Global Climatology and Ecodynamics

Anthropogenic Changes to Planet Earth

Author: Arthur Philip Cracknell,Vladimir F. Krapivin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540782095

Category: Science

Page: 518

View: 9789

The exclusive role of natural ecosystems is a key factor in the maintenance of the biospheric equilibrium. The current global crisis is largely caused by their dramatic decline by 43% in the past hundred years. Ignoring the immutable laws and limitations which determine the existence of all living things in the biosphere could lead humanity to an ecological catastrophe. This book presents the ecological, demographic, economic and socio-psychological manifestations of the global crisis and outlines the immutable laws and limitations which determine the existence of all living things in the biosphere. The authors are eminently qualified to write about the problems associated with the global crisis and consider the causes behind humanity's conflict with its environment. V. Danilov-Danilian, Associate of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russia's former Minister of the Environment, and K. Losev, professor at Moscow State university, are leading Russian ecologists and I. Reyf is a journalist who specializes in ecology and global development. Dr. Danilov-Danilian works on the economics of nature management, economic and mathematical model building, sustainable development theory and ecology. Dr Losev is the chief researcher and head of the division of the VINITI. All the authors have published numerous papers, articles and books on such subjects as glaciology, hydrology, environment studies, global change and sustainable development.

Biotic Regulation of the Environment

Key Issues of Global Change

Author: Victor Gorshkov,A.M. Makarieva,V.V. Gorshkov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852331818

Category: Nature

Page: 367

View: 3084

It is not possible to understand the apparent stability of the Earth's climate and environment unless we can fully understand how the best possible environmental conditions may be maintained for life to exist. Human colonization of areas with natural biota, for industrial or agricultural activities, will lead to degradation of those natural communities and violation of the BRE (biotic regulation of the environment) principle. Thus to maintain an environment on Earth that is suitable for life it is necessary to preserve and allow the natural recovery of natural biotic communities, both in the oceans and on land. This book is devoted to a quantitative version of the BRE concept, and is built on a foundation of modern scientific knowledge accumulated in the fields of physics and biology.

Global Ecodynamics

A Multidimensional Analysis

Author: N.A

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540204763

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 687

View: 9983

During recent decades the stirring up of the processes of globalization practically in all spheres of present-day civilization activities has aggravated and brought forth numerous problems resulting from the nature-society (N-S) interaction. It has become apparent that to solve these problems it is necessary to develop new concepts and approaches to the interpretation of global environmental changes that would enable one to select the first-priority directions in studies and to reliably assess the state of the nature-society system (NSS). One of these priorities is to predict global climate change. The growing interest in the problem of global climate change, determined by its practical importance and by available contra dictory estimates of the anthropogenic contribution to climate change, necessitates a systematization of knowledge of and data on the observed climate change and causes of this change. Despite an enormous amount of projects and programmes of studies of past and present climatic trends, the problem of reliable prediction of future climate change remains far from being solved. Emissions to the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (GHGs), mainly carbon dioxide, is considered as one of the main causes of an expected climate warming resulting in sufficiently negative consequences for humankind. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this book to construct a formalized technology to assess the levelof the greenhouse effectdue to anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide as well as the effects of other gas components.

Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change

Author: K. Ia Kondratev,Kirill I︠A︡kovlevich Kondratʹev,Kirill Y. Kondratyev,Vladimir F. Krapivin,Kirill Ja Kondratʹev,Costas Varotsos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540008095

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 5819

Professor Kondratyev and his team consider the concept of global warming due to the greenhouse effect and put forward a new approach to the problem of assessing the impact of anthropogenic processes. Considering data on both sources and sinks for atmospheric carbon and various conceptual schemes of the global carbon dioxide cycle, they suggest a new approach to studies of the problem of the greenhouse effect. They assess the role of different types of soil and vegetation in the assimilation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and discuss models of the atmosphere ocean gas exchange and its role in the carbon dioxide cycle, paying special attention to the role of the Arctic Basin. The authors also consider models of other global atmospheric cycles for a range of atmospheric constituents, and conclude by drawing together a range of scenarios on modelling the global carbon cycle.

Biogeochemical Cycles in Globalization and Sustainable Development

Author: Vladimir F. Krapivin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540754407

Category: Science

Page: 562

View: 9918

This book presents a new approach to the study of global environmental changes that have unfavorable implications for people and other living systems. The book benefits from the accumulation of knowledge from different sciences. Basic global problems of the nature-society system dynamics are considered. The book aims to develop a universal information technology to estimate the state of environmental subsystems functioning under various climatic and anthropogenic conditions.

Globalisation and Sustainable Development

Environmental Agendas

Author: Vladimir F. Krapivin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540706623

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 5007

This interdisciplinary book parameterizes the global ecodynamic process. The discussion considers basic global problems of the Nature-Society-System (NSS) dynamics and reviews key problems of ensuring its sustainable development. The book includes an analysis of trends in changing ecological systems and estimates characteristics of current global ecodynamics. The authors propose a new approach to NSS numerical modelling and demonstrate the results of modelling the dynamics of this system's characteristics.

Remote Sensing and Climate Change

The Role of Earth Observation

Author: Arthur P. Cracknell

Publisher: Springer Verlag

ISBN: 9781852333218

Category: Science

Page: 301

View: 3827

Much of the evidence related to climate change is concerned with data from particular locations or small areas. However data captured from remote sensing systems in space and covering the whole earth can yield evidence of climate change from extensive areas. In this book international experts consider the potential value of such data addressing the problem of calibration to ensure that detected changes do not arise from drift in the calibration of the instrument or changes in the calibration coefficients from one model to another in a series of nominally identical modes. There will be some consideration of large international projects devoted to the study of cloud climatology from the archived meteorological satellite data and also of vegetation indices derived from the global sets, principally the AVHRR. The related question of the use of archived satellite data to improve the specification of surface conditions, particularly of vegetated land areas in global climate models will also be considered.

Models of the Ecological Hierarchy

From Molecules to the Ecosphere

Author: Ferenc Jordán,Sven Erik Jorgensen

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0444593969

Category: Nature

Page: 562

View: 7464

"Based on selected papers covering the presentations at the 7th European Conference on Ecological Modelling, organized by ISEM and hosted by The Microsoft Research--University of Trento Center for Computational and Systems Biology from 30 May to 2 June, 2011 in Riva del Garde, Italy"--P. xi.

Addressing Global Environmental Challenges from a Peace Ecology Perspective

Author: Hans Günter Brauch,Úrsula Oswald Spring,Juliet Bennett,Serena Eréndira Serrano Oswald

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319309900

Category: Law

Page: 192

View: 9438

Addressing global environmental challenges from a peace ecology perspective, the present book offers peer-reviewed texts that build on the expanding field of peace ecology and applies this concept to global environmental challenges in the Anthropocene. Hans Günter Brauch (Germany) offers a typology of time and turning points in the 20th century; Juliet Bennett (Australia) discusses the global ecological crisis resulting from a “tyranny of small decisions”; Katharina Bitzker (Canada) debates “the emotional dimensions of ecological peacebuilding” through love of nature; Henri Myrttinen (UK) analyses “preliminary findings on gender, peacebuilding and climate change in Honduras” while Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexíco) offers a critical review of the policy and scientific nexus debate on “the water, energy, food and biodiversity nexus”, reflecting on security in Mexico. In closing, Brauch discusses whether strategies of sustainability transition may enhance the prospects for achieving sustainable peace in the Anthropocene.

Survival and Event History Analysis

A Process Point of View

Author: Odd Aalen,Ornulf Borgan,Hakon Gjessing

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 038768560X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 540

View: 5415

The aim of this book is to bridge the gap between standard textbook models and a range of models where the dynamic structure of the data manifests itself fully. The common denominator of such models is stochastic processes. The authors show how counting processes, martingales, and stochastic integrals fit very nicely with censored data. Beginning with standard analyses such as Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression, the presentation progresses to the additive hazard model and recurrent event data. Stochastic processes are also used as natural models for individual frailty; they allow sensible interpretations of a number of surprising artifacts seen in population data. The stochastic process framework is naturally connected to causality. The authors show how dynamic path analyses can incorporate many modern causality ideas in a framework that takes the time aspect seriously. To make the material accessible to the reader, a large number of practical examples, mainly from medicine, are developed in detail. Stochastic processes are introduced in an intuitive and non-technical manner. The book is aimed at investigators who use event history methods and want a better understanding of the statistical concepts. It is suitable as a textbook for graduate courses in statistics and biostatistics.

Atmospheric Aerosol Properties

Formation, Processes and Impacts

Author: Kirill Ya. Kondratyev,Lev S. Ivlev,Vladimir F. Krapivin,Costas A. Varostos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540376984

Category: Science

Page: 572

View: 8788

This book provides the first comprehensive analysis of how aerosols form in the atmosphere through in situ processes as well as via transport from the surface (dust storms, seas spray, biogenic emissions, forest fires etc.). Such an analysis has been followed by the consideration of both observation data (various field observational experiments) and numerical modeling results to assess climate impacts of aerosols bearing in mind that these impacts are the most significant uncertainty in studying natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change.

Natural Disasters as Interactive Components of Global-Ecodynamics

Author: Kirill Ya Kondratyev,Vladimir F. Krapivin,Costas A. Varostos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 354037714X

Category: Science

Page: 580

View: 8505

Large-scale natural catastrophes are environmental phenomena. Numerous studies in recent years have concluded that the frequency of occurrence of such natural disasters have been incereasing. leading to an enhanced risk of very considerable human and economic losses and the widespread destruction and pollution of habitats, settlements and infrastructure. In 2001 over 650 natural disasters happened around the globe with economic losses exceeding $35 billion. 2004 ended with the South East Asian tsunami on 26th December with its huge toll on life and local economics and this demonstrated that the efffects of such disasters are most keenly felt in poorer or developing regions. The problem of natural disaster prediction and the implementation of environmental monitoring systems to receive, store and process the information necessary for solutions of specific problems in this area , have been analysed by the three authors of this book, all of whom are internationally respected experts in this field.

Species Richness

Patterns in the Diversity of Life

Author: Jonathan Adams

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540742786

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 1384

This is a readable, informative and up-to-date account of the patterns and controls on biodiversity. The author describes major trends in species richness, along with uncertainties in current knowledge. The various possible explanations for past and present species patterns are discussed and explained in an even-handed and accessible way. The implications of global climate change and habitat loss are considered, along with current strategies for preserving what we have. This book examines the state of current understanding of species richness patterns and their explanations. As well as the present day world, it deals with diversification and extinction, in the conservation of species richness, and the difficulties of assessing how many species remain to be discovered. The scientifically compelling subject of vegetation-climate interaction is considered in depth. Written in an accessible style, the author offers an up-to-date, rigorous and yet eminently comprehensible overview of the ecology and biogeography of species richness. He departs from the often heavy approach of earlier texts, without sacrificing rigor and depth of information and analysis. Prefacing with the aims of the book, Chapter 1 opens with an explanation of latitudinal gradients, including a description of major features of the striking gradients in species richness, exceptions to the rule, explanations, major theories and field and experimental tests. The following chapter plumbs the depth of time, including the nature of the fossil record, broad timescale diversity patterns, ecosystem changes during mass extinctions and glaciations and their influence on species richness. Chapters 3 and 4 consider hotspots and local scale patterns in species richness while Chapter 5 looks at the limitations and uncertainties on current estimates of richness, the last frontiers of species diversity and the process of identifying new life forms. The last three chapters cover humans and extinctions in history and prehistory, current habitat and global change, including the greenhouse effect, and the race to preserve what we still have, including parks, gene banks and laws.

Handbook on Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace

Author: Hans Günter Brauch,Úrsula Oswald Spring,John Grin,Jürgen Scheffran

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319438840

Category: Political Science

Page: 1014

View: 9113

In this book 60 authors from many disciplines and from 18 countries on five continents examine in ten parts: Moving towards Sustainability Transition; Aiming at Sustainable Peace; Meeting Challenges of the 21st Century: Demographic Imbalances, Temperature Rise and the Climate–Conflict Nexus; Initiating Research on Global Environmental Change, Limits to Growth, Decoupling of Growth and Resource Needs; Developing Theoretical Approaches on Sustainability and Transitions; Analysing National Debates on Sustainability in North America; Preparing Transitions towards a Sustainable Economy and Society, Production and Consumption and Urbanization; Examining Sustainability Transitions in the Water, Food and Health Sectors from Latin American and European Perspectives; Preparing Sustainability Transitions in the Energy Sector; and Relying on Transnational, International, Regional and National Governance for Strategies and Policies Towards Sustainability Transition. This book is based on workshops held in Mexico (2012) and in the US (2013), on a winter school at Chulalongkorn University, Thailand (2013), and on commissioned chapters. The workshop in Mexico and the publication were supported by two grants by the German Foundation for Peace Research (DSF). All texts in this book were peer-reviewed by scholars from all parts of the world.

Use of Satellite and In-Situ Data to Improve Sustainability

Author: Felix Kogan,Alfred Powell,Oleg Fedorov

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9048196183

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 2140

More than 30-year operational satellite data have already been used for monitoring land, ocean and atmosphere. These applications have contributed to improve sustainable economy, produce healthy environment and enhance human life. The Advanced Research Workshop sponsored by NATO and organized by the USA’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Ukrainian’s Space Agency bring the scientists with the most mature research designed for practical use. The goals were to select those which is used for services today and identify the areas to expand research and services. Scientific and application results of the Workshop presented in this book can be used today in agriculture, forestry, water resources, healthy coastal life and fisheries, climate and land cover change, anthropogenic activities and others. The presented papers provide information on how to use operational satellites and in situ measurements for early detection of large-scale droughts, floods and fires, diagnose crop and pasture annual losses, predict periods with health/unhealthy vegetation based on such climate forcing events as ENSO, monitor air quality and geomagnetic activities, assess land cover trends in responce to global warming etc. The available satellite/ground information and method is currently warn with a lead time sufficient to respond, recover and protect.

Biosphere Origin and Evolution

Author: Nikolay Dobretsov,Nikolay Kolchanov,Alexey Rozanov,Georgy Zavarzin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387686561

Category: Science

Page: 437

View: 717

This monograph contains articles based on the oral presentations given at the International Workshop on the Biosphere Origin and Evolution (BOE 2005) held in Novosibirsk, Russia, June 26-29, 2005. The organizers of the event were the Scientific Programme of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which involves 50 institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Remote Sensing and Atmospheric Ozone

Human Activities versus Natural Variability

Author: Arthur Philip Cracknell,Costas A. Varotsos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642103340

Category: Science

Page: 662

View: 4008

The destruction of the ozone layer, together with global warming, is one of the hot environmental topics of today. This book examines the effect of human activities on atmospheric ozone, namely the increase of tropospheric ozone and the general diminution of stratospheric ozone and the production of the Antarctic ozone hole. Also discussed is the role of remote sensing techniques in the understanding of the effects of human activities on atmospheric ozone as well as in the development of social and political awareness of the damage to the ozone layer by man-made chemicals, principally CFCs. This led to the formulation and ratification in 1989 of the Montreal Protocol on controlling/banning the manufacture and use of chemicals that damage the ozone layer. Since then, remote sensing has played a key role in monitoring atmospheric ozone concentration and determining the success of the Montreal Protocol in protecting the ozone layer from further damage. In this book, the renowned authors discuss the sophisticated instruments that have been launched into space to study not only ozone but also other trace gases in the atmosphere, some of which play a key role in the generation and destruction of ozone in the atmosphere. Professors Cracknell and Varotsos also examine the satellite-flown instruments which are involved in monitoring the absorption of solar ultraviolet light in the atmosphere in relation both to the generation and destruction of ozone and consequently to human health. This scholarly book, written by the foremost experts in the field, looks at remote sensing and its employment in the various aspects of ozone science. It is widely acknowledged that global warming, due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions, represents a threat to the sustainability of human life on Earth. However, many other threats are potentially just as serious, including atmospheric pollution, ozone depletion, water pollution, the degradation of agricultural land, deforestation, the depletion of the world's mineral resources and population growth.

Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition

Author: Arthur P. Cracknell

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780850664096

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 304

View: 525

Providing a full introduction to remote sensing for all environmental scientists, this wide-ranging and authoritative text assumes no prior knowledge of remote sensing yet covers the field in sufficient depth to be suitable also as a research manual.

Bayesian Networks and Decision Graphs

Author: Thomas Dyhre Nielsen,FINN VERNER JENSEN

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387682815

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 1929

This is a brand new edition of an essential work on Bayesian networks and decision graphs. It is an introduction to probabilistic graphical models including Bayesian networks and influence diagrams. The reader is guided through the two types of frameworks with examples and exercises, which also give instruction on how to build these models. Structured in two parts, the first section focuses on probabilistic graphical models, while the second part deals with decision graphs, and in addition to the frameworks described in the previous edition, it also introduces Markov decision process and partially ordered decision problems.

RNA Technologies in Cardiovascular Medicine and Research

Author: Volker A. Erdmann (Deceased),Wolfgang Poller,Jan Barciszewski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540787097

Category: Science

Page: 358

View: 5347

In this book the authors review the field and explore the potential role of RNAi and other RNA technologies in cardiovascular medicine and research. They highlight the impressive recent progress but also the hurdles that still must be overcome before this promising technology is finally ready for translation and clinical use.