Die Wahl von Barack Obama im November 2008 markierte einen historischen Wendepunkt in den USA: Der erste schwarze Präsident schien für eine postrassistische Gesellschaft und den Triumph der Bürgerrechtsbewegung zu stehen. Doch die Realität in den USA ist eine andere. Obwohl die Rassentrennung, die in den sogenannten Jim-Crow-Gesetzen festgeschrieben war, im Zuge der Bürgerrechtsbewegung abgeschafft wurde, sitzt heute ein unfassbar hoher Anteil der schwarzen Bevölkerung im Gefängnis oder ist lebenslang als kriminell gebrandmarkt. Ein Status, der die Leute zu Bürgern zweiter Klasse macht, indem er sie ihrer grundsätzlichsten Rechte beraubt – ganz ähnlich den explizit rassistischen Diskriminierungen der Jim-Crow-Ära. In ihrem Buch, das in Amerika eine breite Debatte ausgelöst hat, argumentiert Michelle Alexander, dass die USA ihr rassistisches System nach der Bürgerrechtsbewegung nicht abgeschafft, sondern lediglich umgestaltet haben. Da unter dem perfiden Deckmantel des »War on Drugs« überproportional junge männliche Schwarze und ihre Communities kriminalisiert werden, funktioniert das drakonische Strafjustizsystem der USA heute wie das System rassistischer Kontrolle von gestern: ein neues Jim Crow.
The Handbook on Criminal Litigation offers a comprehensive and practical guide to the areas of criminal litigation covered on the Legal Practice Course. Making effective use of realistic case studies which are backed up by documentation online, the text combines theory with practical considerations and encourages students to focus on putting their knowledge into a practical context. Written in an informal style, the text covers all procedural and evidential issues that arise in criminal cases. The more complex areas of criminal litigation are examined using numerous diagrams, flowcharts, and examples while potential changes in the law are highlighted by specially designed 'Looking Ahead' boxes. Each chapter ends with a key point summary and self-test questions, enabling students to quickly sum up what they have read and test their own knowledge. Online Resource Centre The comprehensive Online Resource Centre offers vital support to students throughout their course. Updates are freely accessible to enable students to keep up to date with developments in the field, while links to other useful websites and legislation encourage students to explore the subject area fully. Additionally, two chapters covering regulatory crime and fraud are freely accessible online for those students whose course emphasizes corporate crime. Lecturers are able to access video clips of fictional but realistic court proceedings which follow the case studies included in the text; documentation supporting these case studies is also provided via the site. Additional videos cover the procedure at the police station and sentencing in the Crown Court. Lecturers are also able to access a test bank of questions which provide an innovative way to assess students' understanding.
Social Movements and the Law in Contemporary Japan
Author: Patricia G Steinhoff
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Category: Social Science
"Going to Court to Change Japan examines the relationship between social movements and the law in bringing about social change in Japan. Six fascinating case studies take us inside movements dealing with causes as disparate as death by overwork, the rights of the deaf, access to prisoners on death row, consumer product safety, workers whose companies go bankrupt, and persons convicted of crimes they did not commit. Each of the case studies stands on its own as a detailed account of how a social movement has persisted against heavy odds to pursue a cause through the use of the courts. The studies pay particular attention to the relationship between the social movement and the lawyers who handle their cases, usually pro bono or for minimal fees. Through these case studies we learn much about how the law operates in Japan as well as how social movements mobilize and innovate to pursue their goals using legal channels. The book also provides a general introduction to the Japanese legal system and a look at how recent legal reforms are working. Going to Court to Change Japan will interest social scientists, lawyers,and anyone interested in the inner workings of contemporary Japan. It is suitable for use in a wide range of undergraduate and graduate courses on Japan in social sciences and law, and can also provide a comparative perspective to general courses in these fields"--Unedited summary from book cover.
Capital punishment for murder was abolished in Britain in 1965. At this time, the way people in Britain perceived and understood the death penalty had changed – it was an issue that had become increasingly controversial, high-profile and fraught with emotion. In order to understand why this was, it is necessary to examine how ordinary people learned about and experienced capital punishment. Drawing on primary research, this book explores the cultural life of the death penalty in Britain in the twentieth century, including an exploration of the role of the popular press and a discussion of portrayals of the death penalty in plays, novels and films. Popular protest against capital punishment and public responses to and understandings of capital cases are also discussed, particularly in relation to conceptualisations of justice. Miscarriages of justice were significant to capital punishment’s increasingly fraught nature in the mid twentieth-century and the book analyses the unsettling power of two such high profile miscarriages of justice. The final chapters consider the continuing relevance of capital punishment in Britain after abolition, including its symbolism and how people negotiate memories of the death penalty. Capital Punishment in Twentieth-Century Britain is groundbreaking in its attention to the death penalty and the effect it had on everyday life and it is the only text on this era to place public and popular discourses about, and reactions to, capital punishment at the centre of the analysis. Interdisciplinary in focus and methodology, it will appeal to historians, criminologists, sociologists and socio-legal scholars.
Die meisten Vergewaltiger kannten ihre Opfer vorher, wodurch die Strafverfolgung und die gerichtliche Suche nach der Wahrheit oft komplex und undurchsichtig ist und die vergewaltigten Frauen ein zweites Mal traumatisiert werden. In seinem neuen Buch beschäftigt sich Jon Krakauer mit Vergewaltigungsfällen in der amerikanischen Universitätsstadt Missoula. Minutiös und doch einfühlsam skizziert er die Ereignisse, die eine ganze Gesellschaft an der Frage nach Recht und Unrecht, Wahrheit und Lüge verzweifeln lassen, er spricht mit den Beschuldigten und den Opfern und schildert packend, wie schmerzhaft die Suche nach Gerechtigkeit und Sühne bei Gericht sein kann.
Your thorough guide to comprehending and combating crime Are you fascinated by criminology, forensics, and detective work? This you-are-there guide takes you deep into the world of crime, giving you a better understanding of the dark recesses of the criminal mind and how law enforcement officials investigate crime. You'll gain real-world knowledge of the reasons for and consequences of crime, the way society responds to it, and, most important, how crime can be prevented. Enter the world of crime — understand what crime is, how it is measured, and the various ways crime affects victims and society Identify different types of crime — from white-collar crime to organized crime to terrorism, examine the nature of crime and why certain criminals are attracted to specific crimes Know who commits crimes, and why — explore different theories that attempt to explain why people commit crimes Take it to the streets — follow law enforcement officials and federal agencies as they chase and apprehend the bad guys Seek justice — meet the key players in the criminal justice system and see why and how the guilty are punished Deal with juveniles — know the differences between adult and juvenile systems, realize why youths are treated differently, and review modern methods for treatment Open the book and find: Common criminal traits The causes of violent crimes Recent efforts to secure victims' rights The processes used to solve crimes A step-by-step walkthrough of the criminal justice process Ways to recognize and fight back against crime Jobs in the criminal justice field Ten notorious, unsolved crimes
Volume 122, Number 8 - June 2013: Symposium - The Gideon Effect
Author: Yale Law Journal
Publisher: Quid Pro Books
"Symposium: The Gideon Effect: Rights, Justice, and Lawyers Fifty Years After Gideon v. Wainwright." The year 2013 marks the golden anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court's landmark ruling in Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), which established a constitutional right to counsel for criminal defendants. A half century later, there remains a compelling need for a reexamination of its legacy, extensions, shortfalls, and long shadow over other areas of law such as immigration and custody disputes. This special Symposium issue of the Yale Law Journal is, in effect, a new and extensive book on this important subject, featuring contributions by internationally recognized legal and political scholars. It is one of the most thorough, detailed, and wide-ranging analyses of the current standing and reach of what may be the Court's most important criminal law decision. The contributors are: Rebecca Aviel, John H. Blume & Sheri Lynn Johnson, Stephen B. Bright & Sia M. Sanneh, Paul D. Butler, Jeanne Charn, Erwin Chemerinsky, Gabriel J. Chin, Martha F. Davis, Ingrid V. Eagly, Roger A. Fairfax Jr., Bruce A. Green, M. Clara Garcia Hernandez & Carole J. Powell, Emily Hughes, Kevin R. Johnson, Neal Kumar Katyal, Nancy J. King, Nancy Leong, Justin F. Marceau, Hope Metcalf & Judith Resnik, Pamela R. Metzger, David E. Patton, Eve Brensike Primus, L. Song Richardson & Phillip Atiba Goff, Jenny Roberts, and Carol S. Steiker. The issue, the eighth and final one of academic year 2012-2013, also includes a cumulative Index to the eight issues of Volume 122. As with previous digital editions of the Yale Law Journal available from Quid Pro Books, features include active Tables of Contents (including links in each Essay's own table), linked footnotes and URLs, and proper ebook formatting.
Native Americans are disproportionately represented as offenders in the U.S. criminal justice system. However, until recently there was little investigation into the reasons. Furthermore, there has been little acknowledgment of the positive contributions of Native Americans to the criminal justice system- in rehabilitating offenders, aiding victims, and supporting service providers. This book offers a valuable and contemporary overview of how the American criminal justice system impacts Native Americans on both sides of the law. Contributors- many of whom are Native Americans- rank among the top scholars in their fields. Some of the chapters treat broad subjects, including crime, police, courts, victimization, corrections, and jurisdiction. Others delve into more specific topics, including hate crimes against Native Americans, state-corporate crimes against Native Americans, tribal peacemaking, and cultural stresses of police officers. Separate chapters are devoted to women and juveniles.
Forensic psychology is where psychology meets the criminal justice system. An understanding of the intersection of criminal law and psychological issues relating to criminal responsibility is critical for criminal justice students. This accessible text focuses on the criminal law implications of forensic psychology as it relates to topics such as competency to stand trial, state of mind at the time of the crime, suicide by cop, and involuntary psychiatric medication administered in custody. Unlike more traditional texts on this topic, which are primarily concerned with the clinical practice of forensic psychology, this book focuses on critical thinking as it relates to these topics. Each chapter presents a critical analysis of the topic under study, going beyond merely identifying the legal parameters of criminal responsibility to explore the ethical, philosophical, and theoretical foundations of that concept.
Family Law provides a comprehensive foundation in the key topics covered by courses. It explains the basic principles of the law and practice in their social, economic and historic context, enabling the reader to understand the doctrinal and practical impact of current radical changes in family law in response to cultural and other influences. This second edition has been fully updated in the light of on-going changes to the family justice system including: the modernisation of family justice including the new Family Court Atypical formation of the contemporary family: genetic, adoptive, social or through HAR the proposed administrative extra-judicial divorce process financial orders on married and unmarried family relationship breakdown enhanced parental responsibility, ‘Parental Agreements’ and ‘Child Arrangement Orders’ the treatment of post separation parenting (and the new DWP child support system) reforms to public child law, including changes to adoption same-sex marriage and the impact on traditional marriage and cohabitation Visit the companion website for practice questions, updates to the law and podcasts by the author at http://www.routledge.com/cw/burton-9780415583640
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Justice Committee,Great Britain. Parliament House of Commons
Overarching Principles - Sentencing Youths; Tenth Report of Session 2008-09; Report, Together with Formal Minutes, Oral and Written Evidence
Author: Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Justice Committee,Great Britain. Parliament House of Commons
Publisher: The Stationery Office
The Committee considers that the "Overarching principles - sentencing youths" is a crucial sentencing guideline. It fills a critical gap, setting out for youth courts the basis upon which they should sentence offenders under the age of 18 - guidance which the youth courts have not previously had. The Committee's response highlights the key issues raised in evidence to it, for example, the apparent inconsistency in approaches to sentencing children, and a varied understanding among sentencers of the concept that custody should only ever be a "sentence of last resort" for young people. The Committee also stresses that courts should have access to information about a young offender's mental health, learning difficulties and communication problems to enable the most appropriate sentence to be imposed. The evidence the Committee took on this draft sentencing guideline highlighted key areas in relation to youth justice deserving of further scrutiny, such as the use of remand and provisions for offenders aged 18-24, and it will consider how to pursue these areas further in its work.
A beginner's guide to Criminology This introductory guide focuses on the vital core of criminological theories- theory, method, and criminal behaviour detailed in a clear concise manner which is has at its core plain English for ease of reading and comprehension, therefore ensuring that it is straightforward and will enable readers to more fully comprehend this complex subject. It covers current topics along with historical principles and theories, these are explored to give the reader the basis to understand not only the core of criminology but to form an unbiased subjective opinion on where criminology has come from and where it is going. It also looks at the effects crime has on society and policy decisions, and the connection between theory and criminal behaviour. Contents Introduction Biological Theories Sociological Theories6 Chapter One Crime Criminology Antisocial, deviant and immoral conduct Anti-social Behaviour Deviance The History of Criminology Pre-Enlightenment Europe Medieval Trials Trial by Ordeal Trial by Fire. Trial by Water. Hung, drawn and quartered Trial by Hot Water The Enlightenment age The Classical School Cesare Beccaria (1738-94). Jeremy Bentham Neoclassical Cesare Lombroso The Positivist theory Charles Darwin Locke John Locke Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau Modern Theories of Criminology Anomie or Strain Theory Social Learning Theory Social Control Theory Labelling Theory Radical Theory Deterrence Theory An Economic Model of Crime Deterrence and Econometrics Environmentalism Ethnicity and Crime Feminist theory Types of feminism Age and Crime Media and crime Routine Activities Theory Mental Disorder and Crime Rawls' John Bordley Rawls The veil of ignorance The Chicago School and the US theories Robert Park and Ernest Burgess Right Realism Left idealists White Collar Crime Insider Dealing Other types of white collar crime Theories of Violent Murder Gang Crime The history of gangs Theories of criminal behaviour. Psychoanalytic theorists and the origins of crime Psychoanalysis Sexual Offenders Biological Theories of crime Crime addictions Brehon Law The Four sources of law Penology The Modern Prison Service Ireland's Prisons Probation Service and the Irish Criminal Justice System The Garda Siochana History of the Gardai Modern Gardai The Court System in Ireland The Petty Sessions Superior Courts in Ireland (pre 1900) The Supreme Court and court of Criminal Appeal The Modern Court System in Ireland The Function of the Courts The District Court in Ireland The Circuit Court in Ireland The High Court in Ireland Civil Liability & Courts Act 2004 Recommended reading"
A Natural Evolution of Justice in an Age of Terror
Author: Glenn Sulmasy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The recent Boumediene v. Bush decision, which tossed aside the dysfunctional military court system envisioned by the Bush administration and upheld the right of habeas corpus for detainees, promises to throw national security law into chaos, and will also probably lead to the closing of Guantanamo. In this timely and much-needed book, Glenn Sulmasy, one of America's leading experts on national security law, opens with a much-needed history of America's long and complicated experience with such courts since the early days of the Republic. After tracing their evolution in the contemporary era, Sulmasy argues for a more sensible approach to the global war on terror's unique set of prisoners. He proposes a reasonable "third way" solution that avoids even more extreme measures, on the one hand, and a complete shuttering of the court system, on the other. Instead, he advocates creating a separate standing judicial system, overseen by civilian judges, that allows for habeas corpus appeals and which focuses exclusively on existing war-on-terror cases as well as the inevitable cases to come. For all those who want to explore the crucial legal issues behind the headlines about Gitmo and the rights of detainees, The National Security Court System offers a clear-headed assessment of where we are and where we ought to be going.
The Collapse of Journalism and What Can Be Done To Fix It
Author: Robert W. McChesney,Victor Pickard
Publisher: The New Press
Category: Social Science
The sudden meltdown of the news media has sparked one of the liveliest debates in recent memory, with an outpouring of opinion and analysis crackling across journals, the blogosphere, and academic publications. Yet, until now, we have lacked a comprehensive and accessible introduction to this new and shifting terrain. In Will the Last Reporter Please Turn out the Lights, celebrated media analysts Robert W. McChesney and Victor Pickard have assembled thirty-two illuminating pieces on the crisis in journalism, revised and updated for this volume. Featuring some of today’s most incisive and influential commentators, this comprehensive collection contextualizes the predicament faced by the news media industry through a concise history of modern journalism, a hard-hitting analysis of the structural and financial causes of news media’s sudden collapse, and deeply informed proposals for how the vital role of journalism might be rescued from impending disaster. Sure to become the essential guide to the journalism crisis, Will the Last Reporter Please Turn out the Lights is both a primer on the news media today and a chronicle of a key historical moment in the transformation of the press.
Diagnosis, Assessment and New Directions in Research and Multimodal Treatment
Author: Susan A. Adubato,Deborah E. Cohen
Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers
Category: HEALTH & FITNESS
This eBook addresses the impact of prenatal exposure to alcohol, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). It presents a compilation of current research by leading experts in the field and serves as a guide to future directions in FASD research, interventions and treatment. the book includes a comprehensive compendium of our knowledge of the dangers of prenatal alcohol exposure and covers ways to screen and intervene with pregnant women, diagnosis and treatment to ameliorate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (through the lifespan), and other related issues, such as building a state infrastructure of health services and legislation. the eBook is intended as a textbook for graduate courses relevant to FASD.
Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Justice Committee