Based on detailed excavation data, the author reconstructs the paleography of the Santa Barbara coast ca. 8500 years ago, makes comparisons to other early California sites, and applies his findings to current theories of hunter-gatherers and coastal environments. With an emphasis on paleographic reconstructions, site formation processes, chronological studies, and integrated faunal analyses, the work will be of interest to a wide range of scholars working in shell middens, hunter-gatherer ecology, geoarchaeology, and coatal or aquatic adaptations.
San Clemente Island is a microcosm of California coastal archaeology from prehistoric through historic times—not only because of the extensiveness of its archaeological remains but because those remains have been so well preserved. In California Maritime Archaeology, the authors use the island as a platform to explore evidence of early seafaring, colonization, paleoenvironmental change, and cultural interaction along the California coast. They make a strong case that San Clemente island should be seen as a kind of "California archaeological Galapagos," offering an extraordinary variety of ancient life as well as surprising information about prehistoric hunter-gatherers of the northern Pacific. The authors' two decades of research have resulted in this rich cultural history that defies widespread assumptions about California's ancient maritime history.
Lawrence Guy Straus,Berit Valentin Eriksen,Jon M. Erlandson,David R. Yesner
The Archaeology of the Pleistocene—Holocene Transition
Author: Lawrence Guy Straus,Berit Valentin Eriksen,Jon M. Erlandson,David R. Yesner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Social Science
Humans at the End of the Ice Age chronicles and explores the significance of the variety of cultural responses to the global environmental changes at the last glacial-interglacial boundary. Contributions address the nature and consequences of the global climate changes accompanying the end of the Pleistocene epoch-detailing the nature, speed, and magnitude of the human adaptations that culminated in the development of food production in many parts of the world. The text is aided by vital maps, chronological tables, and charts.
Human Organization and Cultural Transformations in Prehistoric North America
Author: C. Britt Bousman,Bradley J. Vierra
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
Category: Social Science
The end of the Pleistocene era brought dramatic environmental changes to small bands of humans living in North America: changes that affected subsistence, mobility, demography, technology, and social relations. The transition they made from Paleoindian (Pleistocene) to Archaic (Early Holocene) societies represents the first major cultural shift that took place solely in the Americas. This event—which manifested in ways and at times much more varied than often supposed—set the stage for the unique developments of behavioral complexity that distinguish later Native American prehistoric societies. Using localized studies and broad regional syntheses, the contributors to this volume demonstrate the diversity of adaptations to the dynamic and changing environmental and cultural landscapes that occurred between the Pleistocene and early portion of the Holocene. The authors' research areas range from Northern Mexico to Alaska and across the continent to the American Northeast, synthesizing the copious available evidence from well-known and recent excavations.With its methodologically and geographically diverse approach, From the Pleistocene to the Holocene: Human Organization and Cultural Transformations in Prehistoric North America provides an overview of the present state of knowledge regarding this crucial transformative period in Native North America. It offers a large-scale synthesis of human adaptation, reflects the range of ideas and concepts in current archaeological theoretical approaches, and acts as a springboard for future explanations and models of prehistoric change.
The Encyclopedia of Prehistory represents temporal dimension. Major traditions are an attempt to provide basic information also defined by a somewhat different set of on all archaeologically known cultures, sociocultural characteristics than are eth covering the entire globe and the entire nological cultures. Major traditions are prehistory of humankind. It is designed as defined based on common subsistence a tool to assist in doing comparative practices, sociopolitical organization, and research on the peoples of the past. Most material industries, but language, ideology, of the entries are written by the world's and kinship ties play little or no part in foremost experts on the particular areas their definition because they are virtually and time periods. unrecoverable from archaeological con The Encyclopedia is organized accord texts. In contrast, language, ideology, and ing to major traditions. A major tradition kinship ties are central to defining ethno is defined as a group of populations sharing logical cultures.
Changes through time in the archaeological record of coastal California illuminate complex relationships between human beings and a rich, diverse coastal biome. With a long and impressive history of coastal archaeology, California scholars have a substantial empirical research base from which to address broader issues within the increasingly specialized subfield of maritime anthropology. The 16 papers in this volume attempt to explain changes in coastal hunter-gatherer behavior through time.Contributing Authors: JE Arnold, LE Christenson, JM Erlandson, D Gallegos, MA Glassow, GT Gross, DA Jones,TL Jones, D Laylander, KG Lightfoot, P Martz, LA Payen, LM Raab, EW Ritter, RA Salls, R Schwaderer, DD Simons, A Yatsko, DR Yesner
IN THIS ANTHOLOGY, Mark Raab and Terry Jones present a series of research articles that dispel lingering mythologies about California's prehistory. They begin with the most enduring notion--that of an essentially stable, benign climate--presenting evidence that prehistoric climate flux played a significant role in culture change. From there, Raab and Jones assault the myth of California as a natural cornucopia. They show that prehistoric foragers themselves had the capacity to negatively affect their animal food supplies, and that what is often considered the premier vegetal food, the acorn, appeared much later than many suppose in the diets of native peoples. This collection effectively summarizes the major debates surrounding California archaeology and provides a solid basis for a new, more nuanced view of the state's prehistory.
Prehistoric Context for the Southern California Bight
Author: Jeffrey H. Altschul,Donn R. Grenda
Publisher: Statistical Research
The southern California coast has been a favored place to live for nearly 12,000 years. Dotted with marshes, estuaries, cliffs, and open beaches, with islands and mountains lying nearby, the area is rich in resources. How humans have fit into this ecological diverse and ever-changing landscape is a constant theme in the prehistory of the region. Using comparative studies of island and coastal cultures from the Pacific, the authors show how the study of southern California's past can enlighten us about coastal adaptations worldwide. Drawing on sources from anthropology, ethnohistory, geoscience, and archaeology, their findings are presented in a readable fashion that will make Islanders and Mainlanders of interest not only to a wide range of scholars but to the general public as well. Jeffrey H. Altschul is President and Donn R. Grenda is Director of the California Office of Statistical Research, Inc., a cultural resource management consulting firm. Both have been extremely active in southern California archaeology, working on sites on the mainland and the Channel Islands.
Jon Erlandson,Terry L. Jones,Jeanne E. Arnold,Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA.
Author: Jon Erlandson,Terry L. Jones,Jeanne E. Arnold,Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA.
Publisher: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology
Essays in this volume explore the last three and one half millennia of the long history of the California Coast, focusing on the archaeological signatures of emergent cultural complexity. Organized geographically, they provide a mosaic of archaeological, historic, and ethnographic findings that illuminate cultural changes over time. To explain these Late Holocene cultural developments, the authors address issues ranging from culture history, paleoenvironments, settlement, subsistence, exchange, ritual, power, to division of labor, and employ both ecological and post-modern perspectives. Complex cultural expressions, most highly developed in the Santa Barbara Channel and the North Coast, are viewed alternatively as fairly recent and abrupt responses to environmental flux or the end-product of gradual progressions that began earlier in the Holocene.
Annotation A new series of reprints, monographs, and edited volumes on the anthropology and prehistory of Pacific North America. The series will include works from the coastal and riverine regions of Alaska to California.
A Methodological Study of Site Structure and Formation Processes at Ca-Ora-116, Newport Bay, Orange County, California
Author: Donn R. Grenda,Christopher J. Doolittle,Jeffrey H. Altschul
Publisher: Statistical Research
ORA-116 is one of many coastal shell-midden sites in and around Newport Bay, a large, complex wetlands in southern California. Whereas shell-midden studies have traditionally focused on changes in subsistence and settlement patterns, this project took a decidedly different approach. Using a variety of innovative detection measures, eleven structures were identified and excavated. Most were interpreted as house pits; one was inferred to be a sweat lodge. The structures dated between about 300 B.C. and A.D. 700, placing the occupation within the Intermediate period. The archaeological study was augmented by pollen and ostracod analysis of a 1,081-cm core taken from the nearby San Joaquin Marsh, which helped establish the Holocene history of Newport Bay. The authors integrate archaeological, ethnographic, and environmental data in a comprehensive settlement and subsistence model that is sure to be of interest to all scholars of coastal wetlands adaptation.