This book traces the history of the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial of 1946-47, through the eyes of the Austrian émigré psychiatrist Leo Alexander, whose investigations helped the US prosecution. Schmidt provides a detailed insight into the origins of human rights in medical science and into the changing role of international law, ethics and politics.
A book judged so dangerous in the Soviet Union that not only the manuscript but the ribbons on which it had been typed were confiscated by the state, Life and Fate is an epic tale of World War II and a profound reckoning with the dark forces that dominated the twentieth century. Interweaving a transfixing account of the battle of Stalingrad with the story of a single middle-class family, the Shaposhnikovs, scattered by fortune from Germany to Siberia, Vasily Grossman fashions an immense, intricately detailed tapestry depicting a time of almost unimaginable horror and even stranger hope.Life and Fate juxtaposes bedrooms and snipers’ nests, scientific laboratories and the Gulag, taking us deep into the hearts and minds of characters ranging from a boy on his way to the gas chambers to Hitler and Stalin themselves. This novel of unsparing realism and visionary moral intensity is one of the supreme achievements of modern Russian literature.
Our understanding of the dynamics of Communist systems was substantially improved by taking political culture into account. But how much does the concept of political culture add to our empirical understanding of post-Communist Russia? The book's contributors engage with theoretical debates between political culture and competing 'rational choice' and institutionalist approaches to post-Soviet politics, and provide illustrative empirical studies of civic participation, views of national identity, the Russian criminal justice system and political violence.
Small States and EU Governance shows that the EU's rotating Council presidency and small states' capacity to make use of it have been underestimated. It examines the political objectives the presidency serves and presents a systematic and comparative assessment of its nature and influence in internal market and foreign policy issues.
Taking Britain and Italy as comparative cases, the author explores the extent to which dominant notions of family life differed in postwar Britain and Italy and the implications this had on the development of family policy in these two countries.
New York Times Bestseller A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become? Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.
The Declaration of Helsinki and Modern Medical Ethics
Author: Ulf Schmidt,Andreas Frewer
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden gmbh
Despite having been revised and criticised over the years, the Declaration of Helsinki remains one of the most important and internationally known ethics codes worldwide. Yet we know relatively little about its historical origins or about the prolonged revision process which accompanied this Ã´living documentÃ¶. The chapters presented in this volume look at the history and theory of human experimentation, assess the role of the Helsinki Declaration in an international context, and illustrate specific issues about the history and practice of research ethics through a number of case studies in the United States, Asia and Europe. To this day, the Declaration is one of the most important landmarks in human subject research which is aimed at protecting experimental subjects in society. The current volume offers a better and historically-informed understanding of the Declaration to ensure that the existing safeguards are not only preserved but developed and improved in the future. Die 1964 verÃ¶ffentlichte Deklaration zu Helsinki ist einer der wichtigsten und international bekanntesten Kodizes zur Forschungsethik, dessen Entstehungsgeschichte von steter Kritik und zahlreichen Ã_berarbeitungen begleitet wurde. Dennoch weiÃ¡ man relativ wenig ber die historischen Wurzeln und Novellierungsprozesse dieses Ã¤gewachsenen DokumentsÃ´ der Medizingeschichte. Bis zum heutigen Tag ist die Deklaration einer der bedeutendsten Wegweiser f r die Forschung am Menschen, deren grundsÃ¤tzliches Ziel es ist, Versuchspersonen in medizinischen Experimenten zu sch tzen. Der Band beleuchtet Geschichte und Theorie der Experimente am Menschen, untersucht die Rolle der Deklaration im internationalen Kontext und illustriert spezifische Themen zur Geschichte und Praxis der Forschungsethik anhand von Fallstudien zu den USA, Asien und Europa. AuÃ¡erdem geben die Studien Einblick in die Entstehungsgeschichte der Deklaration - nicht nur um die bestehenden Standards zum Schutz von Versuchspersonen zu bewahren, sondern auch um diese zuk nftig weiterzuentwickeln und zu verbessern. Aus dem Inhalt Ulf Schmidt / Andreas Frewer: History and Ehtics of Human Experimentation: the Twisted Road to Helsinki. An Introduction History and Theory of Medical Research Ethics Ulrich TrÃ¶hler: The Long Road of Moral Concern: Doctors' Ethos and Statute Law Relating to Human Research in Europe Dietrich von Engelhardt: The Historical and Philosophical Background of Ethics in Clinical Research Ulf Schmidt: The Nuremberg Doctors' Trial and the Nuremberg Code Till BÃ¤rnighausen: Communicating Ã´Tainted ScienceÃ¶: The Japanese Biological Warfare Experiments on Human Subjects in China The Helsinki Declaration in an International Context Susan E. Lederer: Research Without Borders: The Origins of the Declaration of Helsinki Povl Riis: Forty Years of the Declaration of Helsinki: Progress in Medical Ethics? Kati MyllymÃ¤ki: Revising the Declaration of Helsinki: An Insiders' View Robert Carlson / Kenneth Boyd / David Webb: The Interpretation of Codes of Medical Ethics: Some Lessons from the Fifth Revision of the Declaration of Helsinki David Willcox: Medical Ethics and Public Perception: The Declaration of Helsinki and its Revisions in 2000 Dominique Sprumont / Sara Girardin / Trudo Lemmens: The Helsinki Declaration and the Law: An International and Comparative Analysis History and Ethics of Research - International Perspectives Andreas Frewer: History of Medicine and Ethics in Conflict: Research on National Socialism as Moral Problem Ulf Schmidt: Medical Ethics and Human Experiments at Porton Down: Informed Consent in Britain's Biological and Chemical Warfare Experiments John Williams: The Declaration of Helsinki. The Importance of Context Jonathan D. Moreno: Helsinki into the Future. An Epilogue Key Documents on the History of Research Ethics Circular of the Reich Minister of the Interior Concerning Guidelines for New Therapy and Human Experimentation (Berlin, 1931) Ã¹ The Nuremberg Code (1947) Ã¹ World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki I (1964) Ã¹ World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki II (Tokyo, 1975) Ã¹ Council of Europe: Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (Oviedo, 1997) Ã¹ World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki (2004).
Here is the extraordinary story of how the Central Intelligence Agency waged a careful and systematic assault on the human psyche. John Marks reveals what was perhaps the most sinister activity ever engaged in by an organ of the United States government. He describes how the government conducted a series of secret programs to find ways to control human behavior. Responding to the assumption that the Soviets (and before them the Nazis) were trying to do the same, Marks asserts that high officials of the CIA and military intelligence believed they could enhance American security if they make a recalcitrant subject talk or otherwise act against his will. - Jacket flap.
Author: Eric Voegelin,Detlev Clemens,Brendan M. Purcell
Publisher: University of Missouri Press
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Between 1933 & 1938, Eric Voegelin published four books that expressly stated his opposition to the increasingly powerful Hitler regime. As a result, he was forced to leave his homeland in 1938. Twenty years later, he returned to Germany as a professor of political science at Ludwig-Maximilian University. Voegelin's homecoming allowed him the opportunity to voice once again his opinions on the Nazi regime & its aftermath. In 1964 at the University of Munich, Voegelin gave a series of memorable lectures on what he considered "the central German experiential problem" of his time: Adolf Hitler's rise to power, the reasons for it, & its consequences for post-Nazi Germany. For Voegelin, these questions demanded a scrutiny of the mentality of individual Germans & of the order of German society during & after the Nazi period. Hitler & the Germans, published here for the first time, offers Voegelin's most extensive & detailed critique of the Hitler era. Voegelin interprets this era in terms of the basic diagnostic tools provided by the philosophy of Plato & Aristotle, Judeo-Christian culture, & contemporary German-language writers like Heimito von Doderer, Karl Kraus, Thomas Mann, & Robert Musil. His inquiry uncovers a historiography that was substantially unhistoric: a German Evangelical Church that misinterpreted the Gospel, a German Catholic Church that denied universal humanity, & a legal process enmeshed in criminal homicide. Hitler & the Germans provides a profound alternative approach to the topic of the individual German's entanglement in the Hitler regime & its continuing implications. This comprehensive reading of the Nazi period has yet to be matched.
The controversial journalistic analysis of the mentality that fostered the Holocaust, from the author of The Origins of Totalitarianism Sparking a flurry of heated debate, Hannah Arendt’s authoritative and stunning report on the trial of German Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann first appeared as a series of articles in The New Yorker in 1963. This revised edition includes material that came to light after the trial, as well as Arendt’s postscript directly addressing the controversy that arose over her account. A major journalistic triumph by an intellectual of singular influence, Eichmann in Jerusalem is as shocking as it is informative—an unflinching look at one of the most unsettling (and unsettled) issues of the twentieth century.
Secret Science traces, for the first time, the history of chemical and biological weapons research involving experiments on humans by the former Allied powers during the twentieth century, particularly in Britain, the United States and Canada. It charts the ethical trajectory and culture of military science, from its initial development in response to Germany's first use of chemical weapons in the First World War to the ongoing attempts by theinternational community to ban these types of weapons once and for all. The study throws new light onto the evolving field of military medical ethics by exploring continuity and change in the understanding and applicationof military medicine and science.
Looking at anti-apartheid as part of the history of present global politics, this book provides the first comparative analysis of different sections of the transnational anti-apartheid movement. The author emphasizes the importance of a historical perspective on political cultures, social movements, and global civil society.
This report addresses a vital but relatively neglected dimension of the history of WW II and its aftermath. It documents one of the greatest thefts by a government in history: the confiscation by Nazi Germany of an estimated $580 million of central bank gold -- around $5.6 billion in today's values -- along with indeterminate amounts in other assets during WW II. These goods were stolen from governments and civilians in the countries Germany overran and from Jewish and non-Jewish victims of the Nazis alike, included Jews murdered in extermination camps, from whom everything was taken down to the gold fillings of their teeth.
In 1995, we published the 1st Edition of The Pink Swastika to counter historical revisionism by the homosexual political movement which had been attempting since the 1970s to fabricate a "Gay Holocaust" equivalent to that suffered by the Jews in Nazi Germany. Fifteen years have passed, but our research into this topic has never stopped.
The denial of the Holocaust has no more credibility than the assertion that the earth is flat. Yet there are those who insist that the death of six million Jews in Nazi concentration camps is nothing but a hoax perpetrated by a powerful Zionist conspiracy. Sixty years ago, such notions were the province of pseudohistorians who argued that Hitler never meant to kill the Jews, and that only a few hundred thousand died in the camps from disease; they also argued that the Allied bombings of Dresden and other cities were worse than any Nazi offense, and that the Germans were the “true victims” of World War II. For years, those who made such claims were dismissed as harmless cranks operating on the lunatic fringe. But as time goes on, they have begun to gain a hearing in respectable arenas, and now, in the first full-scale history of Holocaust denial, Deborah Lipstadt shows how—despite tens of thousands of living witnesses and vast amounts of documentary evidence—this irrational idea not only has continued to gain adherents but has become an international movement, with organized chapters, “independent” research centers, and official publications that promote a “revisionist” view of recent history. Lipstadt shows how Holocaust denial thrives in the current atmosphere of value-relativism, and argues that this chilling attack on the factual record not only threatens Jews but undermines the very tenets of objective scholarship that support our faith in historical knowledge. Thus the movement has an unsuspected power to dramatically alter the way that truth and meaning are transmitted from one generation to another.
It is often only years after the commission of core international crimes that prosecutions and investigations take place. This anthology addresses challenges associated with such delayed justice: the location, treatment, and assessment of old evidence. Part I considers the topic from the perspective of different actors involved in the prosecution of core international crimes at the domestic and international levels. Part II comprises chapters focusing on the efforts of the Bangladeshi authorities to investigate and prosecute international crimes perpetrated during the 1971 war. This book brings together experienced judges, prosecutors, lawyers, scientists, and commentators who have dealt with questions of old evidence in their work. Among the contributors are Shafique Ahmed, Andrew Cayley, David Cohen, Seena Fazel, Siri S. Frigaard, M. Amir-Ul Islam, Md. Shahinur Islam, Agnieszka Klonowiecka-Milart, Alphons M.M. Orie, Stephen J. Rapp, Patrick J. Treanor, Otto Triffterer and Martin Witteveen. The chapters describe the challenges encountered in practice and suggest concrete solutions that can be tailored to fit the circumstances of the case or country. By providing a comprehensive analysis of the relevant problems in this area and a variety of views, this anthology will serve as an invaluable resource for criminal justice actors and researchers seeking to address questions of old evidence.