Guidelines for Enabling Conditions and Conditional Modifiers in Layer of Protection Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111877793X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 136

View: 1432

The initial Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) book published in 2001 set the rules and approaches for using LOPA as an intermediate method between purely qualitative hazards evaluation/analysis and more quantitative analysis methods. Basic LOPA provides an order-of-magnitude risk estimate of risk with fairly reproducible results. LOPA results are considered critical in determining safety integrity level for design of safety instrumented systems. This guideline clarifies key concepts and reinforces the limitations and the requirements of LOPA. The main scope of the guideline is to provide examples of CMs and ECs and to provide concrete guidance on the protocols that must be followed to use these concepts. The book presents a brief overview of Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) and its variations, and summarizes terminology used for evaluating scenarios in the context of a typical incident sequence. It defines and illustrates the most common types of ECs and CMs and shows how they interrelate to risk criteria as well as their application to other methods.

Layer of Protection Analysis

Simplified Process Risk Assessment

Author: Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS)

Publisher: Wiley-AIChE

ISBN: 9780816908110

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 292

View: 2706

Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a recently developed, simplified method of risk assessment that provides the much-needed middle ground between a qualitative process hazard analysis and a traditional, expensive quantitative risk analysis. Beginning with an identified accident scenario, LOPA uses simplifying rules to evaluate initiating event frequency, independent layers of protection, and consequences to provide an order-of-magnitude estimate of risk. LOPA has also proven an excellent approach for determining the safety integrity level necessary for an instrumented safety system, an approach endorsed in instrument standards, such as ISA S84 and IEC 61511. Written by industry experts in LOPA, this pioneering book provides all the necessary information to undertake and complete a Layer of Protection Analysis during any stage in a processes' life cycle. Loaded with tables, charts, and examples, this book is invaluable to technical experts involved with ensuring the safety of a process. Because of its simplified, quicker risk assessment approach, LOPA is destined to become a widely used technique. Join other major companies and start your LOPA efforts now by purchasing this book.

Layer of Protection Analysis

Simplified Process Risk Assessment

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111821627X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 292

View: 5093

Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a recently developed, simplified method of risk assessment that provides the much-needed middle ground between a qualitative process hazard analysis and a traditional, expensive quantitative risk analysis. Beginning with an identified accident scenario, LOPA uses simplifying rules to evaluate initiating event frequency, independent layers of protection, and consequences to provide an order-of-magnitude estimate of risk. LOPA has also proven an excellent approach for determining the safety integrity level necessary for an instrumented safety system, an approach endorsed in instrument standards, such as ISA S84 and IEC 61511. Written by industry experts in LOPA, this pioneering book provides all the necessary information to undertake and complete a Layer of Protection Analysis during any stage in a processes' life cycle. Loaded with tables, charts, and examples, this book is invaluable to technical experts involved with ensuring the safety of a process. Because of its simplified, quicker risk assessment approach, LOPA is destined to become a widely used technique. Join other major companies and start your LOPA efforts now by purchasing this book.

Guidelines for Combustible Dust Hazard Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119010160

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 9609

8.2.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 1 -- 8.2.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 1 -- 8.3 Example 2 -- 8.3.1 Process Description 2 -- 8.3.2 Traditional DHA -- 8.3.3 Risk-based DHA -- 8.3.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 2 -- 8.4 Example 3 -- 8.4.1 Process Description - Example 3 -- 8.4.2 Traditional DHA - Example 3 -- 8.4.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 3 -- 8.5 Summary -- 8.6 References -- Appendix A Regulations and Codes -- A.1 Regulations -- A.1.1 U.S. -- A.1.2 International -- A.2 Codes -- References -- Appendix B Additional Resources -- B.1 Books -- B.2 U.S. Chemical Safety Board Reports -- B.3 Journal Articles -- B.4 Other -- Appendix C Data for Risk-based DHA -- C.1 Probability Assessment of Process Unit Fire or Dust Explosion -- C.1.1 Initiating Event Frequencies -- C.1.2 Ignition Probabilities -- C.1.3 Protection Layer PFDs -- C.2 References -- Appendix D Good Practices -- D.1 Self Assessment -- D.2 Housekeeping -- D.2.1 Combustible Dust Housekeeping Inspection Checklist -- D.3 Explosion Protection Methods -- Appendix E DHA Roadmap -- Notes for Figure E.1 -- INDEX -- EULA

Guidelines for Engineering Design for Process Safety

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118265467

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 440

View: 2848

This updated version of one of the most popular and widely used CCPS books provides plant design engineers, facility operators, and safety professionals with key information on selected topics of interest. The book focuses on process safety issues in the design of chemical, petrochemical, and hydrocarbon processing facilities. It discusses how to select designs that can prevent or mitigate the release of flammable or toxic materials, which could lead to a fire, explosion, or environmental damage. Key areas to be enhanced in the new edition include inherently safer design, specifically concepts for design of inherently safer unit operations and Safety Instrumented Systems and Layer of Protection Analysis. This book also provides an extensive bibliography to related publications and topic-specific information, as well as key information on failure modes and potential design solutions.

Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470924888

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 576

View: 5308

Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures, 3rd Edition keeps process engineers updated on the effective methodologies that process safety demands. Almost 200 pages of worked examples are included to facilitate understanding. References for further reading, along with charts and diagrams that reflect the latest views and information, make this a completely accessible work. The revised and updated edition includes information not included in previous editions giving a comprehensive overview of this topic area.

Guidelines for Facility Siting and Layout

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470925019

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 198

View: 8801

A resource for individuals responsible for siting decisions, this guidelines book covers siting and layout of process plants, including both new and expanding facilities. This book provides comprehensive guidelines in selecting a site, recognizing and assessing long-term risks, and the optimal lay out of equipment facilities needed within a site. The information presented is applicable to US and international locations. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

Guidelines for Combustible Dust Hazard Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119010160

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 6481

8.2.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 1 -- 8.2.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 1 -- 8.3 Example 2 -- 8.3.1 Process Description 2 -- 8.3.2 Traditional DHA -- 8.3.3 Risk-based DHA -- 8.3.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 2 -- 8.4 Example 3 -- 8.4.1 Process Description - Example 3 -- 8.4.2 Traditional DHA - Example 3 -- 8.4.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 3 -- 8.5 Summary -- 8.6 References -- Appendix A Regulations and Codes -- A.1 Regulations -- A.1.1 U.S. -- A.1.2 International -- A.2 Codes -- References -- Appendix B Additional Resources -- B.1 Books -- B.2 U.S. Chemical Safety Board Reports -- B.3 Journal Articles -- B.4 Other -- Appendix C Data for Risk-based DHA -- C.1 Probability Assessment of Process Unit Fire or Dust Explosion -- C.1.1 Initiating Event Frequencies -- C.1.2 Ignition Probabilities -- C.1.3 Protection Layer PFDs -- C.2 References -- Appendix D Good Practices -- D.1 Self Assessment -- D.2 Housekeeping -- D.2.1 Combustible Dust Housekeeping Inspection Checklist -- D.3 Explosion Protection Methods -- Appendix E DHA Roadmap -- Notes for Figure E.1 -- INDEX -- EULA

Guidelines for Integrating Process Safety into Engineering Projects

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: Wiley-AIChE

ISBN: 1118795075

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 1958

There is much industry guidance on implementing engineering projects and a similar amount of guidance on Process Safety Management (PSM). However, there is a gap in transferring the key deliverables from the engineering group to the operations group, where PSM is implemented. This book provides the engineering and process safety deliverables for each project phase along with the impacts to the project budget, timeline and the safety and operability of the delivered equipment.

Process Safety Calculations

Author: Renato Benintendi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0081012292

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 662

View: 3897

Process Safety Calculations is an essential guide for process safety engineers involved in calculating and predicting risks and consequences. The book focuses on calculation procedures based on basic chemistry, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, conservation equations, kinetics and practical models. This book provides helpful calculations to demonstrate compliance with regulations and standards. Standards such as Seveso directive(s)/COMAH, CLP regulation, ATEX directives, PED directives, REACH regulation, OSHA/NIOSH and UK ALARP are covered, along with risk and consequence assessment, stoichiometry, thermodynamics, stress analysis and fluid-dynamics. Includes realistic engineering models with validation from CFD modeling and/or industry testing Provides an introduction into basic principles that govern process relationships in modern industry Helps the reader find and apply the right principles to the specific problem being solved, mitigated or validated

Guidelines for Developing Quantitative Safety Risk Criteria

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470552933

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 248

View: 2266

Written by a committee of safety professionals, this book creates a foundation document for the development and application of risk tolerance criteria Helps safety managers evaluate the frequency, severity and consequence of human injury Includes examples of risk tolerance criteria used by NASA, Earthquake Response teams and the International Maritime Organization, amongst others Helps achieve consistency in risk-based decision-making Reduces potential liabilities in the use of quantitative risk tolerance criteria through reference to an industry guidance document

HAZOP: Guide to Best Practice

Author: Frank Crawley,Brian Tyler

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128035803

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 168

View: 9642

HAZOP: Guide to Best Practice, 3rd Edition describes and illustrates the HAZOP study method, highlighting a variety of proven uses and approaches. This updated edition brings additional experience with which to assist the reader in delivering optimum safety and efficiency of performance of the HAZOP team. HAZOP is the most widely-used technique in the process industries for the identification of hazards and the planning of safety measures. This book explains how to implement HAZOP techniques in new facilities and apply it to existing facilities. The content covers many of the possible applications of HAZOP and takes you through all the stages of a study. This simple, easily digestible book is a favorite in the chemical and process industries. A concise and clear guide to the do's and don'ts in HAZOP New edition brings additional experience to help you deliver optimum safety and efficiency of performance. Updated material includes a section on HAZOP study of a procedure with a detailed example, new sections on pre-meeting with the client auditing a study, human factors and linking HAZOP study to LOPA. A section on start-up and shutdown has been added to the chapter on specific applications of HAZOP.

Olives and Olive Oil in Health and Disease Prevention

Author: Victor R. Preedy,Ronald Ross Watson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080922201

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1520

View: 8842

Long used in sacred ceremonies and associated with good health, the nutritional and health promoting benefits of olives and olive oils have been proven by an ever-increasing body of science. From cardiovascular benefits to anti-microbial, anti-cancer, antioxidant activity and effects on macrophages and aptoptosis to cellular and pathophysiollogical process, olives and olive oils are proving important in many healthful ways. For example, reactive components in olive oils or olive oil by-products have now been isolated and identified. These include tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid elenolic acid and oleuropein. Oleic acid is the main monosaturated fatty acid of olive oil. These have putative protective effects and modulate the biochemistry of a variety of cell types including those of the vascular system. Some but not all components have been characterised by their putative pharmacological properties. It is possible that usage of these aforementioned products may have beneficial application in other disease. However, in order for this cross-fertilization to take place, a comprehensive understanding of olives and olive oils is required. Finding this knowledge in a single volume provides a key resource for scientists in a variety of food an nutritional roles. Key Features: * Explores olives and olive oil from their general aspects to the detailed level of important micro-and micronutrients * Includes coverage of various methodologies for analysis to help scientists and chemists determine the most appropriate option for their own studies, including those of olive-related compounds in other foods * Relates, in a single volume resource, information for food and nutritional chemists, pharmaceutical scientists, nutritionists and dieticians * Presents information in three key categories: General aspects of olives an olive oils; Nutritional, pharmacological and metabolic properties of olives and olive oil; Specific components of olive oil and their effects on tissue and body systems

Risk Assessment of Chemicals: An Introduction

Author: C.J. van Leeuwen,J.L.M. Hermens

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792337409

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 614

In recent years many developments have taken place in promote co-operation between governments and other the field of risk assessment of chemicals. Many reports parties involved in chemical safety and to provide policy have been published by national authorities, industries guidance with emphasis on regional and subregional co and scientific researchers as well as by international bod operation. The Inter-Organization Programme for the ies such as the European Union, the Organization of Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC) was estab Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and lished in 1995 and provides a mechanism for the six par the joint International Programme on Chemical Safety ticipating organizations (UNEP, ILO, FAO, UNIDO,WHO (IPCS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the and OECD) to better co-ordinate policies and activities in International Labour Organization (lLO), and the United the field of chemical risk management. Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The present book is an introduction to risk assessment of The development and international harmonization of risk chemicals. It contains basic background information on assessment methods is an important challenge. In sources, emissions, distribution and fate processes for Agenda 21 of the United Nations Conference on exposure estimation. It includes dose-effects estimation Environment and Development (UNCED), chapter 19 is for both human health related toxicology and ecotoxicol entirely devoted to the management of chemicals. For ogy as well as information on estimation methodologies. one of its recommendations, i. e.

Formalities in Copyright Law

An Analysis of Their History, Rationales and Possible Future

Author: Stef van Gompel

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9041134182

Category: Law

Page: 346

View: 9829

This book examines whether reintroducing copyright formalities is legally feasible. Based on a comprehensive and thorough analysis of copyright formalities, it sets out to establish the extent to which the current copyright system allows for their reintroduction. To this end, the author describes the role and functions of formalities, revisits the history of formalities at the national and international levels, examines the scope of the international prohibition on formalities, and scrutinizes the rationales behind this prohibition, including an in-depth examination of the validity of the argument that copyright is a 'natural right' and therefore should be protected independently of formalities. The author skilfully evaluates and contrasts the conflicting theories according to which formalities, on the one hand, add legal certainty to claims on the ownership of property, and, on the other, hamper individual authors from seeking adequate protection for their works. This book makes an important contribution to legal science by answering questions that so far have been neglected or only marginally addressed. To the degree that current copyright law permits reintroducing formalities, the author posits the specifications that will determine to a great extent what role and functions they may eventually fulfil: depending on the aims to be achieved, lawmakers must choose which types of formalities shall be imposed, and what their legal consequences shall be. This book goes a long way towards reinforcing the foundation for those decisions.

Pipeline Risk Management Manual

Ideas, Techniques, and Resources

Author: W. Kent Muhlbauer

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080497705

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 395

View: 9906

Here's the ideal tool if you're looking for a flexible, straightforward analysis system for your everyday design and operations decisions. This new third edition includes sections on stations, geographical information systems, "absolute" versus "relative" risks, and the latest regulatory developments. From design to day-to-day operations and maintenance, this unique volume covers every facet of pipeline risk management, arguably the most important, definitely the most hotly debated, aspect of pipelining today. Now expanded and updated, this widely accepted standard reference guides you in managing the risks involved in pipeline operations. You'll also find ways to create a resource allocation model by linking risk with cost and customize the risk assessment technique to your specific requirements. The clear step-by-step instructions and more than 50 examples make it easy. This edition has been expanded to include offshore pipelines and distribution system pipelines as well as cross-country liquid and gas transmission pipelines. The only comprehensive manual for pipeline risk management Updated material on stations, geographical information systems, "absolute" versus "relative" risks, and the latest regulatory developments Set the standards for global pipeline risk management

The Miombo in Transition

Woodlands and Welfare in Africa

Author: Bruce Morgan Campbell

Publisher: CIFOR

ISBN: 9798764072

Category: Forest ecology

Page: 266

View: 6102

Miombo woodlands and their use: overview and key issues. The ecology of miombo woodlands. Population biology of miombo tree. Miombo woodlands in the wider context: macro-economic and inter-sectoral influences. Rural households and miombo woodlands: use, value and management. Trade in woodland products from the miombo region. Managing miombo woodland. Institutional arrangements governing the use and the management of miombo woodlands. Miombo woodlands and rural livelihoods: options and opportunities.

Impact of Occupants' Behaviour on Zero-Energy Buildings

Author: Francesca Stazi,Federica Naspi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319718673

Category: Architecture

Page: 95

View: 1992

This book highlights the importance of human behaviour in the building design process, with a focus on the construction of zero-energy buildings. It reports on and discusses the strategies the authors have adopted to develop behavioural models, and explains how to integrate them into building design. The analyses and findings presented in the book are supported by novel experimental data derived from building monitoring projects carried out by the authors’ research group. Further, the book suggests key methodologies and modelling approaches. The authors subsequently address occupants’ behaviour in zero-energy buildings from an energy perspective. They investigate many different aspects of the interactions between users and buildings devices, from assessing the triggering factors of occupants’ behaviours, to discussing modelling and simulation approaches. Methods for acquiring and analysing experimental data are presented, as well as a discussion on objective and subjective factors that trigger occupants’ behaviour. Other content includes: experimental investigations from real case studies to assess occupants’ interaction with building devices; an assessment of the driving factors that trigger human actions to identify the key parameters in the behavioural models; and critical suggestions on monitoring and modelling approaches to optimise data acquisition and modelling methods. The guidelines presented here will allow designers and researchers to improve the accuracy of their simulations of buildings energy performance, and support both building design and management processes. It will be of particular use to researchers involved in the development of behavioural models, as it presents experimental data and a comprehensive overview of behavioural modelling. The book will also be of interest to students who are studying the behavioural component of integrated building design.