Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis

Author: Gabor A. Somorjai,Yimin Li

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047050823X

Category: Science

Page: 787

View: 7721

Now updated-the current state of development of modern surface science Since the publication of the first edition of this book, molecular surface chemistry and catalysis science have developed rapidly and expanded into fields where atomic scale and molecular information were previously not available. This revised edition of Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis reflects this increase of information in virtually every chapter. It emphasizes the modern concepts of surface chemistry and catalysis uncovered by breakthroughs in molecular-level studies of surfaces over the past three decades while serving as a reference source for data and concepts related to properties of surfaces and interfaces. The book opens with a brief history of the evolution of surface chemistry and reviews the nature of various surfaces and interfaces encountered in everyday life. New research in two crucial areas-nanomaterials and polymer and biopolymer interfaces-is emphasized, while important applications in tribology and catalysis, producing chemicals and fuels with high turnover and selectivity, are addressed. The basic concepts surrounding various properties of surfaces such as structure, thermodynamics, dynamics, electrical properties, and surface chemical bonds are presented. The techniques of atomic and molecular scale studies of surfaces are listed with references to up-to-date review papers. For advanced readers, this book covers recent developments in in-situ surface analysis such as high- pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG). Tables listing surface structures and data summarizing the kinetics of catalytic reactions over metal surfaces are also included. New to this edition: A discussion of new physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles Ways to utilize new surface science techniques to study properties of polymers, reaction intermediates, and mobility of atoms and molecules at surfaces Molecular-level studies on the origin of the selectivity for several catalytic reactions A microscopic understanding of mechanical properties of surfaces Updated tables of experimental data A new chapter on "soft" surfaces, polymers, and biointerfaces Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis serves as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students taking advanced courses in physics, chemistry, engineering, and materials science, as well as researchers in surface science, catalysis science, and their applications.

Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis

Author: Gabor A. Somorjai

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 667

View: 2088

In sharp contrast to recent works that deal with classical surface phenomena, Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis is unique in emphasizing the modern concepts of surface chemistry and catalysis uncovered by molecular level studies of surfaces over the past two decades. This important new book reveals our current molecular level understanding of surface phenomena and its relation to macroscopic surface properties. It focuses on the properties of solid-gas and solid-vacuum interfaces, because most of the results of modern surface science studies on the molecular level come from the scrutiny of these interfaces. The opening chapter reviews the nature of various surfaces and interfaces encountered in everyday life, the concept of adsorption, and the surface science techniques used to obtain much of the available information on the properties of surfaces. After concise discussion of the structure of clean and adsorbate-covered surfaces, the book probes the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of surfaces and interfaces, placing special emphasis on surface segregation - a major phenomenon in surface chemistry. In its subsequent discussion, Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis treats such important areas as energy transfer during gas-surface interactions, elementary surface reaction steps, adsorption, surface diffusion, and desorption. The book goes on to examine the electrical properties of surfaces, with coverage of such major areas as the surface space charge, surface ionization, and the excitation of valence and inner shell electrons. The unique character of the surface chemical bond - spotlighted in recent surface science studies - is then explored, with aparticular emphasis on adsorbate-substrate and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. What follows is singularly in-depth coverage of surface catalysis, including a major conceptual review. Here Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis establishes our current understanding of catalysis, through case histories involving ammonia synthesis, carbon monoxide hydrogenation, and platinum-catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion. The book concludes with discussion of the mechanical properties of surfaces, highlighting the special importance of the buried interface. Among the topics covered are adhesion and tribological properties, friction, crack formation, and lubrication. Enhanced by review sections and problem sets in each chapter, Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis can serve as a major text for students of physical sciences and engineering. Its stand-alone chapters can also be used as supplementary reading in courses in general science, thermodynamics, crystal structures, chemical bonding, kinetics, solid state chemistry, and solid state physics. In addition, the book also works as a highly useful reference for scientists and engineers in need of data and concepts related to the properties of surfaces and interfaces.

Surface Science

Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

Author: Kurt K. Kolasinski,Kurt W. Kolasinski

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111999036X

Category: Science

Page: 556

View: 1541

Surface science has evolved from being a sub-field of chemistry or physics, and has now established itself as an interdisciplinary topic. Knowledge has developed sufficiently that we can now understand catalysis from a surface science perspective. No-where is the underpinning nature of surface science better illustrated than with nanoscience. Now in its third edition, this successful textbook aims to provide students with an understanding of chemical transformations and the formation of structures at surfaces. The chapters build from simple to more advanced principles with each featuring exercises, which act not only to demonstrate concepts arising in the text but also to form an integral part of the book, with the last eight chapters featuring worked solutions. This completely revised and expanded edition features: More than 100 new pages of extensive worked solutions New topics, including: Second harmonic generation (SHG), Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) at interfaces and capillary waves An expanded treatment of charge transfer and carbon-based materials including graphene Extended ?Frontiers and Challenges? sections at the end of each chapter. This text is suitable for all students taking courses in surface science in Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, as well as for researchers and professionals requiring an up-to-date review of the subject.

Chemical Bonding at Surfaces and Interfaces

Author: Anders Nilsson,Lars G.M. Pettersson,Jens Norskov

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080551913

Category: Science

Page: 532

View: 8883

Molecular surface science has made enormous progress in the past 30 years. The development can be characterized by a revolution in fundamental knowledge obtained from simple model systems and by an explosion in the number of experimental techniques. The last 10 years has seen an equally rapid development of quantum mechanical modeling of surface processes using Density Functional Theory (DFT). Chemical Bonding at Surfaces and Interfaces focuses on phenomena and concepts rather than on experimental or theoretical techniques. The aim is to provide the common basis for describing the interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces and this to be used very broadly in science and technology. The book begins with an overview of structural information on surface adsorbates and discusses the structure of a number of important chemisorption systems. Chapter 2 describes in detail the chemical bond between atoms or molecules and a metal surface in the observed surface structures. A detailed description of experimental information on the dynamics of bond-formation and bond-breaking at surfaces make up Chapter 3. Followed by an in-depth analysis of aspects of heterogeneous catalysis based on the d-band model. In Chapter 5 adsorption and chemistry on the enormously important Si and Ge semiconductor surfaces are covered. In the remaining two Chapters the book moves on from solid-gas interfaces and looks at solid-liquid interface processes. In the final chapter an overview is given of the environmentally important chemical processes occurring on mineral and oxide surfaces in contact with water and electrolytes. Gives examples of how modern theoretical DFT techniques can be used to design heterogeneous catalysts This book suits the rapid introduction of methods and concepts from surface science into a broad range of scientific disciplines where the interaction between a solid and the surrounding gas or liquid phase is an essential component Shows how insight into chemical bonding at surfaces can be applied to a range of scientific problems in heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemistry, environmental science and semiconductor processing Provides both the fundamental perspective and an overview of chemical bonding in terms of structure, electronic structure and dynamics of bond rearrangements at surfaces

Principles of Adsorption and Reaction on Solid Surfaces

Author: R. I. Masel,Richard I. Masel

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471303923

Category: Science

Page: 804

View: 3559

Principles of Adsorption and Reaction on Solid Surfaces As with other books in the field, Principles of Adsorption andReaction on Solid Surfaces describes what occurs when gases come incontact with various solid surfaces. But, unlike all the others, italso explains why. While the theory of surface reactions is stillunder active development, the approach Dr. Richard Masel takes inthis book is to outline general principles derived fromthermodynamics and reaction rate theory that can be applied toreactions on surfaces, and to indicate ways in which theseprinciples may be applied. The book also provides a comprehensivetreatment of the latest quantitative surface modeling techniqueswith numerous examples of their use in the fields of chemicalengineering, physical chemistry, and materials science. A valuableworking resource and an excellent graduate-level text, Principlesof Adsorption and Reaction on Solid Surfaces provides readerswith: * A detailed look at the latest advances in understanding andquantifying reactions on surfaces * In-depth reviews of all crucial background material * 40 solved examples illustrating how the methods apply tocatalysis, physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition,electrochemistry, and more * 340 problems and practice exercises * Sample computer programs * Universal plots of many key quantities * Detailed, class-tested derivations to help clarify keyresults The recent development of quantitative techniques for modelingsurface reactions has led to a number of exciting breakthroughs inour understanding of what happens when gases come in contact withsolid surfaces. While many books have appeared describing variousexperimental modeling techniques and the results obtained throughtheir application, until now, there has been no single-volumereference devoted to the fundamental principles governing theprocesses observed. The first book to focus on governing principles rather thanexperimental techniques or specific results, Principles ofAdsorption and Reaction on Solid Surfaces provides students andprofessionals with a quantitative treatment of the application ofprinciples derived from the fields of thermodynamics and reactionrate theory to the investigation of gas adsorption and reaction onsolid surfaces. Writing for a broad-based audience including, amongothers, chemical engineers, chemists, and materials scientists, Dr.Richard I. Masel deftly balances basic background in areas such asstatistical mechanics and kinetics with more advanced applicationsin specialized areas. Principles of Adsorption and Reaction on Solid Surfaces was alsodesigned to provide readers an opportunity to quickly familiarizethemselves with all of the important quantitative surface modelingtechniques now in use. To that end, the author has included all ofthe key equations involved as well as numerous real-worldillustrations and solved examples that help to illustrate how theequations can be applied. He has also provided computer programsalong with universal plots that make it easy for readers to applyresults to their own problems with little computationaleffort. Principles of Adsorption and Reaction on Solid Surfaces is avaluable working resource for chemical engineers, physicalchemists, and materials scientists, and an excellent text forgraduate students in those disciplines.

Heterogeneous Catalysis

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: J. R. H. Ross

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 044453363X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 222

View: 2837

Heterogeneous catalysis plays a part in the production of more than 80% of all chemical products. It is therefore essential that all chemists and chemical engineers have an understanding of the fundamental principles as well as the applications of heterogeneous catalysts. This book introduces the subject, starting at a basic level, and includes sections on adsorption and surface science, catalytic kinetics, experimental methods for preparing and studying heterogeneous catalysts, as well as some aspects of the design of industrial catalytic reactors. It ends with a chapter that covers a range of examples of important catalytic processes. The book leads the student to carrying out a series of "tasks" based on searches of the internet and also on the use of web-based search tools such as Scopus or Web of Science. These tasks are generally based on the text; they can be used entirely for self-study but they can also be tailored to the requirements of a particular course by the instructor/lecturer giving the course. The author has had over 40 years of experience in catalytic research as well as in lecturing on the principles of catalysis. He was for more than 20 years the Editor of Catalysis Today. Coverage of all aspects of catalysis in carefully organised text Inclusion of material on the historical development of the subject and the personalities involved All concepts illustrated by practical examples Inclusion of a wide range of problems and solutions, case studies, and supplementary web based material which will be regularly updated Author has over 40 years research experience of almost all covered subjects Provides companion materials webiste

Surface Chemistry and Catalysis

Author: Albert F. Carley,Philip Davies,Graham J. Hutchings,Michael S. Spencer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475766378

Category: Science

Page: 381

View: 3755

In 2001 Wyn Roberts celebrated both his 70th birthday and 50 years of working in surface science, to use the term "surface science" in its broadest meaning. This book aims to mark the anniversary with a contribution of lasting value, something more than the usual festschrift issue of a relevant journal. The book is divided into three sections: Surface Science, Model Catalysts and Catalysis, topics in which Wyn has always had interests. The authors for each chapter were chosen from some of the many eminent scientists who have worked with Wyn in various ways and are all internationally acknowledged as leaders in their field. The authors have produced authoritative reviews of their own specialties which together result in a book with an unrivalled combination of breadth and depth exploring the most recent developments in surface chemistry and catalysis.

Introduction to Heterogeneous Catalysis

Author: Roel Prins,Anjie Wang,Xiang Li

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 1786340836

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 348

View: 7318

Catalysis literature can be difficult to read if there is not a sufficient understanding of the underlying connections between the chemical, materials and engineering aspects of catalysis. As a result, many students lack the depth of knowledge to effectively understand the topic. Introduction to Heterogeneous Catalysis solves this issue by presenting not only the basic concepts of catalysis but also, right from the beginning, integrating the chemical, materials and engineering aspects of catalysis in examples taken directly from industry. Aimed at master's and PhD students with a limited background in chemistry, this book provides a thorough introduction to the principles behind catalysis that will enable readers to understand the concepts and analyse the literature necessary for its study.

Characterization of Solid Materials and Heterogeneous Catalysts

From Structure to Surface Reactivity

Author: Michel Che,Jacques C. Vedrine

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527645330

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1284

View: 8805

This two-volume book provides an overview of physical techniques used to characterize the structure of solid materials, on the one hand, and to investigate the reactivity of their surface, on the other. Therefore this book is a must-have for anyone working in fields related to surface reactivity. Among the latter, and because of its most important industrial impact, catalysis has been used as the directing thread of the book. After the preface and a general introduction to physical techniques by M. Che and J.C. V?drine, two overviews on physical techniques are presented by G. Ertl and Sir J.M. Thomas for investigating model catalysts and porous catalysts, respectively. The book is organized into four parts: Molecular/Local Spectroscopies, Macroscopic Techniques, Characterization of the Fluid Phase (Gas and/ or Liquid), and Advanced Characterization. Each chapter focuses upon the following important themes: overview of the technique, most important parameters to interpret the experimental data, practical details, applications of the technique, particularly during chemical processes, with its advantages and disadvantages, conclusions.

Introduction to Zeolite Science and Practice

Author: E.M. Flanigen,J.C. Jansen,Herman van Bekkum

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080887111

Category: Science

Page: 753

View: 6534

Zeolites and related molecular sieves have quickly become important pathways to new opportunities in the fields of oil processing and petrochemical synthesis. The signs of intense activity in both industry and academia are evident: burgeoning papers and patent applications; increasing numbers of industrial zeolite-based processes and their rapid expansion into organic chemicals manufacturing; recent progress in zeolite accessibility range, matrix behaviour, lattice components and satellite structures; and the recognition that zeolites, which are stable and can be regenerated, may be incorporated into new, environmentally friendly processes. This volume offers a thorough, up-to-date introduction to zeolites and such related materials as crystalline aluminium phosphates and clays. Its 16 chapters, each written by specialists, provide detailed treatments of zeolite theory (including a review of major developments), zeolite laboratory and research practice, and zeolite industry applications. Students and individuals entering the field will find Introduction to Zeolite Science and Practice a thorough guidebook. Experienced researchers will appreciate its in-depth coverage of the zeolite spectrum, including the latest views on zeolite structure, characterization and applications.

Spectroscopy in Catalysis

Author: J. W. Niemantsverdriet

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527614133

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 5905

'Spectroscopy in Catalysis' describes the most important modern analytical techniques used to investigate catalytic surfaces. These include electron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS, AES, EELS), ion spectroscopy (SIMS, SNMS, RBS, LEIS), vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, EELS), temperature-programmed techniques (TPR, TPO, TDS), diffraction (XRD, LEED, EXAFS), and microscopy (TEM, SEM, STEM, STM, AFM, FEM, and FIM). Each chapter uses current applications to illustrate the type of information that the technique provides and evaluates its possibilities and limitations. This second edition includes significant new developments, for example scanning probe microscopies, the imaging and vibrational techniques have been revised, the case studies expanded with an example on polymerization catalysts, and all the other chapters updated with recent examples and relevant new literature. From reviews of the First Edition: 'This is a truly valuable book ... very useful for industrial practitioners who need to be aware of the type of information that can be obtained from modern surface spectroscopies .... The book has a superb pedagogic value...' Journal of Catalysis '... this is an excellent text on spectroscopies in catalysis and I highly recommend it for ... introductory courses on heterogeneous catalysis or as a general introductory monograph.' Journal of the American Chemical Society

Surface Chemistry and Catalysis

Author: Albert F. Carley,Meirion Wynn Roberts

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306473937

Category: Science

Page: 381

View: 6329

In 2001 Wyn Roberts celebrated both his 70th birthday and 50 years of working in surface science, to use the term "surface science" in its broadest meaning. This book aims to mark the anniversary with a contribution of lasting value, something more than the usual festschrift issue of a relevant journal. The book is divided into three sections: Surface Science, Model Catalysts and Catalysis, topics in which Wyn has always had interests. The authors for each chapter were chosen from some of the many eminent scientists who have worked with Wyn in various ways and are all internationally acknowledged as leaders in their field. The authors have produced authoritative reviews of their own specialties which together result in a book with an unrivalled combination of breadth and depth exploring the most recent developments in surface chemistry and catalysis.

Hydrotreatment and Hydrocracking of Oil Fractions

Author: B. Delmon,P. Grange,G.F. Froment

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080534268

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 445

View: 1762

The 2nd International Symposium on Hydrotreatment and Hydrocracking of Oil Fractions, which is also the 7th in the series of European Workshops on Hydrotreatment, took place in Antwerpen, Belgium from November 14 to 17. The Symposium emphasized how oil refining faces increasingly severe environmental regulations. These and the increasing application of heavier crudes containing more S-, N- and metal components call for more efficient hydrotreatment and hydrocracking processes. It is clear from the keynote lectures, the oral contributions and the posters of this meeting that adapting the operating conditions will not suffice. Adequate catalysts need to be developed, with different composition and structure. Surface science techniques and molecular modeling are now well established tools for such a development. They should be of help in widely different aspects, like the role of precursors in the preparation or the modifications undergone by the catalyst under reaction conditions. The improvement of hydrotreatment and hydrocracking also needs accurate modeling of the chemical reactor. This requires more representative hydrodynamics and kinetic models whose validity extends to the very low S- and N-contents. These areas should be vigorously developed.

Introduction to Carbon Science

Author: Ian A. S. Edwards,Rosa Menendez,Harry Marsh

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 1483140598

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 2149

Introduction to Carbon Science deals with various aspects of carbon science, from polymer science and prosthetics to crystallography, carbonization, spectroscopy, and surface science. Topics covered include the mechanisms of formation of isotropic and anisotropic carbons, physical properties of pitch relevant to the fabrication of carbon materials; kinetics and catalysis of carbon gasification; and porosity in carbons and graphites. Carbon fibers, cokes and composites, and coal to coke transformations are also discussed. This book is comprised of nine chapters and begins with an overview of the basic structural features of carbon materials, along with definitions of the various carbon forms encountered in carbon science. The principal techniques for studying the structure of solid carbons are also considered. The reader is then introduced to the mechanisms underlying the formation of isotropic and anisotropic carbons; the physicochemical changes that take place when pitch is pyrolyzed to carbon; and kinetics and catalysis of carbon gasification reactions. The following chapters explore various types of porosity in carbons and graphites; manufacture, properties, structure, and applications of carbon fibers; and mechanical properties of cokes and composites. This text concludes by describing the conversion of coal to coke. This monograph will be of interest to carbon scientists, technologists, and engineers, as well as those entering the field of carbon science for the first time.

Characterization of Catalytic Materials

Author: Israel E. Wachs

Publisher: Momentum Press

ISBN: 1606501844

Category: Science

Page: 202

View: 4851

Catalytic materials are essential to nearly every commercial and industrial chemical process in order to make reaction times faster and more efficient. Understanding the microstructure of such materials is essential to designing improved catalytic properties. This volume in the materials characterization series reviews the more common types characterization methods used for understanding surface and structural properties of most types of commercially used catalytic materials. Covers both bulk metals and alloys as well as supported metals metal oxides and metal sulfides Characterization techniques for zeolites and molecular sieves as well as alumina pillared clays Concise summaries of major characterization technologies for catalytic materials, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Transmission Electron Spectroscopy

Modern Heterogeneous Catalysis

An Introduction

Author: Rutger A. van Santen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527694501

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 190

View: 5797

Written by one of the world's leading experts on the topic, this advanced textbook is the perfect introduction for newcomers to this exciting field. Concise and clear, the text focuses on such key aspects as kinetics, reaction mechanism and surface reactivity, concentrating on the essentials. The author also covers various catalytic systems, catalysis by design, and activation-deactivation. A website with supplementary material offers additional figures, original material and references.

Introduction to Surface and Thin Film Processes

Author: John Venables

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521785006

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 4337

Graduate textbook and sourcebook on surface and thin film processes, with links to the World Wide Web.