Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials treats, from a physicist's point of view, the wide variety of processes that lasers can induce in materials. Physical phenomena ranging from optics to shock waves are discussed, as are applications in such diverse fields as semiconductor annealing, hole drilling and fusion plasma production. The approach taken emphasizes the fundamental ideas and their interrelations. The newcomer is given the necessary important background material, while the active research worker finds a critical and comprehensive review of the field.
Sensors, Electronics, and Integrated Power Sources
Author: Alberto Piqué,Douglas B. Chrisey
Publisher: Academic Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
Direct-Write Technologies covers applications, materials, and the techniques in using direct-write technologies. This book provides an overview of the different direct write techniques currently available, as well as a comparison between the strengths and special attributes for each of the techniques. The techniques described open the door for building prototypes and testing materials. The book also provides an overview of the state-of-the-art technology involved in this field. Basic academic researchers and industrial development engineers who pattern thin film materials will want to have this text on their shelves as a resource for specific applications. Others in this or related fields will want the book to read the introductory material summarizing isuses common to all approaches, in order to compare and contrast different techniques. Everyday applications include electronic components and sensors, especially chemical and biosensors. There is a wide range of research and development problems requiring state-of-the-art direct write tools. This book will appeal to basic researchers and development engineers in university engineering departments and at industrial and national research laboratories. This text should appeal equally well in the United States, Asia, and Europe. Both basic academic researchers and industrial development engineers who pattern thin film materials will want to have this text on their shelves as a resource for specific applications. An overview of the different direct write techniques currently available A comparison between the strengths and special attributes for each of the techniques An overview of the state-of-the-art technology involved in this field
The revised edition of this important reference volume presents an expanded overview of the analytical and numerical approaches employed when exploring and developing modern laser materials processing techniques. The book shows how general principles can be used to obtain insight into laser processes, whether derived from fundamental physical theory or from direct observation of experimental results. The book gives readers an understanding of the strengths and limitations of simple numerical and analytical models that can then be used as the starting-point for more elaborate models of specific practical, theoretical or commercial value. Following an introduction to the mathematical formulation of some relevant classes of physical ideas, the core of the book consists of chapters addressing key applications in detail: cutting, keyhole welding, drilling, arc and hybrid laser-arc welding, hardening, cladding and forming. The second edition includes a new a chapter on glass cutting with lasers, as employed in the display industry. A further addition is a chapter on meta-modelling, whose purpose is to construct fast, simple and reliable models based on appropriate sources of information. It then makes it easy to explore data visually and is a convenient interactive tool for scientists to improve the quality of their models and for developers when designing their processes. As in the first edition, the book ends with an updated introduction to comprehensive numerical simulation. Although the book focuses on laser interactions with materials, many of the principles and methods explored can be applied to thermal modelling in a variety of different fields and at different power levels. It is aimed principally however at academic and industrial researchers and developers in the field of laser technology.
This book describes the basic mechanisms, theory, simulations and technological aspects of Laser processing techniques. It covers the principles of laser quenching, welding, cutting, alloying, selective sintering, ablation, etc. The main attention is paid to the quantitative description. The diversity and complexity of technological and physical processes is discussed using a unitary approach. The book aims on understanding the cause-and-effect relations in physical processes in Laser technologies. It will help researchers and engineers to improve the existing and develop new Laser machining techniques. The book addresses readers with a certain background in general physics and mathematical analysis: graduate students, researchers and engineers practicing laser applications.
This volume introduces the subject of laser ablation and desorption to scientists and engineers. It covers fundamental experimental and theoretical tools, models, and techniques, and introduces the most important applications. Clearly written and organized in a straightforward manner, Laser Ablation and Desorption lead the reader straight through the fundamentals of laser-surface interactions. Each chapter is self-contained and includes references to other chapters as necessary, so that readers may begin with the topic of greatest interest and follow the references to other aspects of the subject contained within the book. Key Features * Provides up-to-date information about one of the most active fields in physics today * Written and edited by major figures in the field of laser ablation and desorption * Represents the most comprehensive treatment of the state-of-the-art available
Author: Marta Castillejo,Paolo M. Ossi,Leonid Zhigilei
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book covers various aspects of lasers in materials science, including a comprehensive overview on basic principles of laser-materials interactions and applications enabled by pulsed laser systems. The material is organized in a coherent way, providing the reader with a harmonic architecture. While systematically covering the major current and emerging areas of lasers processing applications, the Volume provides examples of targeted modification of material properties achieved through careful control of the processing conditions and laser irradiation parameters. Special emphasis is placed on specific strategies aimed at nanoscale control of material structure and properties to match the stringent requirements of modern applications. Laser fabrication of novel nanomaterials, which expands to the domains of photonics, photovoltaics, sensing, and biomedical applications, is also discussed in the Volume. This book assembles chapters based on lectures delivered at the Venice International School on Lasers in Materials Science which was held in Isola di San Servolo, Venice, Italy, in July, 2012.
In Optical Nano and Micro Actuator Technology, leading engineers, material scientists, chemists, physicists, laser scientists, and manufacturing specialists offer an in-depth, wide-ranging look at the fundamental and unique characteristics of light-driven optical actuators. They discuss how light can initiate physical movement and control a variety of mechanisms that perform mechanical work at the micro- and nanoscale. The book begins with the scientific background necessary for understanding light-driven systems, discussing the nature of light and the interaction between light and NEMS/MEMS devices. It then covers innovative optical actuator technologies that have been developed for many applications. The book examines photoresponsive materials that enable the design of optically driven structures and mechanisms and describes specific light-driven technologies that permit the manipulation of micro- and nanoscale objects. It also explores applications in optofluidics, bioMEMS and biophotonics, medical device design, and micromachine control. Inspiring the next generation of scientists and engineers to advance light-driven technologies, this book gives readers a solid grounding in this emerging interdisciplinary area. It thoroughly explains the scientific language and fundamental principles, provides a holistic view of optical nano and micro actuator systems, and illustrates current and potential applications of light-driven systems.
Laser materials processing has made tremendous progress and is now at the forefront of industrial and medical applications. The book describes recent advances in smart and nanoscaled materials going well beyond the traditional cutting and welding applications. As no analytical methods are described the examples are really going into the details of what nowadways is possible by employing lasers for sophisticated materials processing giving rise to achievements not possible by conventional materials processing.
Miniaturization and high precision are rapidly becoming a requirement for many industrial processes and products. As a result, there is greater interest in the use of laser microfabrication technology to achieve these goals. This book composed of 16 chapters covers all the topics of laser precision processing from fundamental aspects to industrial applications to both inorganic and biological materials. It reviews the sate of the art of research and technological development in the area of laser processing.
This text aims at providing a comprehensive and up to date treatment of the new and rapidly expanding field of laser pro cessing of thin films, particularly, though by no means exclu sively, of recent progress in the dielectrics area. The volume covers all the major aspects of laser processing technology in general, from the background and history to its many potential applications, and from the theory to the necessary experimental considerations. It highlights and compares the vast array of processing conditions now available with intense photon beams, as well as the properties of the films and microstructures pro duced. Separate chapters deal with the fundamentals of laser interactions with matter, and with experimental considerations. Detailed consideration is also given to film deposition, nuclea tion and growth, oxidation and annealing, as well as selective and localized. etching and ablation, not only in terms of the various photon-induced processes, but also with respect to traditional as well as other competing new technologies.
Materials processing with lasers is a rapidly expanding field which is increasingly captivating the attention of scientists, engineers and manufacturers alike. The aspect of most interest to scientists is provided by the basic interaction mechanisms between the intense light of a laser and materials exposed to a chemically reactive or nonreactive surrounding medium. Engineers and manufacturers see in the laser a new tool which will not only make manufacturing cheaper, faster, cleaner and more accurate but which also opens up entirely new technologies and manufacturing methods that are simply not available using existing techniques. Actual and potential applications range from laser machining to laser-induced materials transformation, coating, patterning, etc. , opening up the prospect of exciting new processing methods for micromechanics, metallurgy, integrated optics, semiconductor manufacture and chemical engineering. This book concentrates on the new and interdisciplinary field of 1 aser-i nduced chemicaZ process i ng of materi als. The techni que permits maskless single-step deposition of thin films of metals, semiconductors or insulators with lateral dimensions ranging from a few tenths of a micrometer up to several centimeters. Moreover, materials removal or synthesis, or surface modifications, such as oxidation, nitridation, reduction, metallization and doping, are also possible within similar dimensions. This book is meant as an introduction. It attempts to cater for the very broad range of specific interests which different groups of readers will have, and this thinking underlies the way in which the material has been arranged.
This book covers the basics, realization and materials for high power laser systems and high power radiation interaction with matter. The physical and technical fundamentals of high intensity laser optics and adaptive optics and the related physical processes in high intensity laser systems are explained. A main question discussed is: What is power optics? In what way is it different from ordinary optics widely used in cameras, motion-picture projectors, i.e., for everyday use? An undesirable consequence of the thermal deformation of optical elements and surfaces was discovered during studies of the interaction with powerful incident laser radiation. The requirements to the fabrication, performance and quality of optical elements employed within systems for most practical applications are also covered. The high-power laser performance is generally governed by the following: (i) the absorption of incident optical radiation (governed primarily by various absorption mechanisms), (ii) followed by a temperature increase and response governed primarily by thermal properties and (iii) the thermo-optical and thermo-mechanical response of distortion, stress, fracture, etc. All this needs to be understood to design efficient, compact, reliable and useful high power systems for many applications under a variety of operating conditions, pulsed, continuous wave and burst mode of varying duty cycles. The book gives an overview of an important spectrum of related topics like laser resonator configurations, intermetallic optical coatings, heat carriers for high power optics, cellular materials, high-repetition-rate lasers and mono-module disk lasers for high power optics.
Materials and Processes for Surface and Interface Engineering, which has been written by experts in the fields of deposition technology and surface modification techniques, offers up to date tutorial papers on the latest advances in surface and interface engineering. The emphasis is on fundamental aspects, principles and applications of plasma and ion beam processing technology. A handbook for the engineer and scientist as well as an introduction for students in several branches of materials science and surface engineering.
Laser Ablation provides a broad picture of the current understanding of laser ablation and its many applications, from the views of key contributors to the field. Discussed are in detail the electronic processes in laser ablation of semiconductors and insulators, the post-ionization of laser-desorbed biomolecules, Fourier-transform mass spectroscopy, the interaction of laser radiation with organic polymers, laser ablation and optical surface damage, laser desorption/ablation with laser detection, and laser ablation of superconducting thin films.
As part of the effort to increase the contribution of solar cells (photovoltaics) to our energy mix, this book addresses three main areas: making existing technology cheaper, promoting advanced technologies based on new architectural designs, and developing new materials to serve as light absorbers. Leading scientists throughout the world create a fundamental platform for knowledge sharing that combines the physics, materials, and device architectures of high-efficiency solar cells. While providing a comprehensive introduction to the field, the book highlights directions for further research, and is intended to stimulate readers’ interest in the development of novel materials and technologies for solar energy applications.
The book introduces ‘the state of the art' of pulsed laser ablation and its applications. It is based on recent theoretical and experimental studies. The book reaches from the basics to advanced topics of pulsed laser ablation. Theoretical and experimental fundamental phenomena involved in pulsed laser ablation are discussed with respect to material properties, laser wavelength, fluence and intensity regime of the light absorbed linearly or non-linearly in the target material. The energy absorbed by the electrons leads to atom/molecule excitation, ionization and/or direct chemical bond breaking and is also transferred to the lattice leading to material heating and phase transitions. Experimental non-invasive optical methods for analyzing these phenomena in real time are described. Theoretical models for pulsed laser ablation and phase transitions induced by laser beams and laser-vapour/plasma interaction during the plume expansion above the target are also presented. Calculations of the ablation speed and dimensions of the ablated micro- and nano-structures are performed. The validity and required refinement of different models in different experimental conditions is provided. The pulsed laser deposition process which bases on collecting the ablated particles on a surface is analyzed in terms of efficiency and quality of the deposited films as a function of ambient conditions, target material, laser parameters and substrate characteristics. The interaction between the incident laser and the ablation plasma is analyzed with respect to its influence on the structures of the deposited films and its capacity to generate high harmonics and single attosecond pulses which are highly desirable in pump-probe experiments.
Due to their flexible and efficient capabilities, lasers are often used over more traditional machining technologies, such as mechanical drilling and chemical etching, in manufacturing a wide variety of products, from medical implants, gyroscopes, and drug delivery catheters to aircraft engines, printed circuit boards, and fuel cells. Fundamentals of Laser Micromachining explains how laser technology is applied to precision micromachining. The book combines background on physics, lasers, optics, and hardware with analysis of markets, materials, and applications. It gives sufficient theoretical background for readers to understand basic concepts while including a further reading appendix for those interested in more detailed theoretical discussions. After reviewing laser history and technology, the author compares available laser sources, including CO2, excimer, Nd:YAG, fiber, and short pulse. He also addresses topics crucial to obtaining good processing results, such as IR and UV material–photon interaction, basic optical components, and system integration. The text goes on to cover real-world applications in the medical, microelectronics, aerospace, and other fields. It concludes with details on processing many common materials, such as metals, silicon, ceramics, and glasses. For engineers and project managers, this book provides the foundation to achieve cost-effectiveness, the best edge quality, and the highest resolution in small-scale industrial laser machining. It will help you select the correct kind of laser for your application and identify real opportunities for growth in the marketplace.
This in-depth title discusses the underlying physics and operational principles of semiconductor lasers. It analyzes the optical and electronic properties of the semiconductor medium in detail, including quantum confinement and gain-engineering effects. The text also includes recent developments in blue-emitting semiconductor lasers.
Laser-Assisted Microtechnology deals with laser applications to a wide variety of problems in microelectronic design and fabrication. It covers micromachining of thin films, microprocessing of materials, maskless laser micropatterning and laser-assisted synthesis of thin-film systems. The monograph describes fundamental aspects and practical details of the technological processes as well as the optimum conditions for their realization.