GIS: A Computing Perspective, Second Edition, provides a full, up-to-date overview of GIS, both Geographic Information Systems and the study of Geographic Information Science. Analyzing the subject from a computing perspective, the second edition explores conceptual and formal models needed to understand spatial information, and examines the representations and data structures needed to support adequate system performance. This volume also covers the special-purpose interfaces and architectures required to interact with and share spatial information, and explains the importance of uncertainty and time. The material on GIS architectures and interfaces as well as spatiotemporal information systems is almost entirely new. The second edition contains substantial new information, and has been completely reformatted to improve accessibility. Changes include: A new chapter on spatial uncertainty Complete revisions of the bibliography, index, and supporting diagrams Supplemental material is offset at the top of the page, as are references and links for further study Definitions of new terms are in the margins of pages where they appear, with corresponding entries in the index
Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises with data that can be downloaded for individual or course use. New to This Edition*Incorporates major technological advances, such as Internet-based mapping systems and the rise of data from cell phones and other GPS-enabled devices.*Chapter on health disparities.*Expanded coverage of public participation GIS.*Companion Web page has all-new content.*Goes beyond the United States to encompass an international focus.
With the widespread use of PDAs, wireless internet, Internet-based GIS, and 3G and 4G telecommunications, the technology supporting mobile GIS is rapidly gaining popularity and effectiveness. Dynamic and Mobile GIS: Investigating Changes in Space and Time addresses Web GIS, mobile GIS, and the modeling, processing, and representation of dynamic events, as well as current demands to update GIS representations. Providing a comprehensive overview of this emerging technology, this book highlights innovations, new ways of modeling both spatial objects and dynamic processes affecting them, and advances in visualization. Featuring contributions from established GIS workers, it begins with an introduction of extant technology and previews future developments. The book examines challenges to security and privacy and presents practical solutions to these problems while focusing on modeling approaches and exploring the need to display an appropriate level of information in a mobile environment. Concluding with a study of mobility, the book also contains practical examples of applications of mobile devices for disaster management and environmental monitoring. Dynamic and Mobile GIS: Investigating Changes in Space and Time offers detailed cases of successful applications and identifies the current cutting-edge aspects of mobile and dynamic GIS. The book also looks to the future, investigating important research directions and potential challenges.
With GIS technology increasingly available to a wider audience on devices from apps on smartphones to satnavs in cars, many people routinely use spatial data in a way which used to be the preserve of GIS specialists. However spatial data is stored and analyzed on a computer still tends to be described in academic texts and articles which require specialist knowledge or some training in computer science. Developed to introduce computer science literature to geography students, GIS Fundamentals, Second Edition provides an accessible examination of the underlying principles for anyone with no formal training in computer science. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Coverage of the use of spatial data on the Internet Chapters on databases and on searching large databases for spatial queries Improved coverage on route-finding Improved coverage of heuristic approaches to solving real-world spatial problems International standards for spatial data The book begins with a brief but detailed introduction to how computers work and how they are programmed, giving anyone with no previous computer science background a foundation to understand the remainder of the book. As with all parts of the book there are also suggestions for further sources of reading. The book then describes the ways in which vector and raster data can be stored and how algorithms are designed to perform fundamental operations such as detecting where lines intersect. From these simple beginnings the book moves into the more complex structures used for handling surfaces and networks and contains a detailed account of what it takes to determine the shortest route between two places on a network. The final sections of the book review problems, such as the "Travelling Salesman" problem, which are so complex that it is not known whether an optimum solution exists. Using clear, concise language, but without sacrificing technical rigour, the book gives readers an understanding of what it takes to produce systems which allow them to find out where to make their next purchase and how to drive to the right place to collect it.
This accessible text prepares students to understand and work with geographic information systems (GIS), offering a detailed introduction to essential theories, concepts, and skills. The book is organized in four modular parts that can be used in any sequence in entry-level and more specialized courses. Basic cartographic principles are integrated with up-to-date discussions of GIS technologies and applications. Coverage includes everything from what geographic information is to its many uses and societal implications. Practical examples and exercises invite readers to explore the choices involved in producing reliable maps and other forms of geographic information. Illustrations include 170 figures (with 15 in color). The companion website provides links to Web resources for each chapter, plus downloadable PowerPoint slides of most of the figures. New to This Edition *Chapter on online mapping and Big Data. *New and updated discussions of remote sensing, vector and raster data models, location privacy, uses of geocoding, and other timely topics. *Chapter on the many uses of GIS, such as in market analyses, emergency responding, and tracking of epidemics. *Section overviews and an end-of-book glossary. Pedagogical Features *Modules and individual chapters can be used sequentially or in any order. *End-of-chapter review questions with answers, exercises, and extended exercises for applying theories and concepts. *"In-Depth" sidebars offering a closer look at key concepts and applications. *End-of-chapter links to relevant Web resources.
Coordinates are the foundation of GIS, cartography, and surveying, to name just a few fields. Computers have an astounding capacity for repetition and they possess a superior ability to handle the mathematics behind coordinate manipulation—but they are very bad at interpreting coordinates and coordinate systems. Basic GIS Coordinates, Second Edition clearly illustrates the basic principles of coordinate systems, covering ellipsoids, datums, and plane coordinates as they are used in GIS and GPS. Keeping in mind that it is ultimately incumbent on humans to ensure the correct use of coordinate systems, this book explains complex topics in a logical progression, presenting them in a way that is neither too complicated nor oversimplified. This new edition of a bestseller expands the material with updates on what has occurred in the field during the past five years, especially in the World Geodetic System and International Terrestrial Reference Frame. It also addresses the upcoming GNSS constellations and coordinate implications. Details how to build a coordinate system Addresses different methods of leveling, as well as measuring and modeling of height and gravity Explores two-coordinate (state-plane, UTM) systems Discusses initial points and other aspects of the rectangular system Covers the geoid and the concepts of elevation There are thousands of horizontal geodetic datums and Cartesian coordinate systems currently sanctioned by governments around the world to describe our planet electronically and on paper. Even if a computer has done nothing wrong, coordinate errors can often occur and lead to potentially disastrous miscalculations. This book is a valuable tool to help readers develop an understanding of how coordinate systems work—and how they sometimes don’t.