Globetrotting

African American Athletes and Cold War Politics

Author: Damion L. Thomas

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252094298

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 4478

Throughout the Cold War, the Soviet Union deplored the treatment of African Americans by the U.S. government as proof of hypocrisy in the American promises of freedom and equality. This probing history examines government attempts to manipulate international perceptions of U.S. race relations during the Cold War by sending African American athletes abroad on goodwill tours and in international competitions as cultural ambassadors and visible symbols of American values. Damion L. Thomas follows the State Department's efforts from 1945 to 1968 to showcase prosperous African American athletes including Jackie Robinson, Jesse Owens, and the Harlem Globetrotters as the preeminent citizens of the African Diaspora rather than as victims of racial oppression. With athletes in baseball, track and field, and basketball, the government relied on figures whose fame carried the desired message to countries where English was little understood. However, eventually African American athletes began to provide counter-narratives to State Department claims of American exceptionalism, most notably with Tommie Smith and John Carlos's famous black power salute at the 1968 Mexico City Olympics.

Cold War Games

Propaganda, the Olympics, and U.S. Foreign Policy

Author: Toby C Rider

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252098455

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 2221

It is the early Cold War. The Soviet Union appears to be in irresistible ascendance, and moves to exploit the Olympic Games as a vehicle for promoting international communism. In response, the United States conceives a subtle, far-reaching psychological warfare campaign to blunt the Soviet advance. Drawing on newly declassified materials and archives, Toby C. Rider chronicles how the US government used the Olympics to promote democracy and its own policy aims during the tense early phase of the Cold War. Rider shows how the government, though constrained by traditions against interference in the Games, eluded detection by cooperating with private groups, including secretly funded émigré organizations bent on liberating their home countries from Soviet control. At the same time, the United States appropriated Olympic host cities to hype the American economic and political system while, behind the scenes, the government attempted clandestine manipulation of the International Olympic Committee. Rider also details the campaigns that sent propaganda materials around the globe as the United States mobilized culture in general, and sports in particular, to fight the communist threat.

The Unlevel Playing Field

A Documentary History of the African American Experience in Sport

Author: David Kenneth Wiggins,Patrick B. Miller

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252028205

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 493

View: 3611

This extraordinarily rich compendium of primary sources charts the significant, intertwining history of African Americans and sport. The Unlevel Playing Field contains more than one hundred documents -- ranging chronologically from a challenge issued by prize fighter Tom Molineaux in the London Times in 1810 to a forward-looking interview with Harry Edwards in 2000. Introductions and head-notes provided by David K. Wiggins and Patrick B. Miller place each document in context, shaping an unrivaled narrative.Readers will find dozens of accounts taken from newspapers (both black and white), periodicals, and autobiographies, by literary and sports figures, activists, historians, and others. Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington, Marcus Garvey, James Weldon Johnson, Richard Wright, A. S. "Doc" Young, Eldredge Cleaver, Nikki Giovanni, John Edgar Wideman, bell hooks, James Baldwin, Roy Wilkins, Henry Louis Gates, and Gerald Early are included here.Tracing the participation of blacks in American sport from the days of slavery, The Unlevel Playing Field touches on nearly every major sport and covers the full sweep of America's past. Documents include discussions of the color line in organized baseball during the Jim Crow era and athletics in the American army, as well as portraits of turn-of-the-century figures like the champion sprint cyclist Marshall "Major" Taylor and boxers George Dixon and Jack Johnson.Other selections tackle the National Tennis Association championship, high school basketball, debates over participation of black athletes in the 1968 Olympics, and the place of African American women in sport. Countless pioneering and modern-day African American athletes are spotlighted here, from Jackie Robinson, Jesse Owens, Joe Louis, Muhammad Ali, and Althea Gibson, to Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods, and Venus and Serena Williams.A thorough and informative bibliographical essay by Wiggins and Miller concludes the volume.

The New American Sport History

Recent Approaches and Perspectives

Author: S. W. Pope

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252065675

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 423

View: 1342

Qualifying Times

Points of Change in U.S. Women's Sport

Author: Jaime Schultz

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252095960

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 6969

This perceptive, lively study explores U.S. women's sport through historical "points of change": particular products or trends that dramatically influenced both women's participation in sport and cultural responses to women athletes. Beginning with the seemingly innocent ponytail, the subject of the Introduction, scholar Jaime Schultz challenges the reader to look at the historical and sociological significance of now-common items such as sports bras and tampons and ideas such as sex testing and competitive cheerleading. Tennis wear, tampons, and sports bras all facilitated women’s participation in physical culture, while physical educators, the aesthetic fitness movement, and Title IX encouraged women to challenge (or confront) policy, financial, and cultural obstacles. While some of these points of change increased women's physical freedom and sporting participation, they also posed challenges. Tampons encouraged menstrual shame, sex testing (a tool never used with male athletes) perpetuated narrowly-defined cultural norms of femininity, and the late-twentieth-century aesthetic fitness movement fed into an unrealistic beauty ideal. Ultimately, Schultz finds that U.S. women's sport has progressed significantly but ambivalently. Although participation in sports is no longer uncommon for girls and women, Schultz argues that these "points of change" have contributed to a complex matrix of gender differentiation that marks the female athletic body as different than--as less than--the male body, despite the advantages it may confer.

The Chicago Sports Reader

100 Years of Sports in the Windy City

Author: Steven A. Riess,Gerald R. Gems

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 025207615X

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 3688

A celebration of the fast, the strong, the agile, and the tricky throughout Chicago's storied sports history

Muhammad Ali, the People's Champ

Author: Elliott J. Gorn

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252067211

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 200

View: 4496

Ali as cultural icon, antiwar protestor, narcissist . . . this is the first book to comprehensively evaluate Ali's import outside the ring.

The Olympics and the Cold War, 1948-1968

Sport as Battleground in the U.S.-Soviet Rivalry

Author: Erin Elizabeth Redihan

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 1476667888

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 272

View: 1561

For Olympic athletes, fans and the media alike, the games bring out the best sport has to offer--unity, patriotism, friendly competition and the potential for stunning upsets. Yet wherever international competition occurs, politics are never far removed. Early in the Cold War, when all U.S.-Soviet interactions were treated as potential matters of life and death, each side tried to manipulate the International Olympic Committee. Despite the IOC's efforts to keep the games apolitical, they were quickly drawn into the superpowers' global struggle for supremacy, with medal counts the ultimate prize. Based on IOC, U.S. government and contemporary media sources, this book looks at six consecutive Olympiads to show how high the stakes became once the Soviets began competing in 1952, threatening America's athletic supremacy.

Beyond the Ring

The Role of Boxing in American Society

Author: Jeffrey T. Sammons

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252061455

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 376

View: 7635

"Carefully documents the ruin waiting for almost all those ill-advised enough to become professional boxers. He confirms all the legends, of crime, of swindling, of the miserable economic rewards allotted to the vast majority of fighters. . . the traditional racism of the American ring. . . . No one, reading Sammons, can doubt that it is evil." -- Times Literary Supplement

Cowgirls of the Rodeo

Pioneer Professional Athletes

Author: Mary Lou LeCompte

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252068744

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 8320

In this first substantial study of rodeo women, Mary Lou Lecompte surveys the early rodeo cowgirls' achievements as professional athletes, the near demise of women's rodeo events during World War II, and the phenomenal success of the Women's Professional Rodeo Association in regaining lost ground for rodeo cowgirls. Recalling an extraordinary chapter in women's history as well as the history of American sport, Cowgirls of the Rodeo contributes to a deeper understanding of the challenges facing women in the American West and in American sport.

Rocky Marciano

The Rock of His Times

Author: Russell Sullivan

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252098196

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 392

View: 2137

In this captivating and complex portrait of an American sports legend, Russell Sullivan confirms Rocky Marciano's place as a symbol and cultural icon of his era. As much as he embodied the wholesome, rags-to-riches patriotism of a true American hero, he also reflected the racial and ethnic tensions festering behind the country's benevolent facade. Spirited, fast-paced, and rich in detail, Rocky Marciano is the first book to place the boxer in the context of his times. Capturing his athletic accomplishments against the colorful backdrop of the 1950s fight scene, Sullivan examines how Marciano's career reflected the glamour and scandal of boxing as well as tenor of his times.

From Jack Johnson to LeBron James

Sports, Media, and the Color Line

Author: Chris Lamb

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 080327680X

Category: Social Science

Page: 632

View: 9125

"A collection of essays about the intersection of sports, race, and the media in the 20th century and beyond"--

John L. Sullivan and His America

Author: Michael T. Isenberg

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252064340

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 480

View: 6798

Aims to make the reader feel the lure of the boxing ring.

The Nazi Olympics

Author: Richard D. Mandell

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252013256

Category: History

Page: 316

View: 4231

This book is an expose of one of the most bizarre festivals in sport history. It provides portraits of key figures including Adolf Hitler, Jesse Owens, Leni Riefenstahl, Helen Stephens, Kee Chung Sohn, and Avery Brundage. It also conveys the charade that reinforced and mobilized the hysterical patriotism of the German masses.

Red Grange and the Rise of Modern Football

Author: John M. Carroll

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252071669

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 265

View: 498

Before the Super Bowl, before Monday Night Football, even before the NFL, there was Red Grange. Catapulted into the public eye in 1924 by scoring four touchdowns in twelve minutes for the University of Illinois, the "Galloping Ghost" went on to a trailblazing career as a professional player, star of Hollywood films, and broadcaster. He, Babe Ruth, and Jack Dempsey were among the nation's most heralded figures during the "golden age of sport" of the 1920s, and he was also on the cover of Sports Illustrated when that magazine did a special issue in 1991 on the greatest moments in sports. John Carroll depicts the career of this soft-spoken pioneer who helped lift pro football about its reputation as "a dirty little business run by rogues and bargain-basement entrepreneurs." A reluctant celebrity and folk hero, Red Grange throughout his life symbolized older, more rural American values. He was an unpretentious self-made individual who made his mark in a society increasingly controlled by machines, vast corporations, and stifling bureaucracies. His story is an essential element in understanding football's central place in American culture.

Sandlot Seasons

Sport in Black Pittsburgh

Author: Rob Ruck

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252063428

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 238

View: 9473

A new preface updates this richly detailed look at the major role sport played in shaping Pittsburgh's black community from the Roaring Twenties through the Korean War. Rob Ruck reveals how sandlot, amateur, and professional athletics helped black Pittsburgh realize its potential for self-organization, expression, and creativity.

Viva Baseball!

Latin Major Leaguers and Their Special Hunger

Author: Samuel Octavio Regalado

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252067129

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 8306

Chronicles the struggles of Latin American baseball players in the United States from the late 1800s to the present.

Pay for Play

A History of Big-time College Athletic Reform

Author: Ronald Austin Smith

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252035879

Category: Education

Page: 344

View: 5073

In an era when college football coaches frequently command higher salaries than university presidents, many call for reform to restore the balance between amateur athletics and the educational mission of schools. This book traces attempts at college athletics reform from 1855 through the early twenty-first century while analyzing the different roles played by students, faculty, conferences, university presidents, the NCAA, legislatures, and the Supreme Court.Pay for Play: A History of Big-Time College Athletic Reformalso tackles critically important questions about eligibility, compensation, recruiting, sponsorship, and rules enforcement. Discussing reasons for reform—to combat corruption, to level the playing field, and to make sports more accessible to minorities and women—Ronald A. Smith candidly explains why attempts at change have often failed. Of interest to historians, athletic reformers, college administrators, NCAA officials, and sports journalists, this thoughtful book considers the difficulty in balancing the principles of amateurism with the need to draw income from sporting events. Ronald A. Smith is professor emeritus of sports history at Penn State University and the author of several books, includingSports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College AthleticsandPlay-by-Play: Radio, Television, and Big-Time College Sport.

Leftist Theories of Sport

A Critique and Reconstruction

Author: William John Morgan

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252063619

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 267

View: 1429

People of Prowess

Sport, Leisure, and Labor in Early Anglo-America

Author: Nancy L. Struna

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252065521

Category: History

Page: 271

View: 4874