Junk DNA

A Journey Through the Dark Matter of the Genome

Author: Nessa Carey

Publisher: Icon Books

ISBN: 184831826X

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 1839

From the author of the acclaimed The Epigenetics Revolution (‘A book that would have had Darwin swooning’ – Guardian) comes another thrilling exploration of the cutting edge of human science. For decades after the structure of DNA was identified, scientists focused purely on genes, the regions of the genome that contain codes for the production of proteins. Other regions – 98% of the human genome – were dismissed as ‘junk’. But in recent years researchers have discovered that variations in this ‘junk’ DNA underlie many previously intractable diseases, and they can now generate new approaches to tackling them. Nessa Carey explores, for the first time for a general audience, the incredible story behind a controversy that has generated unusually vituperative public exchanges between scientists. She shows how junk DNA plays an important role in areas as diverse as genetic diseases, viral infections, sex determination in mammals, human biological complexity, disease treatments, even evolution itself – and reveals how we are only now truly unlocking its secrets, more than half a century after Crick and Watson won their Nobel prize for the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1962.

The Myth of Junk DNA

Author: Jonathan Wells

Publisher: Discovery Inst

ISBN: 9781936599004

Category: Science

Page: 170

View: 3100

According to the modern version of Darwin's theory, DNA contains a program for embryo development that is passed down from generation to generation; the program is implemented by proteins encoded by the DNA, and accidental DNA mutations introduce changes in those proteins that natural selection then shapes into new species, organs and body plans. When scientists discovered forty years ago that about 98% of our DNA does not encode proteins, the non-protein-coding portion was labeled “junk” and attributed to molecular accidents that have accumulated in the course of evolution. Recent books by Richard Dawkins, Francis Collins and others have used this “junk DNA” as evidence for Darwinian evolution and evidence against intelligent design (since an intelligent designer would presumably not have filled our genome with so much garbage). But recent genome evidence shows that much of our non-protein-coding DNA performs essential biological functions. The Myth of Junk DNA is written for a general audience by biologist Jonathan Wells, author of Icons of Evolution. Citing some of the abundant evidence from recent genome projects, the book shows that “junk DNA” is not science, but myth.

Genomic Elements in Health, Disease and Evolution

Junk DNA

Author: Kyriacos Felekkis,Konstantinos Voskarides

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781493930692

Category: Medical

Page: 315

View: 2146

Over 98% of the human genome contains non-coding DNA sequences. For many years molecular biologists referred to this component of the genome as the “junk” DNA since it does not code for any “useful” protein product. Over the last years this notion changed significantly as scientists discovered that a large part of this DNA contains various genomic elements that have important roles in cell physiology. Genomic elements such as non-coding RNAs, transposons, splicing RNAs, DNA repeats and others were shown to play a significant role in regulating gene expression. In addition, all these elements were implicated to contribute in the pathogenesis or progression of various human diseases. In this book, the editor will attempt to describe all these genomic elements that constitute the junk DNA of the genome. For every genomic element, the physiologic role in the organism, its role in evolution and any possible involvement in human diseases will be discussed. Additionally, interaction between these elements in normal or pathologic condition will be discussed. Since a large amount of new knowledge is generated daily in regards to these genomic elements, this book will attempt to combine all the information in a single publication that can serve as a reference for future studies. The first part will discuss RNA elements such as microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, piRNAs and splicing RNAs. The second part of the book will deal with transposons, retrotransposons and DNA transposons. Finally the third part of the book will discuss DNA elements that include DNA repeats, conserved non-coding sequences, distal genomic elements, introns, pseudogenes, CpG islands and telomeres. For miRNAs and CNVs a separate chapter will be dedicated to their role in human diseases since an extensive amount of information exists about these two elements.

Mobile DNA

Finding Treasure in Junk

Author: Haig H. Kazazian

Publisher: FT Press

ISBN: 9780132575256

Category: Medical

Page: 288

View: 7830

This book thoroughly reviews our current scientific understanding of the significant role that mobile genetic elements play in the evolution and function of genomes and organisms–from plants and animals to humans. Highly-regarded geneticist Haig Kazazian offers an accessible intellectual history of the field’s research strategies and concerns, explaining how advances opened up new questions, and how new tools and capabilities have encouraged progress in the field. Kazazian introduces the key strategies and approaches taken in leading laboratories (including his own) to gain greater insight into the large proportion of our genome that derives from mobile genetic elements, including viruses, plasmids, and transposons. He also presents intriguing insights into long-term research strategies that may lead to an even deeper understanding.

The Deeper Genome

Why There Is More to the Human Genome Than Meets the Eye

Author: John Parrington

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198813090

Category: Human genome

Page: 400

View: 8058

Over a decade ago, as the Human Genome Project completed its mapping of the entire human genome, hopes ran high that we would rapidly be able to use our knowledge of human genes to tackle many inherited diseases, and understand what makes us unique among animals. But things didn't turn out that way. For a start, we turned out to have far fewer genes than originally thought -- just over 20,000, the same sort of number as a fruit fly or worm. What's more, the proportion of DNA consisting of genes coding for proteins was a mere 2%. So, was the rest of the genome accumulated 'junk'? Things have changed since those early heady days of the Human Genome Project. But the emerging picture is if anything far more exciting. In this book, John Parrington explains the key features that are coming to light - some, such as the results of the international ENCODE programme, still much debated and controversial in their scope. He gives an outline of the deeper genome, involving layers of regulatory elements controlling and coordinating the switching on and off of genes; the impact of its 3D geometry; the discovery of a variety of new RNAs playing critical roles; the epigenetic changes influenced by the environment and life experiences that can make identical twins different and be passed on to the next generation; and the clues coming out of comparisons with the genomes of Neanderthals as well as that of chimps about the development of our species. We are learning more about ourselves, and about the genetic aspects of many diseases. But in its complexity, flexibility, and ability to respond to environmental cues, the human genome is proving to be far more subtle than we ever imagined.

Junkware

Author: Thierry Bardini

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 0816667500

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

View: 7958

The essential junkiness of our culture and biology.

The Epigenetics Revolution

How Modern Biology Is Rewriting Our Understanding of Genetics, Disease, and Inheritance

Author: Nessa Carey

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231530714

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 6641

Epigenetics can potentially revolutionize our understanding of the structure and behavior of biological life on Earth. It explains why mapping an organism's genetic code is not enough to determine how it develops or acts and shows how nurture combines with nature to engineer biological diversity. Surveying the twenty-year history of the field while also highlighting its latest findings and innovations, this volume provides a readily understandable introduction to the foundations of epigenetics. Nessa Carey, a leading epigenetics researcher, connects the field's arguments to such diverse phenomena as how ants and queen bees control their colonies; why tortoiseshell cats are always female; why some plants need cold weather before they can flower; and how our bodies age and develop disease. Reaching beyond biology, epigenetics now informs work on drug addiction, the long-term effects of famine, and the physical and psychological consequences of childhood trauma. Carey concludes with a discussion of the future directions for this research and its ability to improve human health and well-being.

Coming to Peace with Science

Bridging the Worlds Between Faith and Biology

Author: Darrel R. Falk

Publisher: InterVarsity Press

ISBN: 0830874771

Category: Religion

Page: 235

View: 3364

Is a thoroughly Christian and biblically informed doctrine of creation compatible with widely held conclusions of modern science, especially biology? For Darrel R. Falk, this is not just an abstract question but one with which he has personally wrestled. A professor of biology, Falk brings together his biblically based understanding of creation and the most current research in biology. The result of his efforts to acknowledge the validity of science and the authority of Scripture is a new paradigm for relating the claims of science to the truths of Christianity. Written with the undergraduate student in mind, this book nonetheless will help anyone who is looking for a place to stand in the creation-evolution debate, fearful that they'll have to choose between intellectual integrity and the faith of the church. Calling for charitable discussions within the church, Falk shows how an original and ongoing interaction of God with creation is fully reconcilable with the kinds of development identified by current biological science.

Junk DNA

Unlocking the Hidden Secrets of Your DNA

Author: Joseph R. Scogna, Jr.,Kathy M. Scogna

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781502336613

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 282

View: 5249

Unlocking the Hidden Secrets of Your DNAA completely fresh look at the DNA of humankind. This is the HOLISTIC version, the body, mind and spirit DNA, designed from the beginning to provide harmony and balance. To the western lab scientist, DNA is a rigid study, the physical aspects that can be seen with instruments. It must fall within certain parameters of chemistry. It is useful in solving crimes and in finding markers of certain diseases. It is estimated that only 2% of our DNA is being studied. What of the remaining 98%? In the western lab, it is considered “junk DNA,” so named by the co-discoverer of the double helical structure, Francis Crick. And yet, deep inside we know the truth. There is no junk DNA.We are products of Planet Earth. In this book, we explore all the tracks of energy possible —hydrogen, water, light & heavy elements, sugars, salts & crystals, proteins, fats & oils—this is what a human being IS and what makes up the earth, as well. The earth's electromagnetic energy field is mirrored in our own electromagnetic energy field. We are products of our ancestors on a cellular level, going back even earlier than Stone Age man, with all the beliefs, traumas and behaviors intact; and we are products of our environment (learning, people, places and events), as well as being products of what we eat, breathe in and drink. The reader will find on these pages that we Earthlings have not just five major senses, but access to 128 different sensing channels we could be using to perceive and understand our world…..if only we knew the language. What is the language of the gene? Vibration and sonic waves. All the healing knowledge we humans need to know about has been imbedded and stored in the crystals of our own DNA. Crystals can transmit information to us, about survival, about our past and about healing. We just need to access, to listen, and be open to the possibilities. This book presents life at the crystal level; so take a step back in time and discover what has been stored in the genes since the earliest moments of creation.

The Evolution of the Genome

Author: T. Ryan Gregory

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080470528

Category: Science

Page: 768

View: 9173

The Evolution of the Genome provides a much needed overview of genomic study through clear, detailed, expert-authored discussions of the key areas in genome biology. This includes the evolution of genome size, genomic parasites, gene and ancient genome duplications, polypoidy, comparative genomics, and the implications of these genome-level phenomena for evolutionary theory. In addition to reviewing the current state of knowledge of these fields in an accessible way, the various chapters also provide historical and conceptual background information, highlight the ways in which the critical questions are actually being studied, indicate some important areas for future research, and build bridges across traditional professional and taxonomic boundaries. The Evolution of the Genome will serve as a critical resource for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and established scientists alike who are interested in the issue of genome evolution in the broadest sense. Provides detailed, clearly written chapters authored by leading researchers in their respective fields Presents a much-needed overview of the historical and theoretical context of the various areas of genomic study Creates important links between topics in order to promote integration across subdisciplines, including descriptions of how each subject is actually studied Provides information specifically designed to be accessible to established researchers, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students alike

DNA Wake Up

A Simple Guide to DNA Activation

Author: Elizabeth J. Clark,Lynne Atkins

Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub

ISBN: 9781481959445

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 90

View: 2808

When The Human Genome Project set out to map and identify the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA, it determined that 97% of the human genome does not encode protein sequences. This 97%—considered 'Junk DNA'—has no known function. What really lies in the 97% that scientists call “JUNK DNA”?Your DNA tells an amazing story—the story of Life itself! For the past four billion years or so, since the beginning of time, DNA has been the chemical of life. Everything that has ever lived, or now lives on the planet, has DNA—just as you do. Your DNA is the 'map' specific to you and only you! It's what created you in the very first place and it's what defines and identifies you as a unique individual. Now you might think this all sounds pretty 'scientific' but this is NOT a science book. This is a book about possibility.Can you change your DNA?Yes you can! You can wake up your makeup and guide your DNA as simply as putting your intention into it. It is time to understand this inner truth, the truth of Human DNA and its mysterious abilities. All you need do is tune in, communicate and allow your DNA to do what it has been designed to do. The key is awakening to your Metaphysical DNA, the doing of which could change EVERYTHING in your physical life!Is it really that Simple?DNA Wake Up is a simple guide that will lead you through all twelve layers of metaphysical DNA. Accompanied by exercises to awaken you to each of these twelve layers, activating your Divine Natural Alignment, you will notice a difference within yourself and you will begin to understand that we are all much more than mere flesh and blood.Open yourself up to all that you are, for YOUR DNA stands ready to assist in your personal self-discovery.

Introduction to Physical Anthropology 2011-2012 Edition

Author: Robert Jurmain,Lynn Kilgore,Wenda Trevathan,Russell Ciochon

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1111297932

Category: Social Science

Page: 624

View: 6043

INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 2011-2012 continues to present the most up-to-date and balanced, comprehensive introduction to the field, combining an engaging writing style and compelling visual content to bring the study of physical anthropology to life for today’s students. With a focus on the big picture of human evolution, the text helps students master the basic principles of the subject and arrive at an understanding of the human species and its place in the biological world. This book continues to keep pace with changes in the field by including thorough coverage of cutting-edge advances in molecular biology and genomics, primatology, key fossil discoveries, and modern human biology. A new Conclusion: Why it Matters, drives home the importance of understanding human evolution and the incredible impact our species has had, and will continue to have, on the environment and all life forms on this planet. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

DNA

Author: Alvin Silverstein,Virginia B. Silverstein,Laura Silverstein Nunn

Publisher: Twenty-First Century Books

ISBN: 9780761322573

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 64

View: 429

Explains the structure and function of DNA and discusses current relevant scientific research.

Relics of Eden

The Powerful Evidence of Evolution in Human DNA

Author: Daniel J. Fairbanks

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 1615920099

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 887

Since the publication in 1859 of Darwin’s Origin of Species, debate over the theory of evolution has been continuous and often impassioned. In recent years, opponents of "Darwin’s dangerous idea" have mounted history’s most sophisticated and generously funded attack, claiming that evolution is "a theory in crisis." Ironically, these claims are being made at a time when the explosion of information from genome projects has revealed the most compelling and overwhelming evidence of evolution ever discovered. Much of the latest evidence of human evolution comes not from our genes, but from so-called "junk DNA," leftover relics of our evolutionary history that make up the vast majority of our DNA. Relics of Eden explores this powerful DNA-based evidence of human evolution. The "relics" are the millions of functionally useless but scientifically informative remnants of our evolutionary ancestry trapped in the DNA of every person on the planet. For example, the analysis of the chimpanzee and Rhesus monkey genomes shows indisputable evidence of the human evolutionary relationship with other primates. Over 95 percent of our genome is identical with that of chimpanzees and we also have a good deal in common with other animal species. Author Daniel J. Fairbanks also discusses what DNA analysis reveals about where humans originated. The diversity of DNA sequences repeatedly confirms the archeological evidence that humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa (the "Eden" of the title) and from there migrated through the Middle East and Asia to Europe, Australia, and the Americas. In conclusion, Fairbanks confronts the supposed dichotomy between evolution and religion, arguing that both science and religion are complementary ways to seek truth. He appeals to the vast majority of Americans who hold religious convictions not to be fooled by the pseudoscience of Creationists and Intelligent Design advocates and to abandon the false dichotomy between religion and real science. This concise, very readable presentation of recent genetic research is completely accessible to the nonspecialist and makes for enlightening and fascinating reading.

Adam and the Genome

Reading Scripture after Genetic Science

Author: Scot McKnight,Dennis R. Venema

Publisher: Brazos Press

ISBN: 1493406744

Category: Religion

Page: 240

View: 4574

Genomic science indicates that humans descend not from an individual pair but from a large population. What does this mean for the basic claim of many Christians: that humans descend from Adam and Eve? Leading evangelical geneticist Dennis Venema and popular New Testament scholar Scot McKnight combine their expertise to offer informed guidance and answers to questions pertaining to evolution, genomic science, and the historical Adam. Some of the questions they explore include: - Is there credible evidence for evolution? - Do we descend from a population or are we the offspring of Adam and Eve? - Does taking the Bible seriously mean rejecting recent genomic science? - How do Genesis's creation stories reflect their ancient Near Eastern context, and how did Judaism understand the Adam and Eve of Genesis? - Doesn't Paul's use of Adam in the New Testament prove that Adam was a historical individual? The authors address up-to-date genomics data with expert commentary from both genetic and theological perspectives, showing that genome research and Scripture are not irreconcilable. Foreword by Tremper Longman III and afterword by Daniel Harrell.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Author: Bruce Alberts

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 1317563743

Category: Science

Page: 1464

View: 6521

As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. The Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated with the latest research in the field of cell biology, and it provides an exceptional framework for teaching and learning. The entire illustration program has been greatly enhanced.Protein structures better illustrate structure–function relationships, icons are simpler and more consistent within and between chapters, and micrographs have been refreshed and updated with newer, clearer, or better images. As a new feature, each chapter now contains intriguing openended questions highlighting “What We Don’t Know,” introducing students to challenging areas of future research. Updated end-of-chapter problems reflect new research discussed in the text, and these problems have been expanded to all chapters by adding questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, pathogens, and the immune system.

Life's Greatest Secret

The Race to Crack the Genetic Code

Author: Matthew Cobb

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465062660

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 2099

Everyone has heard of the story of DNA as the story of Watson and Crick and Rosalind Franklin, but knowing the structure of DNA was only a part of a greater struggle to understand life’s secrets. Life’s Greatest Secret is the story of the discovery and cracking of the genetic code, the thing that ultimately enables a spiraling molecule to give rise to the life that exists all around us. This great scientific breakthrough has had farreaching consequences for how we understand ourselves and our place in the natural world, and for how we might take control of our (and life’s) future. Life’s Greatest Secret mixes remarkable insights, theoretical dead-ends, and ingenious experiments with the swift pace of a thriller. From New York to Paris, Cambridge, Massachusetts, to Cambridge, England, and London to Moscow, the greatest discovery of twentieth-century biology was truly a global feat. Biologist and historian of science Matthew Cobb gives the full and rich account of the cooperation and competition between the eccentric characters—mathematicians, physicists, information theorists, and biologists—who contributed to this revolutionary new science. And, while every new discovery was a leap forward for science, Cobb shows how every new answer inevitably led to new questions that were at least as difficult to answer: just ask anyone who had hoped that the successful completion of the Human Genome Project was going to truly yield the book of life, or that a better understanding of epigenetics or “junk DNA” was going to be the final piece of the puzzle. But the setbacks and unexpected discoveries are what make the science exciting, and it is Matthew Cobb’s telling that makes them worth reading. This is a riveting story of humans exploring what it is that makes us human and how the world works, and it is essential reading for anyone who’d like to explore those questions for themselves.

Chemistry and the Human Genome

Author: Ted Lister

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9780854043965

Category: Science

Page: 46

View: 4993

"On 15th February 2001, two groups of scientists published a draft that described the complete chemical makeup of human genes - the human genome as it is often called. The discovery of the sequence of the human genome has been hailed as one of the most important scientific advances ever. This would not have been possible without the work of chemists and chemical scientists. This resource aims to show students and teachers the chemical science behind the discovery at a level suitable for post-16 students of chemistry and biology and also to place it in the context of science in the 21st century." "It is hoped that teachers of both biology and chemistry at post-16 level will use it to enthuse their students to perhaps go on to study the proteome and beyond." "This book was produced as part of the Royal Society of Chemistry's programme for the support of education in the field of the chemical sciences."--BOOK JACKET.

The Selfish Gene

Author: Richard Dawkins

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780192860927

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 352

View: 678

An ethologist shows man to be a gene machine whose world is one of savage competition and deceit