This a general account of the school of Mo-tzu, its social basis as a movement of craftsmen, its isolated place in the Chinese tradition, and the nature of its later contributions to logic, ethics, and science. It assesses the relation of Mohist thinking to the structure of the Chinese language, and grapples with the textual dynamics of later Mohist writings, particularly in regard to grammar and style, technical terminology, the use and significance of stock examples, and overall organization. Includes edited and annotated Chinese text with an English translation and commentary, a glossary, and a photographic reproduction of the unemended text from the Taoist Patrology.
This is the first Western study of the philosophy of Xu Gan (170-217), a Confucian thinker who lived at a nodal point in the history of Chinese thought, when Han scholasticism had become ossified and the creative and independent quality that characterized Wei-Jin thought was just emerging. As the theme of his study, Makeham develops an original and richly detailed account of ming shi, 'name and actuality,' one of the key pairs of concepts in early Chinese thought. He shows how Xu Gan's understanding of the 'name and actuality' relationship was most immediately influenced by Xu Gan's understanding of why the Han dynasty had collapsed, yet had its roots in a tradition of discourse that spanned the classical period (circa 500-150 B.C.E.). In reconstructing the philosophical background of Xu Gan's understanding of the relationship between 'name and actuality,' Makeham identifies two antithetical theories of naming in early Chinese thought--nominalist and correlative--a distinction that is as great as the Realist-Nominalist distinction of Western thought. He shows how Xu Gan's views on the name and actuality relationship were animated, on the one hand, by a rejection of nominalist theories of naming, and on the other hand, by a novel appropriation of correlative theories of naming. The study also analyzes two of the more immediate social and intellectual issues in the late Eastern Han (25-220) period that had prompted Xu Gan to discuss the name and actuality relationship: the ethos of the scholar-gentry (ming jiao) and Han approaches to classical scholarship. Makeham demonstrates how Xu Gan's critique of these matters is valuable not only as a late Han philosophical account of what had led to the demise of the 400-year-old Han dynasty, but also as a mode of conceptualizing that contributed to the new direction that philosophical thinking took in the third century C.E..
Critical reflections on the work of Angus Charles Graham, renowned Western scholar of Chinese philosophy and sinology. This volume engages with the works and ideas of Angus Charles Graham (1919–1991), one of the most prominent Western scholars of Chinese philosophy, at the twenty-fifth anniversary of his passing. Over a professional career of more than thirty years, Angus Graham produced an impressive amount of scholarship on a wide array of topics, ranging from Chinese grammar and philology to poetry and philosophy. His combination of rigorous scholarship and philosophical originality has continued to inspire scholars to tackle related research topics, and in so doing, has required of them a response to his views. This book illustrates the range of scholarship still elaborating upon, disagreeing with, and reacting to Graham’s work on Chinese thought, philosophy, philology, and translation. “Graham’s prolific writings have shaped the field of Chinese philosophy for the last four decades. Taking stock of how much contemporary discourse on Chinese philosophy has been influenced by Graham’s works and how far it has come from Graham’s days, while suggesting possible future trajectories, is timely. In addition, some of the contributors’ accounts of their personal encounters with Graham give readers a rather intimate and fascinating portrayal of the man behind the ideas.” — Tao Jiang, coeditor of The Reception and Rendition of Freud in China: China’s Freudian Slip
Graham addresses several fundamental problems in classical Chinese philosophy, and in the nature and structure of the classical Chinese language. These inquiries and reflections are both broad based and detailed. Two sources of continuity bring these seemingly disparate parts into a coherent and intelligible whole. First, Graham addresses that set of fundamental philosophical questions that have been the focus of dispute in the tradition, and that have defined its character: What is the nature of human nature? What can we through linguistic and philosophical scrutiny discover about the date and composition of some of the major texts? What sense can we make of the Kung-sun Lung sophistries? A second source of coherence is Graham's identification and articulation of those basic and often unconscious presuppositions that ground our own tradition. By so doing, he enables readers to break free from the limits of their own conceptual universe and to explore in the Chinese experience a profoundly different world view.
Im Wintersemester 2000/2001 veranstaltete der Interdisziplinare Arbeitskreis Ostasien und Sudostasien zusammen mit der Arbeitsgruppe Buddhistisches Chinesisch und dem Studium Generale der Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz die Ringvorlesung "Chinesische Religion und Philosophie." Die Mehrzahl der damals gehaltenen Vortrage bildet den Grundstock des Bandes, der die neue Reihe East Asia Intercultural Studies - Interkulturelle Ostasienstudien eroffnet. Grundlegende Abrisse bieten eine erste Einfuhrung in das Denken Ostasiens, in die drei bedeutendsten Schulen des alten China: die Ethik des Konfuzius, die religiosen Einstellungen der Mohisten und den philosophischen ebenso wie den spirituellen Daoismus. Um die indische Dimension wurde das chinesische Geistesleben durch den Buddhismus bereichert. Hinzu kommen Aspekte der interreligiosen Konkurrenz von Konfuzianismus und Daoismus, religionspsychologische Einblicke in die Psyche des chinesischen Indienpilgers Faxian, Synkretismen zwischen Neokonfuzianismus und Buddhismus oder die Haresie im spaten chinesischen Kaiserreich. Der Band wendet sich damit nicht nur an Sinologen, sondern an alle, die uber abendlandische Religion und Philosophie hinausschauen.
While logical principles seem timeless, placeless, and eternal, their discovery is a story of personal accidents, political tragedies, and broad social change. If A, Then B begins with logic's emergence twenty-three centuries ago and tracks its expansion as a discipline ever since. It explores where our sense of logic comes from and what it really is a sense of. It also explains what drove human beings to start studying logic in the first place. Logic is more than the work of logicians alone. Its discoveries have survived only because logicians have also been able to find a willing audience, and audiences are a consequence of social forces affecting large numbers of people, quite apart from individual will. This study therefore treats politics, economics, technology, and geography as fundamental factors in generating an audience for logic—grounding the discipline's abstract principles in a compelling material narrative. The authors explain the turbulent times of the enigmatic Aristotle, the ancient Stoic Chrysippus, the medieval theologian Peter Abelard, and the modern thinkers René Descartes, David Hume, Jeremy Bentham, George Boole, Augustus De Morgan, John Stuart Mill, Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, and Alan Turing. Examining a variety of mysteries, such as why so many branches of logic (syllogistic, Stoic, inductive, and symbolic) have arisen only in particular places and periods, If A, Then B is the first book to situate the history of logic within the movements of a larger social world. If A, Then B is the 2013 Gold Medal winner of Foreword Reviews' IndieFab Book of the Year Award for Philosophy.
This ambitious book presents a new interpretation of Chinese thought guided both by a philosopher's sense of mystery and by a sound philosophical theory of meaning. That dual goal, Hansen argues, requires a unified translation theory. It must provide a single coherent account of the issues that motivated both the recently untangled Chinese linguistic analysis and the familiar moral-political disputes. Hansen's unified approach uncovers a philosophical sophistication in Daoism that traditional accounts have overlooked.
The book Mozi, named after master Mo, was compiled in the course of the fifth-third centuries BCE. The seven studies included in the The Mozi as an Evolving Text analyse the Core Chapters, Dialogues, and Opening Chapters of the Mozi as an evolving text.
Translation and Annotation of Kaogong ji, The Artificers' Record
Author: Jun Wenren
Category: Social Science
This book presents the first translation into English of the full text of the Kaogong ji. This classic work, described by the great scholar of the history of Chinese science and technology Joseph Needham as "the most important document for the study of ancient Chinese technology", dates from the fifth century BC and forms part of the Zhouli (The Rites of the Zhou Dynasty), one of the great Confucian classics. The text itself describes the techniques of working and the technologies used by over twenty different kinds of craftsmen and artificers, such as metal workers, chariot makers, weapon makers, music instrument makers, potters and master builders. This edition, besides providing the full text in English, also provides a substantial introduction and other supporting explanatory material, over one hundred illustrations of ancient Chinese artefacts, and the original Chinese text itself.
First published in 1982, this is one of Mary Douglas' favourite books. It is based on her meetings with friends in which they attempt to apply the grip/group analysis from Natural Symbols. The essays have been important texts for preparing grid/group exercises ever since. She is still trying to improve the argument of Natural Symbols and is always hoping to find better applications to illustrate the power of the two dimensions used for accurate comparison.