This book contains case histories intended to show how societies and landscapes interact. The range of interest stretches from the small groups of the earliest Neolithic, through Bronze and Iron Age civilizations, to modern nation states. The coexistence is, of its very nature reciprocal, resulting in changes in both society and landscape. In some instances the adaptations may be judged successful in terms of human needs, but failure is common and even the successful cases are ephemeral when judged in the light of history. Comparisons and contrasts between the various cases can be made at various scales from global through inter-regional, to regional and smaller scales. At the global scale, all societies deal with major problems of climate change, sea-level rise, and with ubiquitous problems such as soil erosion and landscape degradation. Inter-regional differences bring out significant detail with one region suffering from drought when another suffers from widespread flooding. For example, desertification in North Africa and the Near East contrasts with the temperate countries of southern Europe where the landscape-effects of deforestation are more obvious. And China and Japan offer an interesting comparison from the standpoint of geological hazards to society - large, unpredictable and massively erosive rivers in the former case, volcanoes and accompanying earthquakes in the latter. Within the North African region localized climatic changes led to abandonment of some desertified areas with successful adjustments in others, with the ultimate evolution into the formative civilization of Egypt, the "Gift of the Nile". At a smaller scale it is instructive to compare the city-states of the Medieval and early Renaissance times that developed in the watershed of a single river, the Arno in Tuscany, and how Pisa, Siena and Florence developed and reached their golden periods at different times depending on their location with regard to proximity to the sea, to the main trunk of the river, or in the adjacent hills. Also noteworthy is the role of technology in opening up opportunities for a society. Consider the Netherlands and how its history has been formed by the technical problem of a populous society dealing with too much water, as an inexorably rising sea threatens their landscape; or the case of communities in Colorado trying to deal with too little water for farmers and domestic users, by bringing their supply over a mountain chain. These and others cases included in the book, provide evidence of the successes, near misses and outright failures that mark our ongoing relationship with landscape throughout the history of Homo sapiens. The hope is that compilations such as this will lead to a better understanding of the issue and provide us with knowledge valuable in planning a sustainable modus vivendi between humanity and landscape for as long as possible. Audience: The book will interest geomorphologists, geologists, geographers, archaeologists, anthropologists, ecologists, environmentalists, historians and others in the academic world. Practically, planners and managers interested in landscape/environmental conditions will find interest in these pages, and more generally the increasingly large body of opinion in the general public, with concerns about Planet Earth, will find much to inform their opinions. Extra material: The color plate section is available at http://extras.springer.com
Seit der Frühzeit des Menschen hat das Mittelmeer die Welt unserer Vorfahren nachhaltig geprägt. Der Archäologe Cyprian Broodbank entwirft ein grandioses historisches Panorama dieses Meeres – von den Tagen der ersten Begegnung der Hominiden mit dem neuen Lebensraum vor 1,5 Millionen Jahren bis zum Beginn der Klassischen Antike. Cyprian Broodbank führt uns an die Küsten des Mittelmeers und lässt die angrenzenden Kulturräume längst vergangener Epochen wieder lebendig werden. Gemeinsam mit ihm umrunden wir wieder und wieder das Mittelmeer und lernen die seit den Tagen der Jäger und Sammler aufblühenden Gesellschaften kennen. Wir begleiten die ersten Menschen, die sich bereits in Einbäumen auf die See wagten, besuchen Fischer, Bauern und Handwerker in ihren Dörfern und lernen die Machtzentren der Alten Welt kennen, deren Herrscher und Eliten Rohstoffe und andere Schätze aus „Übersee“ begehrten. Wir erkennen das immer engmaschigere Netz der Hochkulturen, das sich nach und nach über das Meer in der Mitte breitet, und sehen Handelsschiffe und Kriegsflotten, die von der Straße von Gibraltar bis nach Tyros und von Etrurien bis Alexandria das Mittelmeer durcheilen, um an dessen unfassbarem Reichtum teilzuhaben, von dem noch in unseren Tagen atemberaubende archäologische Zeugnisse künden.
Hydraulic systems are the visible embodiment of political power and critical determinants of social participation. In addition, they may direct societal progress, in part, through opportunities for profitable development in the hands of experts in management positions. This volume addresses the social aspects of hydraulic systems and examines how power relationships are negotiated by only seemingly neutral technologies.
Island Landscapes takes a critical look at the evolution of European islandscapes and seascapes to examine the conditions facing them in the twenty first century. Considering island landscapes as an expression of European culture, this book envisages future trends and presents clearly the need to find a balance between preservation and development to ensure sustainability. Both large and small islands are illustrated in the book including the British Isles, Malta and Cyprus as well as archipelagos in Norway, Italy and Greece. Their unique identities and values reveal the remarkable breadth of cultural heritage possessed by these diverse European islands. An interdisciplinary approach is applied to the history, perception, characterisation and planning of islandscape and seascape in Europe, to support culturally-oriented strategies for these fragile landscapes.
Der Weltbestseller als erweiterte Neuausgabe! Die überwucherten Tempelruinen von Angkor Wat, die zerfallenden Pyramiden der Maya in Yucatan und die rätselhaften Moai-Statuen der Osterinsel – sie alle sind stille Zeugen von einstmals blühenden Kulturen, die irgendwann verschwanden. Doch was waren die Ursachen dafür? Jared Diamond zeichnet in seiner erweiterten, faszinierenden wie hochaktuellen Studie die Muster nach, die dem Untergang von Gesellschaften (oder ihrem Überleben) zugrunde liegen, und zeigt, was wir für unsere Zukunft daraus lernen können.
This book provides a unique contribution to the science of sustainable societies by challenging the traditional concept of rural-urban dichotomy. It combines environmental engineering and landscape sciences perspectives on urban region issues, making the book a unique work in urban study literatures. Today’s extended urban regions often maintain rural features within their boundaries and also have strong social, economic, and environmental linkages with the surrounding rural areas. These intra- and inter- linkages between urban and rural systems produce complex interdependences with global and local sustainability issues, including those of climate change, resource exploitation, ecosystem degradation and human wellbeing. Planning and other prospective actions for the sustainability of urban regions, therefore, cannot solely depend on “urban” approaches; rather, they need to integrate broader landscape perspectives that take extended social and ecological systems into consideration. This volume shows how to untangle, diagnose, and transform urban regions through distinctive thematic contributions across a variety of academic disciplines ranging from environmental engineering and geography to landscape ecology and urban planning. Case studies, selected from across the world and investigating urban regions in East Asia, Europe, North America and South-East Asia, collectively illustrate shared and differentiated drivers of sustainability challenges and provide informative inputs to global and local sustainability initiatives.
This volume makes a timely contribution to our understanding of literacy as a multi-faceted, complexly situated activity. Each chapter provides the reader with a fresh perspective into a different site for literate behaviour, approaches, design and relationships, and offers an exploration into the use of literacy theories to inform policy and practice, particularly in regard to curriculum. Bringing together international experts in the field, the contributing authors represent a wide variety of theoretical and research perspectives which cover literacy in various forms, including: • transformative literacy • survey literacy • academic literacies • information literacy in the workplace • digital literacy. Landscapes of Specific Literacies in Contemporary Society suggests that literacy curriculum needs to evolve from its current perspective if it is to cater for the demands of the 21st century contemporary globalised society. The book will be of key interest to researchers and academics in the fields of education, curriculum studies and the sociology of education, as well as to policy makers and literacy specialists.
This book focuses on three major means of achieving a low carbon society: conservation of the ecosystem complex, changes of arrangement of landscapes, and creation of biodiversity. There are specific countermeasures to be taken for carbon absorption in the three types of landscapes—urban, cultural, and natural—because their carbon balances differ. Urban landscapes are promising sites because they have the potential for greening and the creation of biodiversity. Cultural landscapes in the tropics had not been actively researched until recently, but this book now presents a collection of several cases focused on those areas. Natural landscapes had existed in abundance in developing countries; later, nature protection areas were designated to coexist with development. Now, however, developmental pressure has penetrated into those nature protection areas, and landscape ecological projects are urgently required to preserve them. As a result of global warming, abnormal weather phenomena including super typhoons have occurred frequently in recent years. The major underlying cause is the higher concentration of greenhouse gases released by human activities. As well, major natural absorbers of CO2 such as forests, wetlands, and coral reefs are shrinking, and the human impact is causing the ecological balance to deteriorate. Controlling CO2 emissions and expanding the CO2 absorbers are keys to reducing total CO2. Low carbon societies can be established by maintaining the original CO2 balance through integration of multiple tools, with contributions from diverse fields such as physics and chemistry, physiology and humanities, and education. On the basis of an international consensus, the environment must be protected no matter what sacrifices are required. As this book demonstrates, achieving a low carbon society is a top priority, and landscape conservation is the first step in ecological research toward that goal.
Ecuadorian society has overcome adversity with great determination over the past few years. Periodic economic crises, external shocks, and even natural disasters tested the country's ability to cope with difficulties. Despite these challenges, the country has maintained a forward looking perspective and has achieved some important goals. Economic stability in the last few years has ushered in a period of sustained economic growth. During this period several development indicators have improved, and several sectors of the economy have demonstrated the dynamism and entrepreneurship that is present in the Ecuadorian culture. Revisiting Ecuador's Economic and Social Agenda in an Evolving Landscape aims to provoke a lively discussion between the World Bank, the new Correa administration, and the entire country, in addressing the unresolved issues that require a thoughtful approach.
Personal and Social Security Concerns in Switzerland
Author: Jonathan Bennett
Publisher: Peter Lang
What comes to people's minds when they think of security? Is there a relationship between global security threats and local, everyday events that influence our feeling of security? Drawing from telephone interviews of 1'000 Swiss citizens, this work attempts to provide a missing link between the spheres of personal and public security. Based on empirical data and using quantitative statistical methods such as correspondence analysis and logistic regression, security is conceived through the statements of common citizens. What emerges is a fascinating portrait of the different notions of security in contemporary Switzerland.
Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates' Design for the Headquarters of the American Society of Landscape Architects
Author: Christian Werthmann
Publisher: Princeton Architectural Press
Green roofs are the great green hope of many environmentalists, politicians, and architects interested in more efficient and environmentally aware buildings. From a design standpoint, however, there is less consensus. While some see the roof garden as a visual statement using plants, geometric lines, and sculptural elements, others believe concerns for sustainability should outweigh visual appeal. A green roof that combines aesthetics and mechanics has become the goal of many a landscape architect. In Green Roof Gardens, author Christian Werthmann explains the history, methodology, and design process of green roof garden construction, providing a rich source of inspiration and technical knowledge in the process for anybody interested in this simple solution to many of the environmental challenges we face today.
The International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE) was established as a means of raising worldwide public and political awareness of the vast, though frequently under-used, potential the Earth Sciences possess for improving the quality of life of the peoples of the world and safeguarding Earth’s rich and diverse environments. The International Year project was jointly initiated in 2000 by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the Earth Science Division of the United Nations Educational, Scienti?c and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). IUGS, which is a Non-Governmental Organisation, and UNESCO, an Inter-Governmental Organisation, already shared a long record of productive cooperation in the na- ral sciences and their application to societal problems, including the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP) now in its fourth decade. With its main goals of raising public awareness of, and enhancing research in the Earth sciences on a global scale in both the developed and less-developed countries of the world, two operational programmes were demanded. In 2002 and 2003, the Series Editors together with Dr. Ted Nield and Dr. Henk Schalke (all four being core members of the Management Team at that time) drew up outlines of a Science and an Outreach Programme. In 2005, following the UN proclamation of 2008 as the United Nations International Year of Planet Earth, the “Year” grew into a triennium (2007–2009).
Interfaces Between Local Government and Civil Society Organisations in Cape Town, South Africa
Author: Astrid Ley
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
This book explores the dynamic roles and linkages of public sector institutions and civil society actors in housing provision for the urban poor in South Africa. Based on actor-centred and network theories, two cases of civil society alliances are analysed. The book reveals that existing civil society structures are hybrids that can oscillate between networks and organisations. Moreover, they establish informal governance spaces with state actors outside the institutional channels provided by government. The emergence of oscillating structures and the informalisation of horizontal governance represent new challenges for local decision-making processes. Co-operation and action-oriented approaches in housing seemingly need to be based on a more detailed understanding of the complex interfaces, which go far beyond the conventional ideal of partnerships and participation between sectors.
Offering a fresh archaeological interpretation, this work reconceptualizes the Bronze Age prehistory of the vast Eurasian steppe during one of the most formative and innovative periods of human history. Michael D. Frachetti combines an analysis of newly documented archaeological sites in the Koksu River valley of eastern Kazakhstan with detailed paleoecological and ethnohistorical data to illustrate patterns in land use, settlement, burial, and rock art. His investigation illuminates the practical effect of nomadic strategies on the broader geography of social interaction and suggests a new model of local and regional interconnection in the third and second millennia B.C.E. Frachetti further argues that these early nomadic communities played a pivotal role in shaping enduring networks of exchange across Eurasia.
Ian D. Whyte,Angus J. L. Winchester,Society for Landscape Studies (Great Britain)