The handbook details the MoSSaiC (Management of Slope Stability in Communities) methodology, which aims to create behavioral change in vulnerable communities in developing countries. Focusing on maximizing within-country capacity to deliver landslide mitigation measures on the ground, it provides an end-to-end blueprint for the mitigation process.
Author: Wolfgang Zech,Peter Schad,Gerd Hintermaier-Erhard
Böden gehören zu den wichtigsten Lebensgrundlagen der Menschheit. Sie unterscheiden sich in den verschiedenen Regionen der Erde außerordentlich stark. Dieser Bildatlas beschreibt und illustriert die Böden der Welt im Zusammenhang mit ihren Naturräumen. Grundlage ist die internationale Bodenklassifikation WRB (World Reference Base for Soil Resources) in der Neuauflage von 2006. Darin sind zahlreiche Begriffe neu bzw. schärfer definiert. Mit den Technosolen und Stagnosolen fanden zwei neue Referenzbodengruppen Aufnahme. Auch die weitere Untergliederung der Böden mit Hilfe von Qualifiern wurde deutlich verändert und erweitert. Diese zahlreichen Änderungen in der WRB von 2006 sind in die 2. Auflage des Buches eingegangen. Das Buch ist nach Ökozonen gegliedert. Für jede Ökozone werden Lage, Klima und Vegetation mit den sich daraus ergebenden bodenbildenden Faktoren beschrieben. Darauf folgen umfassende Informationen über deren repräsentative Böden: Definition der Böden, diagnostische Horizonte, Eigenschaften und Materialien, physikalische, chemische und biologische Merkmale, Vorkommen und Verbreitung, Nutzung und Gefährdung, Prozesse der Bodenbildung. Zahlreiche Diagramme zur Verbreitung der Böden, zu Profilmerkmalen und bodenbildenden Prozessen sowie viele neue Farbfotos von Bodenprofilen und -landschaften machen den Bildatlas zu einem ausgezeichneten Referenzwerk. Studierende und Lehrende sowie Entscheidungsträger werden zudem mit grundlegenden Erkenntnissen der Bodenkunde, des Bodenschutzes und der Bodenfruchtbarkeit vertraut gemacht. Bevölkerungswachstum und Bodendegradation in tropischen Gebieten, deren Böden von Natur aus nur eingeschränkt fruchtbar sind, machen die Ernährungssicherung in besonderem Maße zu einer Aufgabe der Bodenkunde.
Joanne E. Norris,Alexia Stokes,Slobodan B. Mickovski,Erik Cammeraat,Rens van Beek,Bruce C. Nicoll,Alexis Achim
Author: Joanne E. Norris,Alexia Stokes,Slobodan B. Mickovski,Erik Cammeraat,Rens van Beek,Bruce C. Nicoll,Alexis Achim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book aims to assist in choosing ecotechnological solutions for slopes that are prone to a variety of mass movements e.g. shallow failure or erosion. The book reviews the types of problematic slopes that may occur and describes briefly the nature of mass movements and the causes of these movements. There is focus on the use of vegetation to stabilize soil on slopes prone to mass movements. The book also introduces new ecotechnological methods, and case studies are discussed.
Proceedings of an International Symposium (Symposium S5) Held During the Sixth Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) at Maastricht, The Netherlands, from 18 to 27 July 2001
Author: A. J. Dolman
Publisher: International Assn of Hydrological Sciences
Military maneuvers damage vegetation and compact and rut soils on training lands, thereby increasing the likelihood of hillslope runoff and soil erosion. Soil Freeze-Thaw (FT) processes can change the hydraulic geometry and roughness of vehicular ruts and reduce soil compaction, which often partially restores the water infiltration rate that existed before compaction. The efficiency of these FT-induced 'repairs' depends on soil water content and FT intensity. Initial tests showed that: (1) an experimental soil bin designed and constructed for rut experiments allows acceptable simulation of field soil FT, and (2) the hydraulic geometry of a rectangular rill in a fine silt soil with an initial volumetric water content of 36% changes dramatically due to rill sideslope slumping during thaw. Future experiments will compare differences in the response of natural rills and vehicular ruts to FT-induced soil failure, and investigate the effects of FT on soil erodibility and the influences of snow cover on soil erosion processes in the spring.
This SpringerBrief focuses on the network capacity analysis of VANETs, a key topic as fundamental guidance on design and deployment of VANETs is very limited. Moreover, unique characteristics of VANETs impose distinguished challenges on such an investigation. This SpringerBrief first introduces capacity scaling laws for wireless networks and briefly reviews the prior arts in deriving the capacity of VANETs. It then studies the unicast capacity considering the socialized mobility model of VANETs. With vehicles communicating based on a two-hop relaying scheme, the unicast capacity bound is derived and can be applied to predict the throughput of real-world scenarios of VANETs. The downlink capacity of VANETs is also investigated in which access infrastructure is deployed to provide pervasive Internet access to vehicles. Different alternatives of wireless access infrastructure are considered. A lower bound of downlink capacity is derived for each type of access infrastructure. The last section of this book presents a case study based on a perfect city grid to examine the capacity-cost trade-offs of different deployments since the deployment costs of different access infrastructure are highly variable.
Author: Roy C. Sidle,Andrew J. Pearce,Colin L. O'Loughlin
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Water Resources Monograph Series, Volume 11. This monograph compiles research findings on soil mass movement into a format usable by practitioners and students. Applications are stressed in the areas of extensive and management practices rather than engineering earthworks. Examples are included to illustrate various prediction, avoidance, and control measures used in managing unstable terrain. We use the term soil (i.e., soil mass movement) to mean the mantle of unconsolidated or poorly consolidated material of either residual or transported origin, that overlies bedrock and forms the surface of the land. This usage is consistent with the conventional civil engineering use of the word and is synonymous with the geological term regolith and with soil mantle.
Deals in detail with the full range of elements appropriate to hillslope research. It develops several key themes in an attempt to bring together the very latest advances in hillslope research. Hydrological, solute, soil, gully and slope stability processes together with processes in tropical, semi arid and periglacial environments are all accorded major sections in the book. Written by internationally renowned experts in the field it brings together recent innovative advances in both modelling and field monitoring. "Hugely valuable publication that not only makes an impressive statement on or contemporary knowledge and methodology but also sets up a well defined platform for future work." Progress in Physical Geography, Vol 21:4 1997
This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.
Concepts and Case Studies from the Rhine River Catchment
Author: Andreas Lang,Kirsten P. Hennrich,Richard Dikau
This volume presents a collection of papers given at a Rhine-LUCIFS (Land use and climate impact on fluvial systems), the aim being to bring together researchers with longstanding experience in developing concepts and modelling approaches for long term landscape evolution and scientists involved in more classical studies on the evolution of the Rhine river system. It is divided into two parts: part one reviews the Rhine river system and gives case studies to demonstrate the types of data that can be extracted from sedimentary archives. Part two provides a state of the art review on concepts for fluvial system research, as well as modelling the components of large river basins, written by leading European scientists in this field.
Floods continue to cause significant damage in the United States and elsewhere, and questions about the causes of flooding continue to be debated. A significant amount of research has been conducted on the relationship between forest management activities and water yield, peak flows, and flooding; somewhat less research has been conducted on the modeling of these activities as related to flooding. This bibliography and online bibliographic database provide a searchable listing of more than 600 publications related to the interrelationships of forest and forest management on watershed and flood hydrology. Also included are publications related to the capability and limitations of currently available hydrologic models and modeling approaches, with particular emphasis on their utility for evaluating forest management effects.
The plate tectonics revolution in the earth sciences has provided a valuable new framework for understanding long-term landform development. This innovative text provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject of global geomorphology, with the emphasis placed on large-scale processes and phenomena. Integrating global tectonics into the study of landforms and incorporating planetary geomorphology as a major component the author discusses the impact of climatic change and the role of catastrophic events on landform genesis and includes a comprehensive study of surface geomorphic processes.
The 16 contributions to Geographical Information Systems in Assessing Natural Hazards report on GIS investigations into landslides, floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and groundwater pollution hazards. Current methods for predicting extreme events are critically discussed, the emphasis being on the intrinsic complexity of this type of operation, requiring many spatial data, long historical records and sound models of the physical processes involved. Within this context, the potentials and limitations of GIS are addressed in terms of data acquisition, spatial data structures and modelling for simulation of the causal phenomena. Geographic Information Systems in Assessing Natural Hazards will help investigators in both public and private institutions to evaluate the actual effectiveness of GIS in coping with natural disasters, and to develop new strategies for projects aimed at the assessment and mitigation of the effects of such catastrophic events.
Agriculture is strongly affected by changes in soil hydrology as well as changes in land use and management practices and the complex interactions between them. This book develops an understanding of these interactions on a watershed scale, using soil hydrology models and addresses the consequences of land use and management changes on agriculture from a research perspective. Case studies illustrate the impact of land use and management on various soil hydrological parameters under different climates and ecosystems.