Local State Competition and Global Market Building in the Tobacco Industry
Author: Junmin Wang
Category: Political Science
China today has the largest communist political regime and one of the most dynamic, fastest-growing, and largest economies in the world. Using a case study of China’s tobacco industry, this book analyses how the Chinese government was able to cultivate big state-owned firms that have successfully embraced the global market. The success of the Chinese economy and the many state-owned firms within it have given rise to a "Beijing Consensus," challenging almost every principle enshrined in the so-called "Washington Consensus" that espouses private ownership, free markets, and democracy. By examining two important political processes in contemporary China, ‘local state competition’ and ‘global-market building’, the book argues that the first process serves as a crucial basis for the second. It illustrates how the local governments involved themselves in building and shaping the tobacco market throughout the 1980s and 1990s, and how these domestic market dynamics created conditions for China’s recent embrace of the international market. Offering an in-depth exploration of the political-economic processes in a key Chinese state industry, the book emphasizes that the key to understanding China’s political transition is to look at how the state has been shaped by its market-building projects both domestically and globally. It presents an important contribution to studies on Chinese Business and International Political Economy.
Author: John Loughlin,John Kincaid,Wilfried Swenden
Category: Political Science
Almost all states are either federal or regionalized in some sense. It is difficult to find a state that is entirely unitary and the Routledge Handbook of Regionalism and Federalism necessarily takes in almost the entire world. Both federalism and regionalism have been subjects of a vast academic literature mainly from political science but sometimes also from history, economics, and geography. This cutting edge examination seeks to evaluate the two types of state organization from the perspective of political science producing a work that is analytical rather than simply descriptive. The Handbook presents some of the latest theoretical reflections on regionalism and federalism and then moves on to discuss cases of both regionalism and federalism in key countries chosen from the world’s macro-regions. Assembling this wide range of case studies allows the book to present a general picture of current trends in territorial governance. The final chapters then examine failed federations such as Czechoslovakia and examples of transnational regionalism - the EU, NAFTA and the African Union. Covering evolving forms of federalism and regionalism in all parts of the world and featuring a comprehensive range of case studies by leading international scholars this work will be an essential reference source for all students and scholars of international politics, comparative politics and international relations.
Large-scale privatization did not emerge spontaneously in China in the late 1990s. Rather, the Chinese state led and carefully “planned” ownership transformation with timetables and measurable privatization quotas, not for the purpose of extracting the state from the economy, but in order to strengthen the rule of the Party. While it is widely believed that authoritarian regimes are better suited than democracies to carry out economic reform, this book provides a more nuanced understanding of reform in China, demonstrating that the Chinese state’s capacity to impose unpopular reform is contingent on its control over local state agents and its adaptability to societal demands. Building on rich fieldwork data gathered in three Chinese cities (Shenyang, Shanghai, and Xiamen), this book offers the first comparative study of China’s privatization processes at the local level. Instead of focusing solely on political elites, Jin Zeng adopts a multi-level interaction approach to examine how the complex interplay of the central leadership, grassroots officials, and state-owned enterprise managers and workers shaped the contour of privatization in China.The book advances three central arguments. First, local economic structure and cadre evaluation system mediated local officials’ incentives to initiate privatization. Second, local officials relied on mobilization campaigns and various appeasement measures to implement privatization. Finally, the dynamics of privatization were fundamentally driven by the central government’s reactions to social opposition and by the subsequent responses of local officials to the changed political-regulatory environment. As a detailed analysis of the dual transformation of the property regime and state–society relations in China, this book will be invaluable to students and scholars of Chinese politics, economic reform, as well as those interested in comparative political economy and economic development more broadly.
Political Implications of Rural Industrialisation in the Reform Era
Author: Ray Yep
Category: Business & Economics
Institutional changes in rural China caused by the economic reforms of the post-Mao era have led to a new pattern of state-society interaction in the rural polity. Central to this is the spectacular rise of a group of managerial elites. Contrary to economic predictors, this has been accompanied by the development of an interdependence between these managers and the state. This book provides an analysis of the new state-society relationship and demonstrates the complexity and fluidity involved in institutional development and market transformation.
Traditions and Changes in the Sub-National Hierarchy
Author: Jae Ho Chung,Tao-chiu Lam
Category: Political Science
The remarkable changes in China over the past three decades are mostly considered at the national level, whereas local government – which has played and continues to play a key role in these developments – is often overlooked. The themes of China’s local administrative hierarchy, and its historical evolution, have until now received scant attention; this book fills that gap, and presents a comprehensive survey of China’s local administration, from the province down to the township. It examines the political and functional definitions and historical origins of the nine local administrative levels or categories in contemporary China: the province, the centrally-administered municipality, the ethnic minority autonomous region, the special administrative region, the deputy-provincial city, the prefecture, the county, township and urban district. It investigates how each of the different levels of China’s local administration has developed historically, both before and after 1949; and it explores the functions, political and economic, that the different levels and units carry out, and how their relationships with superior and subordinate units have evolved over time. It also discusses how far the post-Mao reforms have affected local administration, and how the local administrative hierarchy is likely to develop going forward.
China is the largest recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI) among developing countries. This study compares China's FDI performance with a number of other Asian countries and focuses on the policy and institutional factors that lead to a large demand for FDI in China. The policy and institutional factors include import substitution, excess investment demand and features of China's FDI regulatory system. The study shows that there are costs associated with such a high demand for FDI, including overbidding for FDI and the associated loss of Chinese bargaining power, large import demand, and the structure of the FDI at variance with Chinese official policies. This study also briefly discusses the foreign economic policy implications of China's FDI absorption and suggests some future research possibilities.
Political power is a great enigma in contemporary China, as it operates often behind the closed doors of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). In the recent decades of reform, it has changed greatly in many ways while retaining its authoritarian nature. How do Chinese leaders rule this huge country? How does the regime communicate with its bureaucracies and ordinary citizens? What happened to politics in recent decades as economic marketisation and social liberalisation formed the major currents of the nation's developments? And, what are the implications of all these domestic affairs to China's foreign relations and vice versa? This volume is an intellectual exercise to explore these questions that have for a long time occupied a central position in academic explorations of Chinese politics. The book covers topics such as state-enterprise relationship (a fundamental indicator of the political economy of Chinese reform), central-local relations (an issue that has perplexed the power arrangements in China for over a thousand years in general and since 1949 in particular), relations between popular participation and political reform, and the relationship between individual liberty and political democracy (a classic question in political theory that frames political debates in contemporary China). These collected essays give the reader an insightful peek behind the closed doors of Chinese politics and governance.
These essays address the most significant developments in China's reform with a focus on rural and urban elections, comprehensive marketization, nature of political change, China's entry in the World Trade Organization, property rights, science and technology policy, and culture and sovereignty.