Labor Unions, Management Innovation and Organizational Change in Police Departments

Author: John DeCarlo,Michael J. Jenkins

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319215841

Category: Social Science

Page: 60

View: 3147

This Brief examines the role of Police Unions in law enforcement policy development. It provides an overview of the historical and political background of police labor unions, and takes a critical look at the shifting perception of labor unions from generally positive to somewhat negative, to compare this perception with their real impact. It examines the perceived role that unions play, whether positive, negative, or neutral in the development and advancement of contemporary law enforcement agencies and their respective policies. This work provides a multisite survey of police administrators’ views and opinions on police union impact on a variety of police functions including: delivery of services, prevention of crime and disorder, and interaction with the public. The results of this research provide a comprehensive look at ways to improve the ways police departments operate and how they improve and enhance legitimacy in their communities.It provides a context for the current state of the public sector labor relations environment. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, police science, and public policy.

Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations

Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319892940

Category: Social Science

Page: 131

View: 2500

This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Ethics and Civil Drones

European Policies and Proposals for the Industry

Author: María de Miguel Molina,Virginia Santamarina Campos

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319710877

Category: Law

Page: 92

View: 8699

This open access book disseminates some of the results of the European H2020 AiRT Project (Technology transfer of RPAs for the creative industry). In particular, it presents findings related to mitigating safety and security concerns when civil drones are piloted by the service sector (mainly, the creative industry). European policies regarding drones generally focus on outdoor drones, but they are also used indoors. Moreover, a number of European countries have fragmented regulations on drone use, and as a result, European institutions are attempting address these issues. This work is based on a detailed study of the European policies, a comparative analysis of the regulation in various European countries, an analysis of the drone sector in Europe, and primary data from members of the creative industry. The authors created focus groups in Spain, the UK and Belgium in order to discuss with the creative industry the concerns on safety and security when using civil drones for their work. Based on these results, the book offers advice to the European industry, as well as new insights for academics and policymakers. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Societal Implications of Community-Oriented Policing and Technology

Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319892975

Category: Social Science

Page: 102

View: 770

This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize the societal implications of new technologies for community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through strengthed community feeling and lower feeling of insecurity - Reducing the fear of crime and enhancing the perception of security in large, urban environments -Enhancing citizens feelings' of empowerment, belonging, and collective efficacy Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Hey, Shorty!

A Guide to Combating Sexual Harassment and Violence in Schools and on the Streets

Author: Girls for Gender Equity,Joanne Smith,Meghan Huppuch,Mandy Van Deven

Publisher: The Feminist Press at CUNY

ISBN: 9781558616707

Category: Social Science

Page: 144

View: 9270

At every stage of education, sexual harassment is common, and often considered a rite of passage for young people. It’s not unusual for a girl to hear “Hey, Shorty!” on a daily basis, as she walks down the hall or comes into the school yard, followed by a sexual innuendo, insult, come-on, or assault. But when teenagers are asked whether they experience this in their own lives, most of them say it’s not happening. Girls for Gender Equity, a nonprofit organization based in New York City, has developed a model for teens to teach one another about sexual harassment. How do you define it? How does it affect your self-esteem? What do you do in response? Why is it so normalized in schools, and how can we as a society begin to address these causes? Geared toward students, parents, teachers, policy makers, and activists, this book is an excellent model for building awareness and creating change in any community.

Police-Citizen Relations Across the World

Comparing sources and contexts of trust and legitimacy

Author: Dietrich Oberwittler,Sebastian Roché

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315406640

Category: Social Science

Page: 308

View: 6582

Police-citizen relations are in the public spotlight following outbursts of anger and violence. Such clashes often happen as a response to fatal police shootings, racial or ethnic discrimination, or the mishandling of mass protests. But even in such cases, citizens’ assessment of the police differs considerably across social groups. This raises the question of the sources and impediments of citizens’ trust and support for police. Why are police-citizen relations much better in some countries than in others? Are police-minority relations doomed to be strained? And which police practices and policing policies generate trust and legitimacy? Research on police legitimacy has been centred on US experiences, and relied on procedural justice as the main theoretical approach. This book questions whether this approach is suitable and sufficient to understand public attitudes towards the police across different countries and regions of the world. This volume shows that the impact of macro-level conditions, of societal cleavages, and of state and political institutions on police-citizen relations has too often been neglected in contemporary research. Building on empirical studies from around the world as well as cross-national comparisons, this volume considerably expands current perspectives on the sources of police legitimacy and citizens’ trust in the police. Combining the analysis of micro-level interactions with a perspective on the contextual framework and varying national conditions, the contributions to this book illustrate the strength of a broadened perspective and lead us to ask how specific national frameworks shape the experiences of policing.

Procedural Justice and Legitimacy in Policing

Author: Lorraine Mazerolle,Elise Sargeant,Adrian Cherney,Sarah Bennett,Kristina Murphy,Emma Antrobus,Peter Martin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319045431

Category: Social Science

Page: 81

View: 2109

This brief focuses on the “doing” of procedural justice: what the police can do to implement the principles of procedural justice, and how their actions can improve citizen perceptions of police legitimacy. Drawing on research from Australia (Mazerolle et al), the UK (Stanko, Bradford, Jackson etc al), the US (Tyler, Reisig, Weisburd), Israel (Jonathon-Zamir et al), Trinidad & Tobago (Kochel et al) and Ghana (Tankebe), the authors examine the practical ways that the police can approach engagement with citizens across a range of different types of interventions to embrace the principles of procedural justice, including: · problem-oriented policing · patrol · restorative justice · reassurance policing · and community policing. Through these examples, the authors also examine some of the barriers for implementing procedurally just ways of interacting with citizens, and offer practical suggestions for reform. This work will be of interest for researchers in criminology and criminal justice focused on policing as well as policymakers.

Developing and Maintaining Police-Researcher Partnerships to Facilitate Research Use

A Comparative Analysis

Author: Jeff Rojek,Peter Martin,Geoffrey P. Alpert

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493920561

Category: Social Science

Page: 84

View: 6798

This Brief discusses methods to develop and maintain police – researcher partnerships. First, the authors provide information that will be useful to police managers and researchers who are interested in creating and maintaining partnerships to conduct research, work together to improve policing and help others understand the linkages between the two groups. Then, more specifically, they describe how police managers consider and utilize research in policing and criminal justice and its findings from a management perspective in both the United States and Australia. While both countries experience similar issues of trust, acceptance, utility, and accountability between researchers and practitioners, the experiences in the countries differ. In the United States with 17,000 agencies, the use of research findings by police agencies requires understanding, diffusion and acceptance. In Australia with a small number of larger agencies, the problems of research-practitioner partnerships have different translational issues, including acceptance and application. As long as police practitioners and academic researchers hold distinct and different impressions of each other, the likelihood of positive, cooperative, and sustainable agreements between them will suffer.

Treatment versus Punishment for Drug Addiction

Lessons from Austria, Poland, and Spain

Author: Richard Soyer,Stefan Schumann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319188240

Category: Social Science

Page: 100

View: 1942

​​This brief summarizes the results of a two-year, international research project covering drug addiction treatment versus punishment in Austria, Poland, and Spain. It features: -An analysis of the national drug-related legislation and its application in these countries - An evaluation of drug laws and policies by both the law enforcement and drug treatment practitioners -An evaluation of drug-addicted offenders undergoing drug treatment versus punishment and their outcomes The basic findings of the project can be summarized as follows: drug addiction and drug-related criminal behavior should be treated as a psychiatric disorder and a chronic disease. The study supports the application of a treatment-oriented approach to drug-related delinquency. As this brief demonstrates, one challenge to an adequate treatment of drug addicted offenders is a lack of cooperation between the judicial and the medical sector, and an inconsistent application of policies. By comparing the legislation and application of drug laws in these three European countries, the authors provide insights with implications for other national legal systems. This brief will be of interest to researchers and policy-makers working with drug involved individuals, from criminology and criminal justice, public health, public policy and international comparative law.

Police Leaders in the New Community Problem-Solving Era

Author: Michael J. Jenkins,John DeCarlo

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781611635904

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 220

View: 2108

After 40 years of research championing the police profession's move into the Community Problem-Solving era, there are police practitioners and scholars who argue that the police profession has entered a new, intelligence-led, anti-terrorism era. Police Leaders in the New Community Problem-Solving Era demonstrates that these innovations are simply ways of more finely applying the elements of a community problem-solving strategy within a technologically savvy, post-9/11, and economically downgraded United States. This book chronicles what are arguably some of the nation's most capable police executives as they assist in moving their police departments into this New Community Problem-Solving Era. Given unprecedented access to the Boston, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, and Newark (NJ) police departments, the cases are built using observations of police activities, in-depth interviews, surveys, and archival reviews. The reader will see how, rather than moving into a distinct era, even the most progressive police executives within rather forward-thinking settings are still on the road to fully realizing the community-based, crime and disorder reduction, and quality-of-life enhancing function of the police. The authors illuminate the undeniable role that police executives can play in bringing their departments into the New Community Problem-Solving era and discuss the facilitators and inhibitors that will undoubtedly influence the police profession's move in this new era. Students of policing as well as practitioners from varied policing backgrounds will find this book relatable, easy to understand, and relevant to many areas of police research and practice.

Regulatory Theory

Foundations and applications

Author: Peter Drahos

Publisher: ANU Press

ISBN: 1760461024

Category: Law

Page: 783

View: 2527

This volume introduces readers to regulatory theory. Aimed at practitioners, postgraduate students and those interested in regulation as a cross-cutting theme in the social sciences, Regulatory Theory includes chapters on the social-psychological foundations of regulation as well as theories of regulation such as responsive regulation, smart regulation and nodal governance. It explores the key themes of compliance, legal pluralism, meta-regulation, the rule of law, risk, accountability, globalisation and regulatory capitalism. The environment, crime, health, human rights, investment, migration and tax are among the fields of regulation considered in this ground-breaking book. Each chapter introduces the reader to key concepts and ideas and contains suggestions for further reading. The contributors, who either are or have been connected to the Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet) at The Australian National University, include John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Peter Grabosky, Neil Gunningham, Fiona Haines, Terry Halliday, David Levi-Faur, Christine Parker, Colin Scott and Clifford Shearing.

Prison Tattoos

A Study of Russian Inmates in Israel

Author: Efrat Shoham

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319158716

Category: Social Science

Page: 110

View: 3018

This Brief studies the important role that tattoos play in prison culture, and examines its unique manifestation among minority inmates. This work aims to provide a better understanding of prison group culture, particularly among social marginal groups, through the lens of Russian immigrants in Israeli prisons. Russian immigrants currently represent approximately 25% of the total Israeli prison population, and this book examines how tattoos show an important form of rebellion amongst this group. As tattoos are forbidden in some forms of Islam and Judaism, and the Israeli prison service confiscates over 200 homemade tattoo devices per year, this is a significant phenomenon both before and during incarceration. This work examines how despite the transition to Israel, the main social codes of Russian prisoners are still dominant and help segregate this group from the larger prison population. It provides a lens to understand Russian criminal activity in Israel, and in a larger context, the modes of social cohesion and criminal activity of organized crime groups operating in prison systems. This work will be of interest to researchers studying the organized crime and the criminal justice system, Russian organized crime in particular, as well as related studies of immigration, demography, and social cohesion.

Homicide Data Sources

An Interdisciplinary Overview for Researchers

Author: Adam Dobrin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319198815

Category: Social Science

Page: 44

View: 3402

This Brief provides a detailed guide to national data sources that collect and report data on homicides in the United States, and some key international sources abroad. It provides in-depth coverage of well-known sources, and highlights more obscure sources, providing a useful tool for research design and planning across disciplines. This Brief includes detailed discussions of the benchmark sources in the United States: police data compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reporting Programs, as well as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics’ National Vital Statistics System. It also brings to light in one place many other less commonly-known sources for the United States. The author also highlights international data sources with worldwide data, but not country-specific studies. For each source covered, this unique work provides discussion of how to access the data source, interpret data from the source, and provides necessary background information about strengths and weaknesses of the sources. It does not presume expertise in statistics or methodology, and assumes no prior exposure to the data sources described. It is organized by data source, with some comparisons between the sources. It will be useful as a guide for researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, Public Administration, Demography, and any related field interested in homicide statistics.

Translational Criminology and Counterterrorism

Global Threats and Local Responses

Author: Leslie W. Kennedy,Yasemin Irvin-Erickson,Alexis R. Kennedy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1461455561

Category: Social Science

Page: 63

View: 7664

This brief focuses on translational criminology practices as they relate to counter-terrorism and homeland security. The work provides a detailed and practical examination of how global threats (such as, terrorism and cybercrime) are managed through local response. It covers emerging strategies in data collection procedures, inter-agency cooperation, and new analytical techniques including risk-terrain modeling. In addition, it presents a common methodology, including steps in risk assessment, risk management, and decision-making, that can be used to frame and analyze global and local threats. The authors examine these issues using examples of how law enforcement responded to specific security threats including the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, the 2003 terrorist attack in Istanbul, Turkey, and the 2010 Stuxnet attack on the Natanz nuclear facility in Iran. This work expands on existing literature covering the impact that globalization has on cross national threats, drawing on disciplines related to criminology, such as international relations and political science.

Applying a Human Rights Approach to Social Work Research and Evaluation

A Rights Research Manifesto

Author: Tina Maschi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319260367

Category: Social Science

Page: 159

View: 5877

This brief introduces a human rights approach to social work research and evaluation, compares it to traditional research approaches, and explains how to apply it in real world social work research. The author draws from a human rights framework that incorporates dignity and respect for all persons, the universality and interrelatedness of rights (political, civil, social, economic, and cultural), nondiscrimination, participation, accountability, and transparency. To advance a human rights approach, it introduces a rights-based model that accentuates the use of mixed methods and participatory research and evaluation. This brief aims to increase competencies in how to apply a rights based approach to research decision-making process from the formulation of research questions, research and practice design, and participatory action strategies that advance human rights.​ It is a call to action for social workers to forge a rights-based research agenda that fosters empowerment.

Foot Patrol

Rethinking the Cornerstone of Policing

Author: Jerry H. Ratcliffe,Evan T. Sorg

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319652478

Category: Social Science

Page: 90

View: 9319

This Brief reviews the history of foot patrol and the recent, research-driven resurgence of foot patrol in places such as Philadelphia. It summarizes and critiques existing literature on the subject, examining the efficacy of foot patrol. At the time the Philadelphia Foot Patrol Experiment was published, popular opinion about foot patrol was that it might improve community perception of police and reduce fear of crime, but it did not have a concrete crime prevention benefit. The Philadelphia Experiment represented a major examination of this concept, involving over 200 officers in 60 locations over a two-year period, in some of the highest violent crime areas of Philadelphia. The results suggested that a targeted hot spots-oriented foot patrol strategy did contribute to violent crime reduction. Four years later, the lead author of that seminal experiment explores its findings, together with the findings of the Philadelphia Policing Tactics Experiment, and examines their differences. This work also explores officer experiences with foot patrol. This Brief concludes with policy recommendations about foot patrol, when and how to implement it, and the benefits it can add to a police department. This Brief will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly with an interest in Police Studies, and related fields such as sociology and public policy. It will also be of interest to practitioners and policy makers interested in evidence-based policing.

Confidential Informants

A Closer Look at Police Policy

Author: Jon Shane

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331922252X

Category: Social Science

Page: 112

View: 8596

While confidential informants (CI’s) can play a crucial role in police investigations, they also have the potential to cause great harm if they are dishonest. The process by which police agencies qualify a CI to work and the strength of agency policy may be the source of the problem. This Brief examines the integrity problem involving CIs in police operations within the United States, provides an overview of pitfalls and problems related to veracity and informant integrity including the difficulties in detecting when a CI is lying, and compares the provisions of actual published police policy to the model CI policy published by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). The analysis shows a wide divergence between actual police policy and the national standard promulgated by the IACP. The Brief provides policy recommendations for improving use of CIs that can potentially reduce or eliminate integrity problems that can lead to organizational accidents such as wrongful arrests and convictions, injuries or deaths. Some Courts have issued measures to ensure that information received from CIs is reliable by examining sworn testimony and documents related to their work. However, as this Brief explores, this judicial effort arises only after a police operation has taken place, and the use of force – even deadly force—has already been employed. The author proposes integrity testing beforehand, which would allow police to have a greater understanding of a CI’s motivation, ability and veracity when conducting law enforcement operations. In addition, there are aspects of police policy that can enhance CI management such as training, supervision and entrapment that can further guard against integrity problems. Although integrity testing is not flawless, it does interpose an additional step in the CI management process that can help guard against wrongful conviction and perjury that harms the judicial process.

Producing Bias-Free Policing

A Science-Based Approach

Author: Lorie A. Fridell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319331752

Category: Social Science

Page: 117

View: 9916

This Brief provides specific recommendations for police professionals to reduce the influence of implicit bias on police practice, which will improve both effectiveness (in a shift towards evidence-based, rather than bias-based) practices and police legitimacy. The author is donating her proceeds from this book to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (nleomf.org).

Ethical Concerns in Research on Human Trafficking

Author: Dina Siegel,Roos de Wildt

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319215213

Category: Social Science

Page: 277

View: 2244

This book presents a vivid description of the solutions that researchers have discovered for ethical dilemmas that pose themselves at studying disadvantaged, vulnerable and victimized populations. Ethical codes prescribe that the scholar should in all circumstances avoid potential harm, that informed consent is necessary and that the limits of confidentiality should always be respected. However, in the practice of research among women involved in prostitution, illegal immigrant workers, enslaved children, people who sell their organs and all the traffickers thereof, the ethical rules cannot always be followed. This book shows that there is a surprising variety of arguable possibilities in dealing with ethical dilemmas in the field. Authors reflect on concrete experiences from their own fieldwork in a wide variety of settings such as the USA, Singapore, Kosovo and The Netherlands. Some choose to work on the basis of conscientious partiality, others negotiate the rules with their informants and still others purposely break the rules in order to disclose and damage the exploiters. Researchers may find themselves in a vulnerable position. Their experiences, as presented in this volume, will help field workers, university administrators, representatives of vulnerable groups, philosophers of ethics and most of all students to go into the field well-prepared. This is a book that every researcher planning to do fieldwork in the difficult field of hidden, illicit and victimized people should read in advance. Dr. Frank Bovenkerk, Professor (Emeritus), Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands This book allows a peek in the kitchen of empirical fieldwork, going into not only “best practices,” but mistakes made, in a frank, courageous and honest way. Dr. Brenda C. Oude Breuil, Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands

The Role of State Agencies in Translational Criminology

Connecting Research to Policy

Author: Mark S Davis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319576828

Category: Social Science

Page: 63

View: 680

This Brief discusses the role of state-level criminal justice organizations in the prevention and control of crime and delinquency. State agencies play an important role in translating criminological knowledge into criminal justice policy and practice. Their unique position enables them to help bridge the divide between the academic and federal agencies, and local communities that need the knowledge. Using several examples, the author shows how state agencies have facilitated translation with varying degrees of success. The agencies covered include: state police/patrol, attorneys general, adult and juvenile corrections, and state criminal justice planning agencies. To a lesser extent they also include statewide organizations representing law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, probation and parole officers, crime prevention professionals, and victim advocates. Most statewide criminal justice organizations are in an excellent position to translate criminological theory and research into policy and practice. Some, like those administering federal monies, to an extent are forced into the translation role for their constituents. Others, such as departments of corrections, do so out of necessity or because of enlightened leadership. Still others, such as state criminal justice planning agencies, provide leadership in translation because of the broad umbrella of their responsibilities and the incentives their pass-though dollars represent. Regardless, state agencies provide an important link between academic institutions and the federal government on one hand, and local criminal justice agencies on the other.​ This Brief provides and important resource for navigating that link.