International Norms and Cycles of Change

Author: Wayne Sandholtz

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 410

View: 9403

Wayne Sandholtz and Kendall Stiles sketch the primary theoretical perspectives on international norm change, the 'legalisation' and 'transnational activist' approaches, and argue that both are limited by their focus on international rules as outcomes.

Prohibiting Plunder

How Norms Change

Author: Wayne Sandholtz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199725472

Category: Art

Page: 352

View: 6854

For much of history, the rules of war decreed that "to the victor go the spoils." The winners in warfare routinely seized for themselves the artistic and cultural treasures of the defeated; plunder constituted a marker of triumph. By the twentieth century, international norms declared the opposite, that cultural monuments should be shielded from destruction or seizure. Prohibiting Plunder traces and explains the emergence of international rules against wartime looting of cultural treasures, and explores how anti-plunder norms have developed over the past 200 years. The book covers highly topical events including the looting of thousands of antiquities from the Iraqi National Museum in Baghdad, and the return of "Holocaust Art" by prominent museums, including the highly publicized return of five Klimt paintings from the Austrian Gallery to a Holocaust survivor. The historical narrative includes first-hand reports, official documents, and archival records. Equally important, the book uncovers the debates and negotiations that produced increasingly clear and well-defined anti-plunder norms. The historical accounts in Prohibiting Plunder serve as confirming examples of an important dynamic of international norm change. Rules evolve in cycles; in each cycle, specific actions trigger arguments about the meaning and application of rules, and those arguments in turn modify the rules. International norms evolve through a succession of such cycles, each one drawing on previous developments and each one reshaping the normative context for subsequent actions and disputes. Prohibiting Plunder shows how historical episodes interlinked to produce modern, treaty-based rules against wartime plunder of cultural treasures.

How Interpretation Makes International Law

On Semantic Change and Normative Twists

Author: Ingo Venzke

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191631957

Category: Law

Page: 338

View: 1230

Challenging the classic narrative that sovereign states make the law that constrains them, this book argues that treaties and other sources of international law form only the starting point of legal authority. Interpretation can shift the meaning of texts and, in its own way, make law. In the practice of interpretation actors debate the meaning of the written and customary laws, and so contribute to the making of new law. In such cases it is the actor's semantic authority that is key - the capacity for their interpretation to be accepted and become established as new reference points for legal discourse. The book identifies the practice of interpretation as a significant space for international lawmaking, using the key examples of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the Appellate Body of the WTO to show how international institutions are able to shape and develop their constituent instruments by adding layers of interpretation, and moving the terms of discourse. The book applies developments in linguistics to the practice of international legal interpretation, building on semantic pragmatism to overcome traditional explanations of lawmaking and to offer a fresh account of how the practice of interpretation makes international law. It discusses the normative implications that arise from viewing interpretation in this light, and the implications that the importance of semantic changes has for understanding the development of international law. The book tests the potential of international law and its doctrine to respond to semantic change, and ultimately ponders how semantic authority can be justified democratically in a normative pluriverse.

Human Rights and Development in the new Millennium

Towards a Theory of Change

Author: Paul Gready,Wouter Vandenhole

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136017607

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 8447

In recent years human rights have assumed a central position in the discourse surrounding international development, while human rights agencies have begun to more systematically address economic and social rights. This edited volume brings together distinguished scholars to explore the merging of human rights and development agendas at local, national and international levels. They examine how this merging affects organisational change, operational change and the role of relevant actors in bringing about change. With a focus on practice and policy rather than pure theory, the volume also addresses broader questions such as what human rights and development can learn from one another, and whether the connections between the two fields are increasing or declining. The book is structured in three sections: Part I looks at approaches that combine human rights and development, including chapters on drivers of change; indicators; donor; and legal empowerment of the poor. Part II focuses on organisational contexts and includes chapters on the UN at the country level; EU development cooperation; PLAN’s children’s rights-based approach; and ActionAid’s human rights-based approach. Part III examines country contexts, including chapters on the ILO in various settings; the Congo; Ethiopia; and South Africa. Human Rights and Development in the new Millennium: Towards a Theory of Change will be of strong interest to students and scholars of human rights, development studies, political science and economics.

The Politics of the Globalization of Law

Getting from Rights to Justice

Author: Alison Brysk

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135076030

Category: Political Science

Page: 244

View: 1277

How does the globalization of law, the emergence of multiple and shifting venues of legal accountability, enhance or evade the fulfillment of international human rights? Alison Brysk’s edited volume aims to assess the institutional and political factors that determine the influence of the globalization of law on the realization of human rights. The globalization of law has the potential to move the international human rights regime from the generation of norms to the fulfillment of rights, through direct enforcement, reshaping state policy, granting access to civil society, and global governance of transnational forces. In this volume, an international and interdisciplinary team of scholars explores the development of new norms, mechanisms, and practices of international legal accountability for human rights abuse, and tests their power in a series of "hard cases." The studies find that new norms and mechanisms have been surprisingly effective globally, in terms of treaty adherence, international courts, regime change, and even the diffusion of citizenship rights, but this effect is conditioned by regional and domestic structures of influence and access. However, law has a more mixed impact on abuses in Mexico, Israel-Palestine and India. Brysk concludes that the globalization of law is transforming sovereignty and fostering the shift from norms to fulfillment, but that peripheral states and domains often remain beyond the reach of this transformation. Theoretically framed, but comprised of empirical case material, this edited volume will be useful for both graduate students and academics in law, political science, human rights, international relations, global and international studies, and law and society.

The Power of Human Rights

International Norms and Domestic Change

Author: Stephen C. Ropp,Kathryn Sikkink

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521658829

Category: Political Science

Page: 318

View: 711

This book celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by showing how global human rights norms have influenced national government practices in eleven different countries around the world. Had the principles articulated in the Declaration had any effect on the behavior of states towards their citizens? What are the conditions under which international human rights norms are internalized in domestic practices? And what can we learn from this case about why, how, and under what conditions international norms in general influence the actions of states? This book draws on the work of social constructivists to examine these important issues. The contributors examine eleven countries representing five different world regions - Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe - drawing practical lessons for activists and policy makers concerned with preserving and extending the human rights gains made during the past fifty years.

The Globalization and Development Reader

Perspectives on Development and Global Change

Author: J. Timmons Roberts,Amy Bellone Hite,Nitsan Chorev

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118735382

Category: Political Science

Page: 632

View: 3469

This revised and updated second edition of The Globalization and Development Reader builds on the considerable success of a first edition that has been used around the world. It combines selected readings and editorial material to provide a coherent text with global coverage, reflecting new theoretical and empirical developments. Main text and core reference for students and professionals studying the processes of social change and development in “third world” countries. Carefully excerpted materials facilitate the understanding of classic and contemporary writings Second edition includes 33 essential readings, including 21 new selections New pieces cover the impact of the recession in the global North, global inequality and uneven development, gender, international migration, the role of cities, agriculture and on the governance of pharmaceuticals and climate change politics Increased coverage of China and India help to provide genuinely global coverage, and for a student readership the materials have been subject to a higher degree of editing in the new edition Includes a general introduction to the field, and short, insightful section introductions to each reading New readings include selections by Alexander Gershenkron, Alice Amsden, Amartya Sen, Anne-Marie Slaughter, Cecile Jackson, Dani Rodrik, David Harvey, Greta Krippner, Kathryn Sikkink, Leslie Sklair, Margaret E. Keck, Michael Burawoy, Nitsan Chorev, Oscar Lewis, Patrick Bond, Peter Evans, Philip McMichael, Pranab Bardhan, Ruth Pearson, Sarah Babb, Saskia Sassen, and Steve Radelet

Saving Strangers

Humanitarian Intervention in International Society

Author: Nicholas J. Wheeler

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191522597

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 5319

The extent to which humanitarian intervention has become a legitimate practice in post-cold war international society is the subject of this book. It maps the changing legitimacy of humanitarian intervention by comparing the international response to cases of humanitarian intervention in the cold war and post-cold war periods. Crucially, the book examines how far international society has recognised humanitarian intervention as a legitimate exception to the rules of sovereignty and non-intervention and non-use of force. While there are studies of each case of intervention-in East Pakistan, Cambodia, Uganda, Iraq, Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia and Kosovo-there is no single work that examines them comprehensively in a comparative framework. Each chapter tells a story of intervention that weaves together a study of motives, justifications and outcomes. The legitimacy of humanitarian intervention is contested by the 'pluralist' and 'solidarist' wings of the English school, and the book charts the stamp of these conceptions on state practice. Solidarism lacks a full-blown theory of humanitarian intervention and the book supplies one. This theory is employed to assess the humanitarian qualifications of the cases of intervention analysed in the book, and this normative assessment is then compared to the moral practices of states. A key focus is to examine how far humanitarian intervention as a legitimate practice is present in the diplomatic dialogue of states. In exploring how far there has been a change of norm in the society of states in the 1990s, the book defends the broad based constructivist claim that state actions will be constrained if they cannot be legitimated, and that new norms enable new practices but do not determine these. The book concludes by considering how far contemporary practices of humanitarian intervention support a new solidarism, and how far this resolves the traditional conflict between order and justice in international society.

Contestation and Constitution of Norms in Global International Relations

Author: Antje Wiener

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107169526

Category: Law

Page: 273

View: 9386

Examines the involvement of local actors in conflicts over global norms at the intersection between international relations and international law.

The Evolution of Cyber War

International Norms for Emerging-Technology Weapons

Author: Brian M. Mazanec

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 1612347630

Category: Political Science

Page: 329

View: 5897

"In January 2014 Pope Francis called the Internet a "gift from God." Months later former Secretary of Defense, Leon Panetta, described cyber warfare as "the most serious threat in the 21st century," capable of destroying our entire infrastructure and crippling the nation. Already, cyber warfare has impacted countries around the world: Estonia in 2007, Georgia in 2008, and Iran in 2010; and, as with other methods of war, cyber technology has the ability to be used not only on military forces and facilities, but on civilian targets.Our computers have become spies and tools for terrorism, and a have allowed for a new, unchecked method of war.And yet, cyber warfare is still in its infancy, with inumerable possibilities and contingencies for how such a war may play out in the coming decades. Cyber War Taboo?: The Evolution of Norms for Emerging-Technology Weapons, from Chemical Weapons to Cyber Warfare examines the international development of constraining norms for cyber warfare and and predicts how those norms will unfold in the future. Using case studies for other emerging-technology weapons--chemical and biological weapons, strategic bombing, and nuclear weapons--author Brian Mazanec expands previous definitions of norm evolution theory and offers recommendations for citizens and U.S. policymakers and as they grapple with the impending reality of cyber war"--

Introduction to International Relations

Theories and Approaches

Author: Robert H. Jackson,Georg Sørensen

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199285433

Category: Political Science

Page: 342

View: 7502

This highly successful textbook provides a systematic introduction to the principle theories in international relations. It combines incisive and original analysis with a clear and accessible writing style, making it the ideal textbook for all students taking an introductory course in international relations or international relations theory. The book focuses on the main theoretical traditions - Realism, Liberalism, International Society, and theories of international political economy. The third edition includes two new chapters on Social Constructivism and foreign policy. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between IR theory (academic knowledge of IR) and IR practice (real world events and activities of world politics). The authors carefully explain how particular theories organize and sharpen our view of the world. The book is supported by an Online Resource Centre. Student resources: Case studies with assignments Review questions Web links to theoretical debates, maps and world situations (NEW) Flashcard glossary (NEW) Lecturer resources: Figures and tables from the text (NEW)

Disease Diplomacy

International Norms and Global Health Security

Author: Sara E. Davies,Adam Kamradt-Scott,Simon Rushton

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421416492

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 6200

In the age of air travel and globalized trade, pathogens that once took months or even years to spread beyond their regions of origin can now circumnavigate the globe in a matter of hours. Amid growing concerns about such epidemics as Ebola, SARS, MERS, and H1N1, disease diplomacy has emerged as a key foreign and security policy concern as countries work to collectively strengthen the global systems of disease surveillance and control. The revision of the International Health Regulations (IHR), eventually adopted by the World Health Organization’s member states in 2005, was the foremost manifestation of this novel diplomacy. The new regulations heralded a profound shift in international norms surrounding global health security, significantly expanding what is expected of states in the face of public health emergencies and requiring them to improve their capacity to detect and contain outbreaks. Drawing on Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink’s "norm life cycle" framework and based on extensive documentary analysis and key informant interviews, Disease Diplomacy traces the emergence of these new norms of global health security, the extent to which they have been internalized by states, and the political and technical constraints governments confront in attempting to comply with their new international obligations. The authors also examine in detail the background, drafting, adoption, and implementation of the IHR while arguing that the very existence of these regulations reveals an important new understanding: that infectious disease outbreaks and their management are critical to national and international security. The book will be of great interest to academic researchers, postgraduate students, and advanced undergraduates in the fields of global public health, international relations, and public policy, as well as health professionals, diplomats, and practitioners with a professional interest in global health security.

How Change Happens

Author: Duncan Green

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198785399

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 8325

Human society is full of would-be "change agents," a restless mix of campaigners, lobbyists, and officials, both individuals and organizations, set on transforming the world. They want to improve public services, reform laws and regulations, guarantee human rights, get a fairer deal for those on the sharp end, achieve greater recognition for any number of issues, or simply be treated with respect. Striking then, why so many universities lack programs for social activists, to which students can turn for advice and inspiration. Instead, scholarly discussions of change are fragmented with few conversations crossing disciplinary boundaries, rarely making it onto the radar of those actively seeking change. This book bridges the gap between academia and practice, bringing together the best research from a range of academic disciplines and the evolving practical understanding of activists to explore the topic of social and political change. Drawing on many first-hand examples from the global experience of Oxfam, one of the world's largest social justice NGOs, as well as the author's insights from studying and working on international development, it tests ideas on how change happens and offers the latest thinking on what works to achieve progressive change.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition

Author: Thomas S. Kuhn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226458148

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 9026

A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Global Norms with a Local Face

Rule-of-Law Promotion and Norm Translation

Author: Lisbeth Zimmermann

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316773140

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8014

To what extent are global rule-of-law norms, which external actors promote in post-conflict states, localized? Who decides whether global standards or local particularities prevail? This book offers a new approach to the debate about how the dilemma between the diffusion of global norms and their localization is dealt with in global politics. Studying the promotion of children's rights, access to public information, and an international commission against impunity in Guatemala, Lisbeth Zimmermann demonstrates that rule-of-law promotion triggers domestic contestation and thereby changes the approach taken by external actors, and ultimately the manner in which global norms are translated. However, the leeway in local translation is determined by the precision of global norms. Based on an innovative theoretical approach and an in-depth study of rule-of-law translation, Zimmermann argues for a shift in norm promotion from context sensitivity to democratic appropriation, speaking to scholars of international relations, peacebuilding, democratization studies, international law, and political theory.

Diplomacy of Conscience

Amnesty International and Changing Human Rights Norms

Author: Ann Marie Clark

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400824229

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

View: 6556

A small group founded Amnesty International in 1961 to translate human rights principles into action. Diplomacy of Conscience provides a rich account of how the organization pioneered a combination of popular pressure and expert knowledge to advance global human rights. To an extent unmatched by predecessors and copied by successors, Amnesty International has employed worldwide publicity campaigns based on fact-finding and moral pressure to urge governments to improve human rights practices. Less well known is Amnesty International's significant impact on international law. It has helped forge the international community's repertoire of official responses to the most severe human rights violations, supplementing moral concern with expertise and conceptual vision. Diplomacy of Conscience traces Amnesty International's efforts to strengthen both popular human rights awareness and international law against torture, disappearances, and political killings. Drawing on primary interviews and archival research, Ann Marie Clark posits that Amnesty International's strenuously cultivated objectivity gave the group political independence and allowed it to be critical of all governments violating human rights. Its capacity to investigate abuses and interpret them according to international standards helped it foster consistency and coherence in new human rights law. Generalizing from this study, Clark builds a theory of the autonomous role of nongovernmental actors in the emergence of international norms pitting moral imperatives against state sovereignty. Her work is of substantial historical and theoretical relevance to those interested in how norms take shape in international society, as well as anyone studying the increasing visibility of nongovernmental organizations on the international scene.

From International to World Society?

English School Theory and the Social Structure of Globalisation

Author: Barry Buzan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521541213

Category: Political Science

Page: 294

View: 8605

In this 2004 book, Barry Buzan offers an extensive critique and reappraisal of the English school approach to International Relations. Starting on the neglected concept of world society and bringing together the international society tradition and the Wendtian mode of constructivism, Buzan offers a new theoretical framework that can be used to address globalisation as a complex political interplay among state and non-state actors. This approach forces English school theory to confront neglected questions about both its basic concepts and assumptions, and about the constitution of society in terms of what values are shared, how and why they are shared, and by whom. Buzan highlights the idea of primary institutions as the central contribution of English school theory and shows how this both differentiates English school theory from realism and neoliberal institutionalism, and how it can be used to generate distinctive comparative and historical accounts of international society.

No Ordinary Disruption

The Four Global Forces Breaking All the Trends

Author: Richard Dobbs,James Manyika,Jonathan Woetzel

Publisher: PublicAffairs

ISBN: 1610397622

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 5491

Our intuition on how the world works could well be wrong. We are surprised when new competitors burst on the scene, or businesses protected by large and deep moats find their defenses easily breached, or vast new markets are conjured from nothing. Trend lines resemble saw-tooth mountain ridges. The world not only feels different. The data tell us it is different. Based on years of research by the directors of the McKinsey Global Institute, No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Forces Breaking all the Trends is a timely and important analysis of how we need to reset our intuition as a result of four forces colliding and transforming the global economy: the rise of emerging markets, the accelerating impact of technology on the natural forces of market competition, an aging world population, and accelerating flows of trade, capital and people. Our intuitions formed during a uniquely benign period for the world economy—often termed the Great Moderation. Asset prices were rising, cost of capital was falling, labour and resources were abundant, and generation after generation was growing up more prosperous than their parents. But the Great Moderation has gone. The cost of capital may rise. The price of everything from grain to steel may become more volatile. The world's labor force could shrink. Individuals, particularly those with low job skills, are at risk of growing up poorer than their parents. What sets No Ordinary Disruption apart is depth of analysis combined with lively writing informed by surprising, memorable insights that enable us to quickly grasp the disruptive forces at work. For evidence of the shift to emerging markets, consider the startling fact that, by 2025, a single regional city in China—Tianjin—will have a GDP equal to that of the Sweden, of that, in the decades ahead, half of the world's economic growth will come from 440 cities including Kumasi in Ghana or Santa Carina in Brazil that most executives today would be hard-pressed to locate on a map. What we are now seeing is no ordinary disruption but the new facts of business life— facts that require executives and leaders at all levels to reset their operating assumptions and management intuition.

Making Corporate Social Responsibility a Global Concern

Norm Construction in a Globalizing World

Author: Dr Lisbeth Segerlund

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409499790

Category: Political Science

Page: 220

View: 6782

In recent decades, claims have increasingly been made on transnational corporations to take responsibility for the promotion and protection of human and labour rights in countries where they operate. This behavioural obligation results from the persistent advocacy of non-governmental organizations and is commonly known as corporate social responsibility (CSR). Driven by the theory of the 'norm life cycle model', the book uses an interesting range of case studies, including Nike and the anti-apartheid movement, to trace the development of CSR as an international norm. The development is examined through five selected non-governmental organizations: Clean Clothes Campaign, Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International, Global Exchange, International Business Leaders Forum and the International Labor Rights Fund. The book makes a lucid contribution to an emerging scholarship, and will interest researchers and practitioners involved in issues of global governance and global civil society.

Norms and foreign policy

constructivist foreign policy theory

Author: Henning Boekle,Volker Rittberger,Wolfgang Wagner

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: 58

View: 8915