Landscapes and Societies

Selected Cases

Author: I. Peter Martini,Ward Chesworth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048194131

Category: Science

Page: 478

View: 8247

This book contains case histories intended to show how societies and landscapes interact. The range of interest stretches from the small groups of the earliest Neolithic, through Bronze and Iron Age civilizations, to modern nation states. The coexistence is, of its very nature reciprocal, resulting in changes in both society and landscape. In some instances the adaptations may be judged successful in terms of human needs, but failure is common and even the successful cases are ephemeral when judged in the light of history. Comparisons and contrasts between the various cases can be made at various scales from global through inter-regional, to regional and smaller scales. At the global scale, all societies deal with major problems of climate change, sea-level rise, and with ubiquitous problems such as soil erosion and landscape degradation. Inter-regional differences bring out significant detail with one region suffering from drought when another suffers from widespread flooding. For example, desertification in North Africa and the Near East contrasts with the temperate countries of southern Europe where the landscape-effects of deforestation are more obvious. And China and Japan offer an interesting comparison from the standpoint of geological hazards to society - large, unpredictable and massively erosive rivers in the former case, volcanoes and accompanying earthquakes in the latter. Within the North African region localized climatic changes led to abandonment of some desertified areas with successful adjustments in others, with the ultimate evolution into the formative civilization of Egypt, the "Gift of the Nile". At a smaller scale it is instructive to compare the city-states of the Medieval and early Renaissance times that developed in the watershed of a single river, the Arno in Tuscany, and how Pisa, Siena and Florence developed and reached their golden periods at different times depending on their location with regard to proximity to the sea, to the main trunk of the river, or in the adjacent hills. Also noteworthy is the role of technology in opening up opportunities for a society. Consider the Netherlands and how its history has been formed by the technical problem of a populous society dealing with too much water, as an inexorably rising sea threatens their landscape; or the case of communities in Colorado trying to deal with too little water for farmers and domestic users, by bringing their supply over a mountain chain. These and others cases included in the book, provide evidence of the successes, near misses and outright failures that mark our ongoing relationship with landscape throughout the history of Homo sapiens. The hope is that compilations such as this will lead to a better understanding of the issue and provide us with knowledge valuable in planning a sustainable modus vivendi between humanity and landscape for as long as possible. Audience: The book will interest geomorphologists, geologists, geographers, archaeologists, anthropologists, ecologists, environmentalists, historians and others in the academic world. Practically, planners and managers interested in landscape/environmental conditions will find interest in these pages, and more generally the increasingly large body of opinion in the general public, with concerns about Planet Earth, will find much to inform their opinions. Extra material: The color plate section is available at

Rivers and Society

Landscapes, Governance and Livelihoods

Author: Malcolm Cooper,Abhik Chakraborty,Shamik Chakraborty

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317396111

Category: Social Science

Page: 258

View: 1321

Rivers and their watersheds constitute some of the most dynamic and complex landscapes. Rivers have sustained human communities, and human societies have utilized and altered river flows in a number of ways for millennia. However, the level of human impact on rivers, and on watershed environments, has become acute during the last hundred years or so. This book brings together empirical research and theoretical perspectives on the changing conditions of a range of river basin environments in the contemporary world, including the history and culture of local societies living in these river basins. It provides theoretical insights on the patterns and nature of the interaction between rivers and their use by human communities. The chapters are written from a variety of positions, including environmental science, hydrology, human ecology, urban studies, water management, historical geography, cultural anthropology and tourism studies. The case studies span different geographical regions, providing valuable insight on the multifaceted interactions between rivers and our societies, and on the changing riverscapes in different parts of the world. Specific detailed examples are included from Australia, Brazil, France, India, Iran, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Africa, UK and USA.

Island Landscapes

An Expression of European Culture

Author: Gloria Pungetti

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317111990

Category: Architecture

Page: 326

View: 1924

Island Landscapes takes a critical look at the evolution of European islandscapes and seascapes to examine the conditions facing them in the twenty first century. Considering island landscapes as an expression of European culture, this book envisages future trends and presents clearly the need to find a balance between preservation and development to ensure sustainability. Both large and small islands are illustrated in the book including the British Isles, Malta and Cyprus as well as archipelagos in Norway, Italy and Greece. Their unique identities and values reveal the remarkable breadth of cultural heritage possessed by these diverse European islands. An interdisciplinary approach is applied to the history, perception, characterisation and planning of islandscape and seascape in Europe, to support culturally-oriented strategies for these fragile landscapes.

Comparative Property Law

Global Perspectives

Author: Michele Graziadei,Lionel Smith

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1785369164


Page: 520

View: 9876

Comparative Property Law provides a comprehensive treatment of property law from a comparative and global perspective. The contributors, who are leading experts in their fields, cover both classical and new subjects, including the transfer of property, the public-private divide in property law, water and forest laws, and the property rights of aboriginal peoples. This Handbook maps the structure and the dynamics of property law in the contemporary world and will be an invaluable reference for researchers working in all domains of property law.

The Maya Forest Garden

Eight Millennia of Sustainable Cultivation of the Tropical Woodlands

Author: Anabel Ford,Ronald Nigh

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131541791X

Category: Social Science

Page: 260

View: 7954

The conventional wisdom says that the devolution of Classic Maya civilization occurred because its population grew too large and dense to be supported by primitive neotropical farming methods, resulting in debilitating famines and internecine struggles. Using research on contemporary Maya farming techniques and important new archaeological research, Ford and Nigh refute this Malthusian explanation of events in ancient Central America and posit a radical alternative theory. The authors-show that ancient Maya farmers developed ingenious, sustainable woodland techniques to cultivate numerous food plants (including the staple maize);-examine both contemporary tropical farming techniques and the archaeological record (particularly regarding climate) to reach their conclusions;-make the argument that these ancient techniques, still in use today, can support significant populations over long periods of time.

The Islamic-Byzantine Frontier

Interaction and Exchange Among Muslim and Christian Communities

Author: A. Asa Eger

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 1780761570

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 1699

The retreat of the Byzantine Army from Syria in around 650 CE, in advance of the approaching Arab armies, is one that has resounded emphatically in the works of both Islamic and Christian writers, and created an enduring motif: that of the Islamic-Byzantine frontier. For centuries, Byzantine and Islamic scholars have evocatively sketched a contested border: the annual raids between the two, the line of fortified fortresses defending Islamic lands, the no-man's land in between and the birth of jihad. In their early representations of a Muslim-Christian encounter, accounts of the Islamic-Byzantine frontier are charged with significance for a future 'clash of civilizations' that often envisions a polarised world. A. Asa Eger examines the two aspects of this frontier: its ideological and physical ones. By uniting an exploration of both the real and material frontier and its more ideological military and religious implications, he offers a more complex vision of this dividing line than has been traditionally disseminated. With analysis grounded in archaeological evidence as well the relevant historical and religious texts, Eger brings together a nuanced exploration of this vital element of medieval history.

Landscape and Society in Contemporary Ireland

Author: Brendan McGrath

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781909005716

Category: Architecture

Page: 238

View: 5150

Nearby, over several days, a landowner, with the help of a JCB, razed level a limestone outcrop and its hazel thicket to make way for a brand new field that was topped off with truck-loads of imported soil. Meanwhile, on the other sideof the Burren an ugly array of signage, most of it unauthorised, became the backdrop for another 'welcome' sign. These various bits of new development in the last dozen years are unexceptional in themselves. But they drew my attention because of their proximity to that simple and unequivocal declaration of landscape protection. The contrast between the public message and what was happening around the signs is just one illustration of the unsatisfactory relationship that exists between contemporary Irish society and the places that it inhabits. This book is an examination of that relationship. The book is about both special places like the Burren and the everyday landscape experience. My aim is to give an account of contemporary Irish landscape and to describe and to explain how and why it has changed over the last forty years.

Ancient Middle Niger

Urbanism and the Self-organizing Landscape

Author: Roderick J. McIntosh

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521813006

Category: History

Page: 261

View: 2735

Survey of the emergence of the ancient urban civilization of Middle Niger.

Misreading the African Landscape

Society and Ecology in a Forest-Savanna Mosaic

Author: James Fairhead,Melissa Leach

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521564991

Category: Social Science

Page: 354

View: 1571

West African landscapes are generally considered as degraded, especially on the forest edge. This unique study shows how wrong that view can be, by revealing how inhabitants have enriched their land when scientists believe they have degraded it. Historical and anthropological methods demonstrate how intelligent African farmers' own land management can be, while scientists and policy makers have misunderstood the African environment. The book provides a new framework for ecological anthropology, and a challenge to old assumptions about the African landscape.

The Colonial Caribbean

Landscapes of Power in Jamaica's Plantation System

Author: James A. Delle

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521767709

Category: History

Page: 266

View: 2284

The Colonial Caribbean is an archaeological analysis of Jamaican coffee plantation landscapes at the turn of the nineteenth century. Framed by Marxist theory, the analysis considers plantation landscapes using a multiscalar approach to landscape archaeology.

Freedom and the Cage

Modern Architecture and Psychiatry in Central Europe, 1890–1914

Author: Leslie Topp

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271079207

Category: Architecture

Page: 256

View: 7447

Spurred by ideals of individual liberty that took hold in the Western world in the late nineteenth century, psychiatrists and public officials sought to reinvent asylums as large-scale, totally designed institutions that offered a level of freedom and normality impossible in the outside world. This volume explores the “caged freedom” that this new psychiatric ethos represented by analyzing seven such buildings established in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy between the late 1890s and World War I. In the last two decades of the Habsburg Empire, architects of asylums began to abandon traditional corridor-based plans in favor of looser formations of connected villas, echoing through design the urban- and freedom-oriented impulse of the progressive architecture of the time. Leslie Topp considers the paradoxical position of designs that promoted an illusion of freedom even as they exercised careful social and spatial control over patients. In addition to discussing the physical and social aspects of these institutions, Topp shows how the commissioned buildings were symptomatic of larger cultural changes and of the modern asylum’s straining against its ideological anchorage in a premodern past of “unenlightened” restraint on human liberty. Working at the intersection of the history of architecture and the history of psychiatry, Freedom and the Cage broadens our understanding of the complexity and fluidity of modern architecture’s engagement with the state, with social and medical projects, and with mental health, psychiatry, and psychology.

El Salvador: Landscape and Society

Author: David Browning

Publisher: Oxford : Clarendon Press


Category: El Salvador

Page: 329

View: 4616

Green Roof - A Case Study

Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates' Design for the Headquarters of the American Society of Landscape Architects

Author: Christian Werthmann

Publisher: Princeton Architectural Press

ISBN: 9781568986852

Category: Architecture

Page: 159

View: 8599

Green roofs are the great green hope of many environmentalists, politicians, and architects interested in more efficient and environmentally aware buildings. From a design standpoint, however, there is less consensus. While some see the roof garden as a visual statement using plants, geometric lines, and sculptural elements, others believe concerns for sustainability should outweigh visual appeal. A green roof that combines aesthetics and mechanics has become the goal of many a landscape architect. In Green Roof Gardens, author Christian Werthmann explains the history, methodology, and design process of green roof garden construction, providing a rich source of inspiration and technical knowledge in the process for anybody interested in this simple solution to many of the environmental challenges we face today.

Forests and Society

Sustainability and Life Cycles of Forests in Human Landscapes

Author: Kristiina A. Vogt

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845931114

Category: Nature

Page: 384

View: 5981

This book provides a broad-ranging textbook on the relationships between forests and society. It discusses the ways in which society can interact with forest landscapes without adversely affecting their sustainability. Topics covered include attitudes to, and uses of forests, the creation of today's forest landscapes, the impact of humans on forests, and forest sustainability and human health. The book also examines emerging issues in forestry such as possible solutions to balancing societies' needs with forest sustainability, managing forests in the urban-wildland interface, and the impact of illegal logging. It is packed with real-world case studies from the USA, Australia, Bolivia, Botswana, Canada, China, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Thailand.

The Culture of Architecture in Enlightenment Rome

Author: Heather Hyde Minor

Publisher: Penn State University Press


Category: Architecture

Page: 295

View: 7651

"Examines the nexus of learned culture and architecture in the 1730s to 1750s, including major building projects in Rome undertaken by the popes"--Provided by publisher.


Business and Society in the New Social Landscape

Author: James Rubin,Barie Carmichael

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231545908

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 254

View: 4991

As consumers, our access to—and appetite for—information about what and how we buy continues to grow. Powered by social media, increasingly we look at the companies behind the products and are disappointed when their actions do not meet our expectations. With engaged citizens acting as 24/7 auditors of corporate behavior, one formerly trusted company after another has had their business disrupted with astonishing velocity in the wake of what, in the past, might have been written off as a bad media cycle. Gone are the days when a company could hide behind “socially responsible” branding or when marketing controlled the corporate narrative. That control has shifted to engaged stakeholders in the new social landscape, requiring a more radical change to company practices. James Rubin and Barie Carmichael provide a strategic roadmap for businesses to navigate the new era, rebuild trust, and find their voice. Reset traces the global decline of trust in business at the same time that the public’s expectations for business’s role in society is increasing. Today, businesses must bridge this widening gap at a time when online stakeholders are committed to holding business accountable for its behavior, with unprecedented internal and external scrutiny. This requires strategic solutions anchored in a critical outside-in understanding of the stakeholder footprint of the business model. Reset offers case studies of reputations lost and found, suggesting fundamental strategies to mitigate risk and build the corporate brand. In this new era of instant transparency, corporate behavior has become the proof of corporate character for recruiting and retaining both customers and the next generation of talent. Offering essential advice for managing brand, reputation, and risk, this book is a guide to navigating the pitfalls and taking advantage of the opportunities of the reset.

Disrupted Landscapes

State, Peasants and the Politics of Land in Postsocialist Romania

Author: Stefan Dorondel

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785331213

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 252

View: 6159

The fall of the Soviet Union was a transformative event for the national political economies of Eastern Europe, leading not only to new regimes of ownership and development but to dramatic changes in the natural world itself. This painstakingly researched volume focuses on the emblematic case of postsocialist Romania, in which the transition from collectivization to privatization profoundly reshaped the nation's forests, farmlands, and rivers. From bureaucrats abetting illegal deforestation to peasants opposing government agricultural policies, it reveals the social and political mechanisms by which neoliberalism was introduced into the Romanian landscape.

Landscape Infrastructure

Case Studies by SWA

Author: Ying-Yu Hung,Gerdo Aquino

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 303461585X

Category: Architecture

Page: 197

View: 9892

Now available as revised edition: The successful title on integrated ecological landscape planning Infrastructure, as we know it, no longer belongs in the exclusive realm of engineers and transportation planners. In the context of rapidly changing cities and towns, infrastructure is experiencing a paradigm shift where multiple-use programming and the integration of latent ecologies is a primary consideration. Defining contemporary infrastructure requires a multi-disciplinary team of landscape architects, engineers, architects and planners to fully realize the benefits to our cultural and natural systems. This book examines the potential of landscape as infrastructure via essays by notable authors and supporting case studies by SWA landscape architects and urban designers, among them the technologically innovative roof domes for Renzo Piano’s California Academy of Science in San Francisco, the restoration of the Buffalo Bayou in Houston, and several master plans for ecological corridors in China and Korea. Other projects develop smart re-use concepts for railroad tracks that no longer serve their original purpose, such as Kyung-Chun railway in Seoul or Katy Trail in Dallas. All case studies are described extensively with technical diagrams and plans for repositioning infrastructure as a viable medium for addressing issues of ecology, transit, urbanism, performance, and habitat.


Cultural Encounter, Imperial Vision, and the Construction of the Ottoman Capital

Author: Çi_dem Kafescio_lu

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271027762

Category: Social Science

Page: 295

View: 2617

"Studies the reconstruction of Byzantine Constantinople as the capital city of the Ottoman empire following its capture in 1453, delineating the complex interplay of socio-political, architectural, visual, and literary processes that underlay the city's transformation"--Provided by publisher.

Landscapes, Identities and Development

Author: Paul Claval

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351923447

Category: Social Science

Page: 508

View: 3262

Bringing together theoretical and empirical research from 22 countries in Europe, North America, Australia, South America and Japan, this book offers a state-of-the-art survey of conceptual and methodological research and planning issues relating to landscape, heritage, [and] development. It has 30 chapters grouped in four main thematic sections: landscapes as a constitutive dimension of territorial identities; landscape history and landscape heritage; landscapes as development assets and resources; and landscape research and development planning. The contributors are scholars from a wide range of cultural and professional backgrounds, experienced in fundamental and applied research, planning and policy design. They were invited by the co-editors to write chapters for this book on the basis of the theoretical frameworks, case-study research findings and related policy concerns they presented at the 23rd Session of PECSRL - The Permanent European Conference for the Study of the Rural Landscape, organized by TERCUD - Territory, Culture and Development Research Centre, Universidade Lusófona, in Lisbon and Óbidos, Portugal, 1 - 5 September 2008. With such broad inter-disciplinary relevance and international scope, this book provides a valuable overview, highlighting recent findings and interpretations on historical, current and prospective linkages between changing landscapes and natural, economic, cultural and other identity features of places and regions; landscape-related identities as local and regional development assets and resources in the era of globalized economy and culture; the role of landscape history and heritage as platforms of landscape research and management in European contexts, including the implementation of The European Landscape Convention; and, the strengthening of the landscape perspective as a constitutive element of sustainable development.