed investigation of Weinstein manifolds, the symplectic counterparts of Stein manifolds, which play an important role in symplectic and contact topology. Assuming only a general background from differential topology, the book provides introductions to the various techniques from the theory of functions of several complex variables, symplectic geometry, $h$-principles, and Morse theory that enter the proofs of the main results. The main results of the book are original results of the authors, and several of these results appear here for the first time. The book will be beneficial for all students and mathematicians interested in geometric aspects of complex analysis, symplectic and contact topology, and the interconnections between these subjects.|This book is devoted to the interplay between complex and symplectic geometry in affine complex manifolds. Affine complex (a.k.a. Stein) manifolds have canonically built into them symplectic geometry which is responsible for many phenomena in complex geometry and analysis. The goal of the book is the exploration of this symplectic geometry (the road from ""Stein to Weinstein"") and its applications in the complex geometric world of Stein manifolds (the road ""back""). This is the first book which systematically explores this connection, thus providing a new approach to the classical subject of Stein manifolds. It also contains the first detailed investigation of Weinstein manifolds, the symplectic counterparts of Stein manifolds, which play an important role in symplectic and contact topology.
Assuming only a general background from differential topology, the book provides introductions to the various techniques from the theory of functions of several complex variables, symplectic geometry, $h$-principles, and Morse theory that enter the proofs of the main results. The main results of the book are original results of the authors, and several of these results appear here for the first time. The book will be beneficial for all students and mathematicians interested in geometric aspects of complex analysis, symplectic and contact topology, and the interconnections between these subjects.