Eight Learning Strategies that Promote Understanding
Author: Logan Fiorella,Richard E. Mayer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
During the past twenty-five years, researchers have made impressive advances in pinpointing effective learning strategies (namely, activities the learner engages in during learning that are intended to improve learning). In Learning as a Generative Activity: Eight Learning Strategies that Promote Understanding, Logan Fiorella and Richard E. Mayer share eight evidence-based learning strategies that promote understanding: summarizing, mapping, drawing, imagining, self-testing, self-explaining, teaching, and enacting. Each chapter describes and exemplifies a learning strategy, examines the underlying cognitive theory, evaluates strategy effectiveness by analyzing the latest research, pinpoints boundary conditions, and explores practical implications and future directions. Each learning strategy targets generative learning, in which learners actively make sense out of the material so they can apply their learning to new situations. This concise, accessible introduction to learning strategies will benefit students, researchers, and practitioners in educational psychology, as well as general readers interested in the important twenty-first-century skill of regulating one's own learning.
Online and blended courses are becoming increasingly prevalent in higher education settings, and the pressures to incorporate these environments highlights the increased demand to serve a generation that prefers learning through experience or through interacting with learning tools. Challenges arise in assisting instructors in facilitating and designing blended learning environments that will provide effective learning for all students. The Handbook of Research on Blended Learning Pedagogies and Professional Development in Higher Education is a critical research publication that delves into the importance of effective professional development for educators planning and teaching online or blended courses. It also establishes the benefits of technology-mediated learning environments over traditional learning methods. Highlighting a wide array of topics such as online learning environments, active learning model, and educational development, this publication explores technology-based teaching methods in higher education. This book is targeted toward educators, educational administrators, academicians, researchers, and professionals within the realm of higher education.
Harris, Duncan (Dean, Faculty of Education and Design, Brunel University),Tessmer, Martin (Assistant Professor of Instructional Design, University of Colorado, USA)
Author: Harris, Duncan (Dean, Faculty of Education and Design, Brunel University),Tessmer, Martin (Assistant Professor of Instructional Design, University of Colorado, USA)
Designed to overcome flaws during the planning and design stages of educational or training courses, this guide explains the importance of physical factors in the instructional environment, the roles of the instructor and learner, and the gathering of information on the learning environment.
Ein spiritueller Pfad zur Aktivierung unserer Kreativität
Author: Julia Cameron
Publisher: Knaur MensSana eBook
Die eigene Kreativität mit dem völlig neu überarbeiteten Bestseller entdecken: Das 12-Wochen-Programm von Julia Cameron führt Sie auf eine Entdeckungsreise zur eigenen Kreativität. Lernen Sie alle Hindernisse wie Ängste und Abhängigkeiten beiseite zu räumen und befreien Sie so Ihr kreatives Potenzial. Gestalten Sie Ihr Leben reicher, lebendiger und erfüllter. Die Autorin besitzt die Weisheit und Authentizität derjenigen, die das, was sie lehren, selbst intensiv durchlebt haben.
This book is an outstanding account of the current state of using writing in service of learning. It presents psychological and educational foundations of writing across the curriculum movement and describes writing-to-learn practices implemented at different levels of education. It provides concrete applications and ideas about how to enhance student learning by means of writing. It is useful for educators, curriculum developers, psychologists, cognitive scientists, writing researchers, and teachers.
Das vorliegende Buch wendet sich an jeden, den es interes siert, wie Menschen denken und Problem e lösen. Es stelIt die wichtigsten Ansätze, Methoden und Forschungsergebnisse der erst 75 lahre alten Psychologie des Denkens dar und will eine systematische Übersicht über unser heutiges Grundwissen vom menschlichen Denken bieten, anstatt sich auf einen ein zigen Gesichtspunkt zu konzentrieren. Moderne Theorien fin den sich hier ebenso wie grundlegende Erkenntnisse über de duktives Denken, Konzeptlernen, Stadien des Problemlösens, Aufgabenlösen und andere Aspekte. Diese Einflihrung in die Psychologie des Denkens setzt keine Vorkenntnisse voraus. Sie eignet sich fiir Kurse in kog nitiver Psychologie, Lernen und Gedächtnis und soll ver wendbar sein in Bereichen, in denen Problemlösen wichtig ist, etwa Unterricht, Wirtschaft, Mathematik. SchlieBlich richtet sie sich auch an den Leser, den ganz allgemein interessiert, was Psychologen über das Denken wissen. Viele Kollegen und Studenten von mir haben das Fehlen eines Lehrbuchs über die "höheren" Aspekte des Denkens und Lernens beklagt. Vorhandene Werke neigten entweder dazu, Forschungsergebnisse zu einem bestimmten Problem zusammenzufassen - etwa der Klassiker von Bruner, Good now und Austin, A Study of Thinking (1956) - oder eine Rei he von Aufgaben um eine einzige spezifische Theorie zu grup pieren - etwa Newell und Simons eindrucksvolles Buch Hu man Problem Solving (1972). Oft fehlte Büchern fiir Lehrer und andere, die problemlösendes Denken vermitteln wollen, jeder Bezug zur psychologischen Literatur - etwa Polyas schmalem Klassiker How to Solve It (1957).
Die Wissenschaft hat in den letzten Jahrzehnten vieles über den Haufen geworfen, was wir darüber zu wissen glaubten, wie das Gehirn Informationen aufnimmt und verarbeitet. Fest steht: Wir lernen von Geburt an schnell, effizient und automatisch. Weil wir diesen Vorgang unbedingt systematisieren wollen, betrachten wir Vergessen, Schlafen und Tagträumen als hinderlich. Dabei sind sie wertvolle Hilfsmittel, die den Eigenarten unseres Gehirns Rechnung tragen. Benedict Carey erklärt, mit welchen Methoden wir uns Stoffe leichter einprägen und unser problemlösendes Denken verbessern können und wie wir die Potenziale des Unbewussten möglichst effizient nutzen – lernen, ohne nachzudenken. Nebenbei erfahren wir, dass Ablenkung zu Unrecht verteufelt wird, Wiederholung keineswegs immer weiterhilft und es sinnvoll ist, sich zu Themen testen zu lassen, über die man noch gar nichts weiß. Ein äußerst unterhaltsam geschriebenes Buch voller überraschender Erkenntnisse, das zeigt: Lernen muss keine Qual sein.
Face Image Analysis by Unsupervised Learning explores adaptive approaches to image analysis. It draws upon principles of unsupervised learning and information theory to adapt processing to the immediate task environment. In contrast to more traditional approaches to image analysis in which relevant structure is determined in advance and extracted using hand-engineered techniques, Face Image Analysis by Unsupervised Learning explores methods that have roots in biological vision and/or learn about the image structure directly from the image ensemble. Particular attention is paid to unsupervised learning techniques for encoding the statistical dependencies in the image ensemble. The first part of this volume reviews unsupervised learning, information theory, independent component analysis, and their relation to biological vision. Next, a face image representation using independent component analysis (ICA) is developed, which is an unsupervised learning technique based on optimal information transfer between neurons. The ICA representation is compared to a number of other face representations including eigenfaces and Gabor wavelets on tasks of identity recognition and expression analysis. Finally, methods for learning features that are robust to changes in viewpoint and lighting are presented. These studies provide evidence that encoding input dependencies through unsupervised learning is an effective strategy for face recognition. Face Image Analysis by Unsupervised Learning is suitable as a secondary text for a graduate-level course, and as a reference for researchers and practitioners in industry.
A Comprehensive Approach to Religious Education and Pastoral Ministry: The Way of Shared Praxis
Author: Thomas Groome
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
Provides a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of religious education and pastoral ministry and gives an in-depth inquiry into the philosophical, educational and theological theories for sharing faith.
Author: Geoffrey E. Hinton,Terrence Joseph Sejnowski
Publisher: MIT Press
Introduction; Unsupervised learning; Local synaptic learning rules suffice to maximize mutual information in a linear network; Convergent algorithm for sensory receptive field development; Emergence of position-independent detectors of snese of rotation and dilation with hebbian learning: an analysis; Learning invariance from transformation sequences; Learning perceptually salient visual parameters using spatiotemporal smoothness constraints; Wht is the goal of sensory coding?; An information-maximization approach to blind separation and blid deconvolution; Natural gradient works efficiently in learning; A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis; Feature extraction using an unsupervised neural network; Learning mixture models of spatial coherence; Baynesian self-organization driven byprior probability distributions; Finding minimum entropy codes; Learning population codes by minimizing description lengththe Helmholtz machine; factor analysis using delta-rule wake-sleep learning; Dimension reduction by local principal component analysis; A resource-allocating network for function interpolation; 20. Learning with preknowledge: clustering with point and graph matching distance measures; 21. Learning to generalize from single examples in the dynamic ling architecture; Index.
Learning to Learn provides a much needed overview and international guide to the field of learning to learn from a multidisciplinary lifelong and lifewide perspective. A wealth of research has been flourishing on this key educational goal in recent years. Internationally, it is considered to be one of the key competencies needed to compete in the global economy, but also a crucial factor for individual and social well-being. This book draws on leading international contributors to provide a cutting-edge overview of current thinking on learning to learn research, policy, and implementation in both formal and informal learning environments. But what learning to learn is exactly, and what its constituting elements are, are much debated issues. These seem to be the crucial questions if assessment and development of this 'malleable side of intelligence' are to be accomplished. The approach of this volume is to consider a broad conception of learning to learn, not confined to only study strategies or metacognition, yet acknowledging the importance of such elements. The book sets out to answer five main questions: What is learning to learn? What are its functions and how do we assess it? What does it promise to the individual and society at large? How is it conceived in national curricula internationally? How can it be developed in a variety of contexts? The text is organized into two parts: the first addresses the core question of the nature of learning to learn from a theoretical and policy viewpoint, and the second presents recent research carried out in several educational systems, with special attention to assessment and curriculum. It gives an account of pedagogical practices of learning to learn and its role in individual empowerment from childhood to adulthood. Contributors also highlight the potential use of learning to learn as an organizing concept for lifelong learning, school improvement, and teacher training along with potential conflicts with existing incentive practices and policies. This book is a vital starting point and guide for any advanced student or researcher looking to understand this important area of research.
ICCV 2005 and ECCV 2006 Workshops, WDV 2005 and WDV 2006, Beijing, China, October 21, 2005, Graz, Austria, May 13, 2006, Revised Papers
Author: Rene Vidal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Classical multiple-view geometry studies the reconstruction of a static scene - served by a rigidly moving camera. However, in many real-world applications the scene may undergo much more complex dynamical changes. For instance, the scene may consist of multiple moving objects (e.g., a tra?c scene) or arti- lated motions (e.g., a walking human) or even non-rigid dynamics (e.g., smoke, ?re, or a waterfall). In addition, some applications may require interaction with the scene through a dynamical system (e.g., vision-guided robot navigation and coordination). To study the problem of reconstructing dynamical scenes, many new al- braic, geometric, statistical, and computational tools have recently emerged in computer vision, computer graphics, image processing, and vision-based c- trol. The goal of the International Workshop on Dynamical Vision (WDV) is to converge di?erent aspects of the research on dynamical vision and to identify common mathematical problems, models, and methods for future research in this emerging and active area.
Learning to Teach and Teaching to Learn Through Practitioner Inquiry
Author: Nancy Fichtman Dana,Diane Yendol-Hoppey
Publisher: Corwin Press
Transform your teaching practice with this powerful approach to professional growth! This updated bestseller gives prospective and practicing teachers everything they need to engage in the vital process of teacher inquiry. Featuring helpful exercises and step-by-step instructions, this how-to guide takes teachers through each stage of the process: formulating a research question, collaborating with others, collecting and analyzing data, writing and presenting classroom research, and assessing project quality. This revised edition includes: An updated section about professional learning communities The latest methods of collecting data, from digital photos to blogging Added examples from middle and high school settings
Resolving Strategy Paradoxes to Create Competitive Advantage : Text and Readings
Author: Bob de Wit,Ron Meyer
Publisher: Cengage Learning EMEA
Category: Business & Economics
The belief that managers and potential managers will profit from understanding the major conflicting approaches to strategy forms the point of departure for this book. Ignoring the profound differences between the various schools of thought does not enhance a manager?s or student?s capacity for strategic thinking. Rather, it is only when there is knowledge of the various points of view can strategists truly see the range of options open to them. Then they can find a way to choose between them, or integrate them, to be practically effective. To structure the comparison of strategy approaches, the most important conflicting strategy perspectives have been clustered together around ten key strategy issues, one key issue per chapter. Two classic readings in each chapter by key strategic thinkers further represent the two opposite positions. De Wit and Meyer?s Strategy Synthesis actively challenges the educational orthodoxy to encourage students and managers to be critical, and to challenge them to be analytical, in order to facilitate creativity and unconventional thinking. In this text the authors carefully guide students and managers through the many, often conflicting, perspectives in the field of strategy, in order to help them become true strategic thinkers. The belief that managers and potential managers will profit from understanding the major conflicting approaches to strategy forms the point of departure for this book. Ignoring the profound differences between the various schools of thought does not enhance a manager?s or student?s capacity for strategic thinking. Rather, it is only when there is knowledge of the various points of view can strategists truly see the range of options open to them. Then they can find a way to choose between them, or integrate them, to be practically effective. To structure the comparison of strategy approaches, the most important conflicting strategy perspectives have been clustered together around ten key strategy issues, one key issue per chapter. Two classic readings in each chapter by key strategic thinkers further represent the two opposite positions. De Wit and Meyer?s Strategy Synthesis actively challenges the educational orthodoxy to encourage students and managers to be critical, and to challenge them to be analytical, in order to facilitate creativity and unconventional thinking. In this text the authors carefully guide students and managers through the many, often conflicting, perspectives in the field of strategy, in order to help them become true strategic thinkers.