Author: Yana Weinstein,Megan Sumeracki,Oliver Caviglioli
Educational practice does not, for the most part, rely on research findings. Instead, there’s a preference for relying on our intuitions about what’s best for learning. But relying on intuition may be a bad idea for teachers and learners alike. This accessible guide helps teachers to integrate effective, research-backed strategies for learning into their classroom practice. The book explores exactly what constitutes good evidence for effective learning and teaching strategies, how to make evidence-based judgments instead of relying on intuition, and how to apply findings from cognitive psychology directly to the classroom. Including real-life examples and case studies, FAQs, and a wealth of engaging illustrations to explain complex concepts and emphasize key points, the book is divided into four parts: Evidence-based education and the science of learning Basics of human cognitive processes Strategies for effective learning Tips for students, teachers, and parents. Written by "The Learning Scientists" and fully illustrated by Oliver Caviglioli, Understanding How We Learn is a rejuvenating and fresh examination of cognitive psychology's application to education. This is an essential read for all teachers and educational practitioners, designed to convey the concepts of research to the reality of a teacher's classroom.
This book explains and demonstrates the teaching strategy of asking learners to construct their own examples of mathematical objects. The authors show that the creation of examples can involve transforming and reorganizing knowledge and that, although this is usually done by authors and teachers, if the responsibility for making examples is transferred to learners, their knowledge structures can be developed and extended. A multitude of examples to illustrate this is provided, spanning primary, secondary, and college levels. Readers are invited to learn from their own past experience augmented by tasks provided in the book, and are given direct experience of constructing examples through a collection of many tasks at many levels. Classroom stories show the practicalities of introducing such shifts in mathematics education. The authors examine how their approach relates to improving the learning of mathematics and raise future research questions. *Based on the authors' and others' theoretical and practical experience, the book includes a combination of exercises for the reader, practical applications for teaching, and solid scholarly grounding. *The ideas presented are generic in nature and thus applicable across every phase of mathematics teaching and learning. *Although the teaching methods offered are ones that engage learners imaginatively, these are also applied to traditional approaches to mathematics education; all tasks offered in the book are within conventional mathematics curriculum content. Mathematics as a Constructive Activity: Learners Generating Examples is intended for mathematics teacher educators, mathematics teachers, curriculum developers, task and test designers, and classroom researchers, and for use as a text in graduate-level mathematics education courses.
Wide aspects of a university education address design: the conceptualization, planning and implementation of man-made artifacts. All areas of engineering, parts of computer science and of course architecture and industrial design all claim to teach design. Yet the education of design tends ot follow tacit practices, without explicit assumptions, goals and processes. This book is premised on the belief that design education based on a cognitive science approach can lead to significant improvements in the effectiveness of university design courses and to the future capabilities of practicing designers. This applies to all professional areas of design. The book grew out of publications and a workshop focusing on design education. This volume attempts to outline a framework upon which new efforts in design education might be based. The book includes chapters dealing with six broad aspects of the study of design education: • Methodologies for undertaking studies of design learning • Longitudinal assessment of design learning • Methods and cases for assessing beginners, experts and special populations • Studies of important component processes • Structure of design knowledge • Design cognition in the classroom
A guide to doing what works (and not what doesn't) to better prepare students for exams
Author: Jake Hunton
Publisher: Crown House Publishing Ltd
In Exam Literacy: A guide to doing what works (and not what doesn't) to better prepare students for exams, Jake Hunton focuses on the latest cognitive research into revision techniques and delivers proven strategies which actually work. Foreword by Professor John Dunlosky. ‘Read, highlight, reread, repeat ...’ – if such a revision cycle sounds all too wearily familiar, you and your students need a better route to exam success. And in light of the recent decision to make all subjects at GCSE linear, so that students will be tested in one-off sittings, it will be even more important that students are well equipped to acquire and recall key content ahead of their exams. In this wide-ranging guide to effective exam preparation, Jake Hunton casts a careful eye over a wide range of research into revision techniques and details the strategies which have been proven to deliver the best results. With plenty of practical suggestions and subject-specific examples, Exam Literacy provides teachers with user-friendly advice on how they can make the content they cover stick, and shares up-to-date, evidence-based information on: the nature of learning and the various types of memory; how to improve students’ retention of knowledge and recall of content; why popular revision techniques, such as rereading, highlighting and summarising, may not be as effective as you think; how revision strategies that have been identified as being more effective – such as interleaving, elaborative interrogation, self-explanation and retrieval practice – can be embedded into day-to-day teaching; and how students can be encouraged to make use of these winning strategies when revising independently. The book also shows how the proven revision strategies which Jake details could work alongside subject content, and explores the overlap between the use of revision strategies in and out the classroom – suggesting ways to fill any learning gaps. As an additional focus, Jake discusses why teachers may be better off delivering their own revision (or ‘revisiting’) strategies as part of the normal flow of their teaching of the curriculum rather than resorting to after-school revision sessions or outsourcing to revision companies. Suitable for all teachers looking to improve their students’ exam results.
This publication reflects the myriad theories that have developed over the past century to explain how we acquire, organize and deploy knowledge and skills. Providing up-to-date, wide-ranging and authoritative coverage, this is the first reference of its kind.
Peter C. Brown,Henry L. Roediger (III),Mark A. McDaniel
Author: Peter C. Brown,Henry L. Roediger (III),Mark A. McDaniel
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Discusses the best methods of learning, describing how rereading and rote repetition are counterproductive and how such techniques as self-testing, spaced retrieval, and finding additional layers of information in new material can enhance learning.
Evidence-Based Guidelines for Online Workforce Learning
Author: Ruth C. Clark,Richard E. Mayer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Business & Economics
Scenario-Based e-Learning Scenario-Based e-Learning offers a new instructional design approach that can accelerate expertise, build critical thinking skills, and promote transfer of learning. This book focuses on the what, when, and how of scenario-based e-learning for workforce learning. Throughout the book, Clark defines and demystifies scenario-based e-learning by offering a practical design model illustrated with examples from veterinary science, automotive troubleshooting, sales and loan analysis among other industries. Filled with helpful guidelines and a wealth of illustrative screen shots, this book offers you the information needed to: Identify the benefits of a SBeL design for learners and learning outcomes Determine when SBeL might be appropriate for your needs Identify specific outcomes of SBeL relevant to common organizational goals Classify specific instructional goals into one or more learning domains Apply a design model to present content in a task-centered context Evaluate outcomes from SBeL lessons Identify tacit expert knowledge using cognitive task analysis techniques Make a business case for SBeL in your organization Praise for Scenario-Based e-Learning "Clark has done it again—with her uncanny ability to make complex ideas accessible to practitioners, the guidelines in this book provide an important resource for you to build your own online, problem-centered instructional strategies." —M. David Merrill, professor emeritus at Utah State University; author, First Principles of Instruction "Clark's wonderful book provides a solid explanation of the how, what, and why of scenario-based e-learning. The tools, techniques, and resources in this book provide a roadmap for creating engaging, informative scenarios that lead to tangible, measurable learning outcomes. If you want to design more engaging e-learning, you need to read this book." —Karl M. Kapp, Professor of Instructional Technology, Bloomsburg University; author, The Gamification of Learning and Instruction
People have been reading on computer screens for several decades now, predating popularization of personal computers and widespread use of the internet. But it was the rise of eReaders and tablets that caused digital reading to explode. In 2007, Amazon introduced its first Kindle. Three years later, Apple debuted the iPad. Meanwhile, as mobile phone technology improved and smartphones proliferated, the phone became another vital reading platform. In Words Onscreen, Naomi Baron, an expert on language and technology, explores how technology is reshaping our understanding of what it means to read. Digital reading is increasingly popular. Reading onscreen has many virtues, including convenience, potential cost-savings, and the opportunity to bring free access to books and other written materials to people around the world. Yet, Baron argues, the virtues of eReading are matched with drawbacks. Users are easily distracted by other temptations on their devices, multitasking is rampant, and screens coax us to skim rather than read in-depth. What is more, if the way we read is changing, so is the way we write. In response to changing reading habits, many authors and publishers are producing shorter works and ones that don't require reflection or close reading. In her tour through the new world of eReading, Baron weights the value of reading physical print versus online text, including the question of what long-standing benefits of reading might be lost if we go overwhelmingly digital. She also probes how the internet is shifting reading from being a solitary experience to a social one, and the reasons why eReading has taken off in some countries, especially the United States and United Kingdom, but not others, like France and Japan. Reaching past the hype on both sides of the discussion, Baron draws upon her own cross-cultural studies to offer a clear-eyed and balanced analysis of the ways technology is affecting the ways we read today--and what the future might bring.
"For students studying ""education or psychology, for teachers or prospective teachers, and for instructional designers or instructors." "A concrete guide to the science of learning, instruction, and assessment written in a friendly tone and presented in a dynamic format. " The underlying premise of "Applying the Science of Learning "is that educators can better help students learn if they understand the processes through which student learning takes place. In this clear and concise first edition text, educational psychology scholar Richard Mayer teaches readers how to apply the science of learning through understanding the reciprocal relationships between learning, instruction, and assessment. Utilizing the significant advances in scientific learning research over the last 25 years, this introductory text identifies the features of science of learning that are most relevant to education, explores the possible prescriptions of these findings for instructional methods, and highlights the essentials of evaluating instructional effectiveness through assessment. "Applying the Science of Learning "is also presented in an easy-to-read modular design and with a conversational tone -- making it particularly student-friendly, whether it is being used as a supplement to a core textbook or as a standalone course textbook. Features: A concise and concentrated view of the field that covers the foundational ideas in learning, instruction, and assessment without overwhelming students or wasting words. A modular, multimedia approach organizes course material into two-page units with specific objectives, helpful graphics, and a welcoming design that helps readers organize and understand each concept. An emphasis on clear writing and concrete ideas makes learning easier for readers, especially by providing vocabulary definitions and specific examples. A personal and friendly tone instead of a formal, academic style make this book easier and more enjoyable to read. While few academic references clutter the text, key references and suggested readings are provided at the end of each section.
What are "essential questions," and how do they differ from other kinds of questions? What's so great about them? Why should you design and use essential questions in your classroom? Essential questions (EQs) help target standards as you organize curriculum content into coherent units that yield focused and thoughtful learning. In the classroom, EQs are used to stimulate students' discussions and promote a deeper understanding of the content. Whether you are an Understanding by Design (UbD) devotee or are searching for ways to address standards--local or Common Core State Standards--in an engaging way, Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins provide practical guidance on how to design, initiate, and embed inquiry-based teaching and learning in your classroom. Offering dozens of examples, the authors explore the usefulness of EQs in all K-12 content areas, including skill-based areas such as math, PE, language instruction, and arts education. As an important element of their backward design approach to designing curriculum, instruction, and assessment, the authors *Give a comprehensive explanation of why EQs are so important; *Explore seven defining characteristics of EQs; *Distinguish between topical and overarching questions and their uses; *Outline the rationale for using EQs as the focal point in creating units of study; and *Show how to create effective EQs, working from sources including standards, desired understandings, and student misconceptions. Using essential questions can be challenging--for both teachers and students--and this book provides guidance through practical and proven processes, as well as suggested "response strategies" to encourage student engagement. Finally, you will learn how to create a culture of inquiry so that all members of the educational community--students, teachers, and administrators--benefit from the increased rigor and deepened understanding that emerge when essential questions become a guiding force for learners of all ages.
Although verbal learning offers a powerful tool, Mayer explores ways of going beyond the purely verbal. Recent advances in graphics technology and information technology have prompted new efforts to understand the potential of multimedia learning as a means of promoting human understanding. In this second edition, Mayer includes double the number of experimental comparisons, 6 new principles - signalling, segmenting, pertaining, personalization, voice and image principles. The 12 principles of multimedia instructional design have been reorganized into three sections - reducing extraneous processing, managing essential processing and fostering generative processing. Finally an indication of the maturity of the field is that the second edition highlights boundary conditions for each principle research-based constraints on when a principle is likely or not likely to apply. The boundary conditions are interpreted in terms of the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, and help to enrich theories of multimedia learning.
In recent years, multimedia learning, or learning from words and images, has developed into a coherent discipline with a significant research base. The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning is unique in offering a comprehensive, up-to-date analysis of research and theory in the field, with a focus on computer-based learning. Since the first edition appeared in 2005, it has shaped the field and become the primary reference work for multimedia learning. Multimedia environments, including online presentations, e-courses, interactive lessons, simulation games, slideshows, and even textbooks, play a crucial role in education. This revised second edition incorporates the latest developments in multimedia learning and contains new chapters on topics such as drawing, video, feedback, working memory, learner control, and intelligent tutoring systems. It examines research-based principles to determine the most effective methods of multimedia instruction and considers research findings in the context of cognitive theory to explain how these methods work.
National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice
Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice
Publisher: National Academies Press
First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.
Committee on the Development of an Addendum to the National Science Education Standards on Scientific Inquiry,National Research Council,Board on Science Education,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Author: Committee on the Development of an Addendum to the National Science Education Standards on Scientific Inquiry,National Research Council,Board on Science Education,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher: National Academies Press
Humans, especially children, are naturally curious. Yet, people often balk at the thought of learning science--the "eyes glazed over" syndrome. Teachers may find teaching science a major challenge in an era when science ranges from the hardly imaginable quark to the distant, blazing quasar. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards is the book that educators have been waiting for--a practical guide to teaching inquiry and teaching through inquiry, as recommended by the National Science Education Standards. This will be an important resource for educators who must help school boards, parents, and teachers understand "why we can't teach the way we used to." "Inquiry" refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and in which students grasp science knowledge and the methods by which that knowledge is produced. This book explains and illustrates how inquiry helps students learn science content, master how to do science, and understand the nature of science. This book explores the dimensions of teaching and learning science as inquiry for K-12 students across a range of science topics. Detailed examples help clarify when teachers should use the inquiry-based approach and how much structure, guidance, and coaching they should provide. The book dispels myths that may have discouraged educators from the inquiry-based approach and illuminates the subtle interplay between concepts, processes, and science as it is experienced in the classroom. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards shows how to bring the standards to life, with features such as classroom vignettes exploring different kinds of inquiries for elementary, middle, and high school and Frequently Asked Questions for teachers, responding to common concerns such as obtaining teaching supplies. Turning to assessment, the committee discusses why assessment is important, looks at existing schemes and formats, and addresses how to involve students in assessing their own learning achievements. In addition, this book discusses administrative assistance, communication with parents, appropriate teacher evaluation, and other avenues to promoting and supporting this new teaching paradigm.
Susan A. Ambrose,Michael W. Bridges,Michele DiPietro,Marsha C. Lovett,Marie K. Norman
Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching
Author: Susan A. Ambrose,Michael W. Bridges,Michele DiPietro,Marsha C. Lovett,Marie K. Norman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Praise for How Learning Works "How Learning Works is the perfect title for this excellent book. Drawing upon new research in psychology, education, and cognitive science, the authors have demystified a complex topic into clear explanations of seven powerful learning principles. Full of great ideas and practical suggestions, all based on solid research evidence, this book is essential reading for instructors at all levels who wish to improve their students' learning." —Barbara Gross Davis, assistant vice chancellor for educational development, University of California, Berkeley, and author, Tools for Teaching "This book is a must-read for every instructor, new or experienced. Although I have been teaching for almost thirty years, as I read this book I found myself resonating with many of its ideas, and I discovered new ways of thinking about teaching." —Eugenia T. Paulus, professor of chemistry, North Hennepin Community College, and 2008 U.S. Community Colleges Professor of the Year from The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the Council for Advancement and Support of Education "Thank you Carnegie Mellon for making accessible what has previously been inaccessible to those of us who are not learning scientists. Your focus on the essence of learning combined with concrete examples of the daily challenges of teaching and clear tactical strategies for faculty to consider is a welcome work. I will recommend this book to all my colleagues." —Catherine M. Casserly, senior partner, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching "As you read about each of the seven basic learning principles in this book, you will find advice that is grounded in learning theory, based on research evidence, relevant to college teaching, and easy to understand. The authors have extensive knowledge and experience in applying the science of learning to college teaching, and they graciously share it with you in this organized and readable book." —From the Foreword by Richard E. Mayer, professor of psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara; coauthor, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction; and author, Multimedia Learning
In this book, the authors explain why telling students things over and over--and perhaps more slowly and more loudly--does not result in understanding. Instead, discover how to use a combination of questions, prompts, cues, direct explanations, and modeling to guide students' learning and build their understanding. Explore an approach to instruction that ensures you make the four strategic moves that help students become more capable and independent learners: (1) using robust and productive questions to check for understanding; (2) giving students prompts that focus them on the thought process they need to complete a learning task; (3) providing students with cues that focus them on specific information, errors, or partial understandings; and (4) explaining and modeling when students do not have sufficient knowledge to complete tasks. Chapters include: (1) Scaffolds for Learning: The Key to Guided Instruction; (2) Questioning to Check for Understanding; (3) Prompting for Cognitive and Metacognitive Processes; (4) Cueing Students' Attention for Learning; (5) Direct Explanation, Modeling, and Motivation; and (6) Answers to Questions on Considerations and Logistics. The book also includes: An Introduction; References; Related ascd Resources: Guided Instruction; and a Study Guide for Guided Instruction: How to Develop Confident and Successful Learners.
Learning Strategies describes a program of research in learning strategies initiated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1976. The goal of the program is to improve learning, decrease training time, and reduce training costs by developing and evaluating instructional materials designed to teach basic intellectual and affective skills. This book records the program's progress and suggests further avenues for research. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of the teaching and learning approaches to the improvement of education, followed by a discussion on DARPA's preliminary work on an empirically based learning-strategy training program as well as its efforts to expand and modify the program. In order to provide an intellectual foundation for this program, several fields are surveyed for potential learning strategies, namely, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, behavioral modification, and motor learning. An instructional systems development approach for learning strategies is also proposed. The final chapter deals with models of evaluation extant in education and training and discusses the specific application of transactional evaluation to the DARPA Learning Strategies Research Program. This monograph should be of interest to students, teachers, and educational psychologists.
Many strong claims are made for the educational value of computer games, but there is a need for systematic examination of the research evidence that might support such claims. This book fills that need by providing, a comprehensive and up-to-date investigation of what research shows about learning with computer games. Computer Games for Learning describes three genres of game research: the value-added approach, which compares the learning outcomes of students who learn with a base version of a game to those of students who learn with the base version plus an additional feature; the cognitive consequences approach, which compares learning outcomes of students who play an off-the-shelf computer game for extended periods to those of students who do not; and the media comparative approach, which compares the learning outcomes of students who learn material by playing a game to those of students who learn the same material using conventional media. After introductory chapters that describe the rationale and goals of learning game research as well as the relevance of cognitive science to learning with games, the book offers examples of research in all three genres conducted by the author and his colleagues at the University of California, Santa Barbara; meta-analyses of published research; and suggestions for future research in the field. The book is essential reading for researchers and students of educational games, instructional designers, learning-game developers, and anyone who wants to know what the research has to say about the educational effectiveness of computer games.
Author: Annalisa Sannino,Harry Daniels,Kris D. Gutiérrez
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
There is a growing interest in activity theory across behavioral and social sciences. Activity theory has a very rich and solid heritage in the works of Vygotsky, Luria, and Leont'ev. The development of activity theory depends on the understanding of this heritage. However, this literature is very demanding and often proves inaccessible to new generations of scholars who want to pursue empirical studies. How can students and young researchers be helped to engage with this heritage as they carry out their inquiries in various social practices? This book provides researchers with an accessible text that also supports the use of the classic tradition of activity theory.