Guidelines for Enabling Conditions and Conditional Modifiers in Layer of Protection Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118777948

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 136

View: 1241

The initial Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) book published in 2001 set the rules and approaches for using LOPA as an intermediate method between purely qualitative hazards evaluation/analysis and more quantitative analysis methods. Basic LOPA provides an order-of-magnitude risk estimate of risk with fairly reproducible results. LOPA results are considered critical in determining safety integrity level for design of safety instrumented systems. This guideline clarifies key concepts and reinforces the limitations and the requirements of LOPA. The main scope of the guideline is to provide examples of CMs and ECs and to provide concrete guidance on the protocols that must be followed to use these concepts. The book presents a brief overview of Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) and its variations, and summarizes terminology used for evaluating scenarios in the context of a typical incident sequence. It defines and illustrates the most common types of ECs and CMs and shows how they interrelate to risk criteria as well as their application to other methods.

Layer of Protection Analysis

Simplified Process Risk Assessment

Author: Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS)

Publisher: Wiley-AIChE

ISBN: 9780816908110

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 292

View: 4806

Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a recently developed, simplified method of risk assessment that provides the much-needed middle ground between a qualitative process hazard analysis and a traditional, expensive quantitative risk analysis. Beginning with an identified accident scenario, LOPA uses simplifying rules to evaluate initiating event frequency, independent layers of protection, and consequences to provide an order-of-magnitude estimate of risk. LOPA has also proven an excellent approach for determining the safety integrity level necessary for an instrumented safety system, an approach endorsed in instrument standards, such as ISA S84 and IEC 61511. Written by industry experts in LOPA, this pioneering book provides all the necessary information to undertake and complete a Layer of Protection Analysis during any stage in a processes' life cycle. Loaded with tables, charts, and examples, this book is invaluable to technical experts involved with ensuring the safety of a process. Because of its simplified, quicker risk assessment approach, LOPA is destined to become a widely used technique. Join other major companies and start your LOPA efforts now by purchasing this book.

Guidelines for Initiating Events and Independent Protection Layers in Layer of Protection Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118948718

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 6514

The book is a guide for Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA) practitioners. It explains the onion skin model and in particular, how it relates to the use of LOPA and the need for non-safety instrumented independent protection layers. It provides specific guidance on Independent Protection Layers (IPLs) that are not Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS). Using the LOPA methodology, companies typically take credit for risk reductions accomplished through non-SIS alternatives; i.e. administrative procedures, equipment design, etc. It addresses issues such as how to ensure the effectiveness and maintain reliability for administrative controls or “inherently safer, passive” concepts. This book will address how the fields of Human Reliability Analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, Inherent Safety, Audits and Assessments, Maintenance, and Emergency Response relate to LOPA and SIS. The book will separate IPL’s into categories such as the following: Inherent Safety eliminates a scenario or fundamentally reduces a hazard Preventive/Proactive prevents initiating event from occurring such as enhanced maintenance Preventive/Active stops chain of events after initiating event occurs but before an incident has occurred such as high level in a tank shutting off the pump. Mitigation (active or passive) minimizes impact once an incident has occurred such as closing block valves once LEL is detected in the dike (active) or the dike preventing contamination of groundwater (passive).

Guidelines for Combustible Dust Hazard Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119010160

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 2208

8.2.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 1 -- 8.2.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 1 -- 8.3 Example 2 -- 8.3.1 Process Description 2 -- 8.3.2 Traditional DHA -- 8.3.3 Risk-based DHA -- 8.3.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 2 -- 8.4 Example 3 -- 8.4.1 Process Description - Example 3 -- 8.4.2 Traditional DHA - Example 3 -- 8.4.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 3 -- 8.5 Summary -- 8.6 References -- Appendix A Regulations and Codes -- A.1 Regulations -- A.1.1 U.S. -- A.1.2 International -- A.2 Codes -- References -- Appendix B Additional Resources -- B.1 Books -- B.2 U.S. Chemical Safety Board Reports -- B.3 Journal Articles -- B.4 Other -- Appendix C Data for Risk-based DHA -- C.1 Probability Assessment of Process Unit Fire or Dust Explosion -- C.1.1 Initiating Event Frequencies -- C.1.2 Ignition Probabilities -- C.1.3 Protection Layer PFDs -- C.2 References -- Appendix D Good Practices -- D.1 Self Assessment -- D.2 Housekeeping -- D.2.1 Combustible Dust Housekeeping Inspection Checklist -- D.3 Explosion Protection Methods -- Appendix E DHA Roadmap -- Notes for Figure E.1 -- INDEX -- EULA

Layer of Protection Analysis

Simplified Process Risk Assessment

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111821627X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 292

View: 7180

Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a recently developed, simplified method of risk assessment that provides the much-needed middle ground between a qualitative process hazard analysis and a traditional, expensive quantitative risk analysis. Beginning with an identified accident scenario, LOPA uses simplifying rules to evaluate initiating event frequency, independent layers of protection, and consequences to provide an order-of-magnitude estimate of risk. LOPA has also proven an excellent approach for determining the safety integrity level necessary for an instrumented safety system, an approach endorsed in instrument standards, such as ISA S84 and IEC 61511. Written by industry experts in LOPA, this pioneering book provides all the necessary information to undertake and complete a Layer of Protection Analysis during any stage in a processes' life cycle. Loaded with tables, charts, and examples, this book is invaluable to technical experts involved with ensuring the safety of a process. Because of its simplified, quicker risk assessment approach, LOPA is destined to become a widely used technique. Join other major companies and start your LOPA efforts now by purchasing this book.

Guidelines for chemical process quantitative risk analysis

Author: American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Center for Chemical Process Safety

Publisher: Wiley-AIChE

ISBN: 9780816907205

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 754

View: 3223

Chemical process quantitative risk analysis (CPQRA) as applied to the CPI was first fully described in the first edition of this CCPS Guidelines book. This second edition is packed with information reflecting advances in this evolving methodology, and includes worked examples on a CD-ROM. CPQRA is used to identify incident scenarios and evaluate their risk by defining the probability of failure, the various consequences and the potential impact of those consequences. It is an invaluable methodology to evaluate these when qualitative analysis cannot provide adequate understanding and when more information is needed for risk management. This technique provides a means to evaluate acute hazards and alternative risk reduction strategies, and identify areas for cost-effective risk reduction. There are no simple answers when complex issues are concerned, but CPQRA2 offers a cogent, well-illustrated guide to applying these risk-analysis techniques, particularly to risk control studies. Special Details: Includes CD-ROM with example problems worked using Excel and Quattro Pro. For use with Windows 95, 98, and NT.

Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures

Author: Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS)

Publisher: Wiley-AIChE

ISBN: 9780471978152

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 576

View: 1026

Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures, 3rd Edition keeps process engineers updated on the effective methodologies that process safety demands. Almost 200 pages of worked examples are included to facilitate understanding. References for further reading, along with charts and diagrams that reflect the latest views and information, make this a completely accessible work. The revised and updated edition includes information not included in previous editions giving a comprehensive overview of this topic area.

Guidelines for Initiating Events and Independent Protection Layers in Layer of Protection Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118948726

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 3337

The book is a guide for Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA) practitioners. It explains the onion skin model and in particular, how it relates to the use of LOPA and the need for non-safety instrumented independent protection layers. It provides specific guidance on Independent Protection Layers (IPLs) that are not Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS). Using the LOPA methodology, companies typically take credit for risk reductions accomplished through non-SIS alternatives; i.e. administrative procedures, equipment design, etc. It addresses issues such as how to ensure the effectiveness and maintain reliability for administrative controls or “inherently safer, passive” concepts. This book will address how the fields of Human Reliability Analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, Inherent Safety, Audits and Assessments, Maintenance, and Emergency Response relate to LOPA and SIS. The book will separate IPL’s into categories such as the following: Inherent Safety eliminates a scenario or fundamentally reduces a hazard Preventive/Proactive prevents initiating event from occurring such as enhanced maintenance Preventive/Active stops chain of events after initiating event occurs but before an incident has occurred such as high level in a tank shutting off the pump. Mitigation (active or passive) minimizes impact once an incident has occurred such as closing block valves once LEL is detected in the dike (active) or the dike preventing contamination of groundwater (passive).

Process Safety Calculations

Author: Renato Benintendi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0081012292

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 662

View: 1355

Process Safety Calculations is an essential guide for process safety engineers involved in calculating and predicting risks and consequences. The book focuses on calculation procedures based on basic chemistry, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, conservation equations, kinetics and practical models. This book provides helpful calculations to demonstrate compliance with regulations and standards. Standards such as Seveso directive(s)/COMAH, CLP regulation, ATEX directives, PED directives, REACH regulation, OSHA/NIOSH and UK ALARP are covered, along with risk and consequence assessment, stoichiometry, thermodynamics, stress analysis and fluid-dynamics. Includes realistic engineering models with validation from CFD modeling and/or industry testing Provides an introduction into basic principles that govern process relationships in modern industry Helps the reader find and apply the right principles to the specific problem being solved, mitigated or validated

Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119352134

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 648

View: 1423

This book provides designers and operators of chemical process facilities with a general philosophy and approach to safe automation, including independent layers of safety. An expanded edition, this book includes a revision of original concepts as well as chapters that address new topics such as use of wireless automation and Safety Instrumented Systems. This book also provides an extensive bibliography to related publications and topic-specific information.

Guidelines for Combustible Dust Hazard Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119010160

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 1619

8.2.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 1 -- 8.2.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 1 -- 8.3 Example 2 -- 8.3.1 Process Description 2 -- 8.3.2 Traditional DHA -- 8.3.3 Risk-based DHA -- 8.3.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 2 -- 8.4 Example 3 -- 8.4.1 Process Description - Example 3 -- 8.4.2 Traditional DHA - Example 3 -- 8.4.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 3 -- 8.5 Summary -- 8.6 References -- Appendix A Regulations and Codes -- A.1 Regulations -- A.1.1 U.S. -- A.1.2 International -- A.2 Codes -- References -- Appendix B Additional Resources -- B.1 Books -- B.2 U.S. Chemical Safety Board Reports -- B.3 Journal Articles -- B.4 Other -- Appendix C Data for Risk-based DHA -- C.1 Probability Assessment of Process Unit Fire or Dust Explosion -- C.1.1 Initiating Event Frequencies -- C.1.2 Ignition Probabilities -- C.1.3 Protection Layer PFDs -- C.2 References -- Appendix D Good Practices -- D.1 Self Assessment -- D.2 Housekeeping -- D.2.1 Combustible Dust Housekeeping Inspection Checklist -- D.3 Explosion Protection Methods -- Appendix E DHA Roadmap -- Notes for Figure E.1 -- INDEX -- EULA

Refactoring

Improving the Design of Existing Code

Author: Martin Fowler,Kent Beck,John Brant,William Opdyke,Don Roberts

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

ISBN: 013306526X

Category: Computers

Page: 455

View: 6890

As the application of object technology--particularly the Java programming language--has become commonplace, a new problem has emerged to confront the software development community. Significant numbers of poorly designed programs have been created by less-experienced developers, resulting in applications that are inefficient and hard to maintain and extend. Increasingly, software system professionals are discovering just how difficult it is to work with these inherited, "non-optimal" applications. For several years, expert-level object programmers have employed a growing collection of techniques to improve the structural integrity and performance of such existing software programs. Referred to as "refactoring," these practices have remained in the domain of experts because no attempt has been made to transcribe the lore into a form that all developers could use. . .until now. In Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code, renowned object technology mentor Martin Fowler breaks new ground, demystifying these master practices and demonstrating how software practitioners can realize the significant benefits of this new process. With proper training a skilled system designer can take a bad design and rework it into well-designed, robust code. In this book, Martin Fowler shows you where opportunities for refactoring typically can be found, and how to go about reworking a bad design into a good one. Each refactoring step is simple--seemingly too simple to be worth doing. Refactoring may involve moving a field from one class to another, or pulling some code out of a method to turn it into its own method, or even pushing some code up or down a hierarchy. While these individual steps may seem elementary, the cumulative effect of such small changes can radically improve the design. Refactoring is a proven way to prevent software decay. In addition to discussing the various techniques of refactoring, the author provides a detailed catalog of more than seventy proven refactorings with helpful pointers that teach you when to apply them; step-by-step instructions for applying each refactoring; and an example illustrating how the refactoring works. The illustrative examples are written in Java, but the ideas are applicable to any object-oriented programming language.

Advanced and Emerging Polybenzoxazine Science and Technology

Author: Hatsuo Ishida,Pablo Froimowicz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128041854

Category: Science

Page: 1126

View: 536

Advanced and Emerging Polybenzoxazine Science and Technology introduces advanced topics of benzoxazine resins and polybenzoxazines as presented through the collaboration of leading experts in the benzoxazine community, representing the authoritative introduction to the subjects. Broad topics covered include the recent development and improved understanding of the subjects, including low temperature cure, aerogels and carbon aerogels, smart chemistry in fire retarding materials and coatings, metal containing benzoxazines, rational design of advanced properties, and materials from natural renew. In the past twenty years, the number of papers on polybenzoxazine has continuously increased at an exponential rate. During the past three years, the number of papers published is more than the previous 17 years combined. The material is now part of only a few successfully commercialized polymers in the past 35 years. Therefore, interest in this material in both academia and industry is very strong. Includes the latest advancements in benzoxazine chemistry Describes advanced materials, such as aerogels, carbons, smart coatings, nanofibers, and shape memory materials Includes additional characterization data and techniques, such as FT-IR, Raman, NMR, DSC, and TGA analyses

Reliability, Maintainability and Risk

Practical Methods for Engineers

Author: David J. Smith

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 0081020228

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 478

View: 4244

Reliability, Maintainability and Risk: Practical Methods for Engineers, Ninth Edition, has taught reliability and safety engineers techniques to minimize process design, operation defects, and failures for 35 years. For beginners, the book provides tactics on how to avoid pitfalls in this complex and wide field. For experts in the field, well-described, realistic, and illustrative examples and case studies add new insight and assistance. The author uses his 40 years of experience to create a comprehensive and detailed guide to the field, also providing an excellent description of reliability and risk computation concepts. The book is organized into five parts. Part One covers reliability parameters and costs traces the history of reliability and safety technology, presenting a cost-effective approach to quality, reliability, and safety. Part Two deals with the interpretation of failure rates, while Part Three focuses on the prediction of reliability and risk. Part Four discusses design and assurance techniques, review and testing techniques, reliability growth modeling, field data collection and feedback, predicting and demonstrating repair times, quantified reliability maintenance, and systematic failures, while Part 5 deals with legal, management and safety issues, such as project management, product liability, and safety legislation. Additional chapter on helicopter and aviation safety record Coverage of models for partial valve stroke test, fault tree logic and quantification difficulties More detail on use of tools such as FMEDA and programming standards like MISRA

Risk Assessment of Chemicals: An Introduction

Author: C.J. van Leeuwen,J.L.M. Hermens

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792337409

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 9202

In recent years many developments have taken place in promote co-operation between governments and other the field of risk assessment of chemicals. Many reports parties involved in chemical safety and to provide policy have been published by national authorities, industries guidance with emphasis on regional and subregional co and scientific researchers as well as by international bod operation. The Inter-Organization Programme for the ies such as the European Union, the Organization of Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC) was estab Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and lished in 1995 and provides a mechanism for the six par the joint International Programme on Chemical Safety ticipating organizations (UNEP, ILO, FAO, UNIDO,WHO (IPCS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the and OECD) to better co-ordinate policies and activities in International Labour Organization (lLO), and the United the field of chemical risk management. Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The present book is an introduction to risk assessment of The development and international harmonization of risk chemicals. It contains basic background information on assessment methods is an important challenge. In sources, emissions, distribution and fate processes for Agenda 21 of the United Nations Conference on exposure estimation. It includes dose-effects estimation Environment and Development (UNCED), chapter 19 is for both human health related toxicology and ecotoxicol entirely devoted to the management of chemicals. For ogy as well as information on estimation methodologies. one of its recommendations, i. e.

Japanese Kampo Medicines for the Treatment of Common Diseases

Focus on Inflammation

Author: Somasundaram Arumugam,Kenichi Watanabe

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128094443

Category: Medical

Page: 222

View: 7240

Japanese Kampo Medicines for the Treatment of Common Diseases - Focus on Inflammation provides researchers and clinicians with a current look at how Kampo medicines can be used to effectively treat inflammatory disorders. Japanese Kampo medicines are a mixture of natural and herbal medicines that are available in Japan for the treatment of various diseases. Given their therapeutic potential, they are often prescribed instead of, or alongside, allopathic medicines. Kampo medicines are becoming more widespread and have proven effective for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases, such as colitis, dermatitis, myocarditis, hepatitis, cardiomyopathy, and nephritis. This book offers background on Japanese Kampo medicines, along with a compilation of the published scientific data for several different types of Kampo medicines. It is an evidence-based guide for all those involved in, or interested in, the research and practice of Kampo medicine. Includes both preclinical and clinical data published from a variety of sources and compiled into one book Provides insight for researchers and clinicians on which Kampo medicines will provide the least side effects and offer the most effective therapy for a particular illness Offers important data that will help to inform future research and widen practice in this area

Food Analysis

Author: S. Suzanne Nielsen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319457764

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 649

View: 3873

This fifth edition provides information on techniques needed to analyze foods for chemical and physical properties. The book is ideal for undergraduate courses in food analysis and is also an invaluable reference to professionals in the food industry. General information chapters on regulations, labeling, sampling, and data handling provide background information for chapters on specific methods to determine chemical composition and characteristics, physical properties, and objectionable matter and constituents. Methods of analysis covered include information on the basic principles, advantages, limitations, and applications. Sections on spectroscopy and chromatography along with chapters on techniques such as immunoassays, thermal analysis, and microscopy from the perspective of their use in food analysis have been expanded. Instructors who adopt the textbook can contact the editor for access to a website with related teaching materials.

Ensuring Innovation in Diagnostics for Bacterial Infection

Implications for Policy

Author: Chantal Morel,Suzanne Edwards,Lindsay McClure,Dale Sandberg

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789289050364

Category: Medical

Page: 333

View: 9110

The inappropriate use of antibiotics is a primary cause of the ongoing increase in drug resistance among pathogenic bacteria. The resulting decrease in the efficacy of antibiotics threatens our ability to combat infectious diseases. Rapid, point-of-care tests to identify pathogens and better target the appropriate treatment could greatly improve the use of antibiotics. Yet there are few such tests currently available or being developed despite the rapid pace of medical innovation. Clearly something is inhibiting the much-needed development of new and more convenient diagnostic tools. This study delineates priorities for developing diagnostics to improve antibiotic prescription and use with the goal of managing and curbing the expansion of drug resistance. It calls for new approaches, particularly in the provision of diagnostic devices, and, in doing so, outlines some of the inadequacies in health, science and policy initiatives that have led to the dearth of such devices. The authors make the case that there is a clear and urgent need for innovation, not only in the technology of diagnosis, but also in public policy and medical practice to support the availability and use of better diagnostic tools. This book explores the complexities of the diagnostics market from the perspective of both supply and demand, unearthing interesting bottlenecks, some obvious, some more subtle. It calls for a multifaceted and broad policy response, and an overhaul of current practice, so that the growth of bacterial resistance can be stemmed.

Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer

A Global Perspective

Author: N.A

Publisher: Amer Inst for Cancer Research

ISBN: N.A

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 517

View: 7399

The Second Expert Report, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective offers the most up-to-date recommendations for individuals and populations. They are based on the conclusions of an expert panel that certain foods, drinks and lifestyle choices protect against or lead to the development of one or more types of cancer. Additionally, the report explains how the panel reached its conclusions and what those conclusions mean to researchers, educators, practitioners and policymakers around the world. It is the largest report of its kind ever done, covering 60 exposures in relationship to 17 cancer sites. 7,000 individual studies were consulted. Book includes a CD containing the most complete bibliography and presentation of the data ever compiled.