Gang membership has long been understood to have a disruptive influence on adolescent development and to contribute disproportionately to the rate of delinquent crime. The nature of the impact, and the long-term effects on individuals, have not been well understood. This book uses longitudinal data to examine the developmental consequences of gang membership, and its longer term influence on the life course. This longitudinal approach is made possible by data from a study of antisocial behavior, The Rochester Youth Development Study, which followed one thousand adolescents through their early adult years. The subjects include delinquents who were gang members and others who were not, allowing the authors to compare motives, patterns of behavior, and recurring problems with caregivers and the law, education, peer relations, and career paths. The findings indicate that multiple developmental deficits lead to gang membership and that membership leads to an increase in delinquency.
Über Eigendynamik und Selbstorganisation kollektiver Gewalt
Author: Axel T. Paul,Benjamin Schwalb
Publisher: Hamburger Edition HIS
Category: Social Science
Kollektive Gewalt ist Gewalt im Wir-Modus. Thema dieses Bandes sind solche Phänomene kollektiver Gewalt, die sich spontan und ungeplant ereignen. Die Frage lautet, wie "ganz normale" Männer und auch Frauen in Gruppen und Menschenmengen dazu kommen, gemeinsam Gewalt auszuüben, die sie zuvor als illegitim und unvereinbar mit ihrem Selbstverständnis wahrgenommen haben. Diese Prozesse zu untersuchen, haben sich Gewaltforscher/innen aus Soziologie, Geschichte, Ethnologie, Psychologie und Philosophie zur Aufgabe gemacht. Sie ergründen, in welcher Weise kollektive Erlebnisse Gewaltverläufe initiieren, welche gruppenbedingten Erfahrungen Gewalt zu einer selbstverständlichen oder gar "attraktiven" Handlungsoption machen, ob es typische (Verlaufs-)Formen von nicht organisierter Gewalt gibt und wie sich kollektive Gewaltroutinen einspielen. Das Spektrum der behandelten Phänomene reicht dabei von unblutigen Tumulten in einem Theater über Protestgewalt, Lynchmobs und Kriegsgräuel bis hin zu der Entstehung von Volksmilizen und der Radikalisierung von Untergrundorganisationen. In einer Welt, in der Gewalt in weiten Teilen zwar grundsätzlich verurteilt wird, sie aber gleichzeitig omnipräsent zu sein scheint, bietet der vorliegende multi-perspektivische Ansatz unter Einbeziehung sowohl der Ursachen als auch der Phänomenologie unterschiedlichster Gewaltereignisse einen Erklärungsansatz wie auch aktuelle Orientierung.
Studien zu sozialräumlichen Kontexteffekten auf Jugendkriminalität und Kriminalitätswahrnehmungen
Author: Dietrich Oberwittler,Susann Rabold,Dirk Baier
Category: Social Science
Die Konzentration von Kriminalität und Gewalt in sozial benachteiligten Wohnquartieren erfährt in Zeiten wachsender sozialer Spaltungen zunehmende Aufmerksamkeit. Die Annahme, dass Segregationsprozesse und räumliche Armutskonzentrationen in Großstädten Jugendkriminalität verschärfen können, ist weit verbreitet und hat in der Stadt- und Kriminalsoziologie insbesondere in den USA im letzten Jahrzehnt eine bedeutende Renaissance erfahren. Mithilfe neuer statistischer Verfahren wie der Mehrebenenanalyse ist es möglich, eigenständige Effekte des sozialräumlichen Kontextes auf das Verhalten der Bewohner genauer zu untersuchen. Der Sammelband greift diese neue Forschungsrichtung auf und vereinigt erstmals aktuelle deutsche und internationale Studien zu Kontexteffekten auf Jugendkriminalität und Kriminalitätswahrnehmungen der Bewohner. Die Studien werden ergänzt durch ausführliche theoretische Beiträge aus stadt- und kriminalsoziologischer Perspektive sowie durch methodisch orientierte Beiträge.
Pulling together the most salient, current issues in the field today, The Handbook of Gangs provides a significant assessment by leading scholars of key topics related to gangs, gang members, and responses to gangs. • Chapters cover a wide array of the most prominent issues in the field of gangs, written by scholars who have been leaders in developing new ways of thinking about the topics • Delivers cutting-edge reviews of the current state of research and practice and addresses where the field has been, where it is today and where it should go in the future • Includes extensive coverage of the individual theories of delinquency and provides special emphasis on policy and prevention program implications in the study of gangs • Offers a broad understanding of how other countries deal with gangs and their response to gangs, including Great Britain, Latin America, Australia and Europe • Chapters covering the legacies of four pioneers in gang research—Malcolm W. Klein, Walter B. Miller, James F. Short Jr., and Irving A. Spergel
Although a range of program and policy responses to youth gangs exist, most are largely based on suppression, implemented by the police or other criminal justice agencies. Less attention and fewer resources have been directed to prevention and intervention strategies that draw on the participation of community organizations, schools, and social service agencies in the neighborhoods in which gangs operate. Also underemphasized is the importance of integrating such approaches at the local level. In this volume, leading researchers discuss effective intervention among youth gangs, focusing on the ideas behind, approaches to, and evidence about the effectiveness of community-based, youth gang interventions. Treating community as a crucial unit of analysis and action, these essays reorient our understanding of gangs and the measures undertaken to defeat them. They emphasize the importance of community, both as a context that shapes opportunity and as a resource that promotes positive youth engagement. Covering key themes and debates, this book explores the role of social capital and collective efficacy in informing youth gang intervention and evaluation, the importance of focusing on youth development within the context of community opportunities and pressures, and the possibilities of better linking research, policy, and practice when responding to youth gangs, among other critical issues.
An Overview of Findings from Contemporary Longitudinal Studies
Author: Terence P. Thornberry,Marvin D. Krohn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
A comprehensive synthesis of the empirical findings of seven important ongoing longitudinal studies of delinquency. The seven projects included in this volume represent much of the diversity found in individual-based panel studies of antisocial behaviour.
Detailed and comprehensive, this volume presents authoritative discussions by leading scholars on issues surrounding serious and violent juvenile offenders. This population is responsible for a disproportionate percentage of all crime and poses the greatest challenge to juvenile justice policymakers. This volume integrates knowledge about risk and protective prevention programs, so that conclusions from each area can inform the other.
The contributors to this book believe that something can be done to make life in American cities safer, to make growing up in the urban ghettos less risky, and to reduce the violence that so often permeates urban childhoods. They consider why there is so much violence, why some people become violent and others do not, and why violence is more prevalent in some areas. Both biological and psychological characteristics of individuals are considered. The authors also discuss how the urban environment, especially the street culture, affects childhood development. They review a variety of intervention strategies, considering when it would be appropriate to use them and towards whom they should be targeted. Drawing upon ethnographic commentary, laboratory experiments, historical reviews, and program descriptions, this book presents a variety of opinions on the causes of urban violence and the changes necessary to reduce it.
This new book from noted criminologists Charis Kubrin, Thomas Stucky and Marvin Krohn is a unique supplement for criminological theory courses, graduate level research methods courses, or seminars that take a close look at the development of criminological theory and/or methods. This book is intended to bridge the gap between theory and research in the study of crime and deviant behavior. There are a number of textbooks that provide excellent summaries of criminological theories. Many ofthese include critiques of the theories discussing the empirical evidence that has been rendered in support (or not) of those theories. However, empirical evidence is only as good as the research methods that were used to generate it. Theory texts do not critically evaluate the research methods that generate the findings they cite. The student, therefore, obtains an impression of the utility of the theory based on an uncritical assessment of the research evidence. The purpose of this book is to explicitly assess the research methods that have been used to test nine theoretical perspectives of crime. Specifically, the authors focus on sampling, measurement, and analytical issues in doing theoretically directed research.
Written and edited by the most respected authorities in forensic nursing and forensic sciences, this new edition provides the tools and concepts you need to collect evidence that is admissible in court, determine the significance of that evidence, and provide accurate, reliable testimony while administering high-quality patient care. Now in full color throughout, it remains the most comprehensive, highly illustrated text of its kind. Provides a comprehensive, updated guide to forensic nursing science, paying special attention to the International Association of Forensic Nurses’s (IAFN) goals for forensic nursing. Retains a focus on assessment skills and the collection and preservation of evidence, following the established guidelines of the forensic sciences. Prepares you to provide testimony as a fact witness or a forensic nursing expert. Includes an illustrated case study in almost every chapter, helping you relate the information to clinical practice. Highlights important recommendations for interventions in Best Practice boxes, including the evidence base for each. Summarizes important points in Key Point boxes, so you can quickly review the most important concepts in each chapter. Explores the evolving role of forensic nurses in today’s health care facilities and the community. Edited by Virginia Lynch, founding member and first President of the International Association of Forensic Nurses and Janet Barber Duval, both well-respected pioneers and educators in the field. Contains 300 full-color illustrations integrated throughout the text, so you can view evidence quickly and easily, as it is likely to appear in practice. Presents information on courtroom testimony and depositions in one reorganized, streamlined chapter, giving you a full, organized treatment of this extremely important topic. Includes twelve new chapters: Digital Evidence, Medical Evidence Recovery at the Death Scene, Asphyxia, Electrical and Thermal Injury, Intrafamilial Homicide and Unexplained Childhood Death, Human Trafficking, Credential Development for Forensic Nurses, Gangs and Hate Crimes, Ethics Issues in Forensic Nursing, Forensic Physics and Fracture Analysis, Sexual Deviant Behaviors and Crime and Forensic Epidemiology. Contains heavily revised information on Prehospital Evidence, Forensic Investigation in the Hospital, and Human Abuse and Deaths in Custody. Features critical thinking questions with every case study, so you can thoroughly consider the implications of each clinical scenario. Evolve site will include appendices and additional documentation materials.
The present volume represents the first published book on gangs in the Caribbean. The study of criminal gangs is both timely and of the utmost importance to policy and security in the region. In many countries across the Caribbean, criminal gangs are increasing in number and prominence, and official crime data indicate that they are responsible for an increasing proportion of violent crimes. The Caribbean region experienced a dramatic increase in murder rates from 14.3 murders per 100,000 inhabitants in 2000 to 28.1 murders per 100,000 inhabitants in 2010. In some of the countries with comparatively high murder rates, such as Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago, the proportion of gang-related murders has reached alarming levels. In the case of Trinidad and Tobago, for example, for the period 2001 to 2012, 29.5% of all murders which occurred were classified as gang-related, with fully 38% being so classified in 2012. The Caribbean represents a diverse region with very different cultures and security issues. Foreign experiences and research on gangs may not generalize to the region, nor may foreign policy be entirely relevant. The present volume represents an attempt to come to terms with the phenomenon of gangs in the Caribbean, and presents a wealth of empirical data, as well as an analysis of the varying issues from a number of disciplinary perspectives. Much of what is currently known about gangs in the Caribbean is brought together in this volume, with the primary aims of understanding the varying issues and examining relevant strategies for dealing with the proliferation of criminal gangs.
This edited book summarizes the current state of knowledge on the development of criminal and antisocial behavior over the life course. It focuses mainly on the developmental perspective, which has had a paradigmatic influence on current theoretical and empirical works in criminology. With a multidisciplinary perspective, the book reviews: (a) the fundamental concepts of developmental criminology; (b) the risk factors and developmental processes related to the most salient personal (e.g., genetics, personality) and environmental (e.g., family, peers, school) domains explaining the development of criminal and antisocial behavior; (c) the developmental issues related to a number a special themes (e.g., women criminality, street gangs) and (d) the applied and policy implications of research in developmental criminology. In each chapter, prominent researchers from different disciplines such as criminology and psychology summarize the state of knowledge on a specific topic, identify the shortcomings of past research, offer recommendations for future research needs.
Hughes seeks to understand how, within a youth gang context, factors and processes operating at the micro-social level contribute to the occurrence of disputes and impact the decision made by disputants to engage in violence or to back down.Hughes analyzes the occurrence and resolution of dispute-related incidents involving black and white youth street gangs in Chicago. Quantitative analysis involves assessing situational variables suggested by the literature as relevant to the occurrence of violence. When possible, interaction sequences also are examined. Qualitative analysis emphasizes themes related to the conditions under which disputes are likely to emerge and either escalate into violence or be "squashed." The result is a conceptual scheme that is useful for understanding how factors and processes operating at the micro-social level contribute to the occurrence of disputes and impact the decision to engage in violence or to back down.
Serious Delinquency features a survey approach to the major issues in delinquency and the juvenile justice system. Coverage is both broad and deep, yet presented accessibly for students. Topics include patterns of offending and victimization, predictors, theoretically driven correlates, and a wide range of issues in the operations of the juvenile justice system.
"Juvenile Delinquency" provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge overview of all aspects of juvenile delinquency with a sociological focus. As Simon Dinitz, Ohio State University, says "Clemens Bartollas is genuinely interested in delinquents and in all those who work with and have contact with delinquents. This book reflects Professor Bartollas' abiding intellectual and emotional commitment to understanding and reducing delinquency, as well as ameliorating the personal and social ills that generate the massive delinquency problems not only in the United States but also in nearly all modern industrial nations." Every edition is thoroughly updated to reflect current research. Some exciting new updates in this edition: A new emphasis on the importance of human agency, or the interpretation and meaning that delinquents themselves bring to their social world¬ - as hot area within juvenile delinquency research. Coverage of delinquency across the life course, one of the most promising and exciting perspectives in studying delinquency today, can be found in each chapter. Increased focus on race and delinquency, especially in Chapters 7 and 10, allows for an examination of how racial factors affect the definition, handling, and processing of juvenile delinquents. An updated Chapter 10, "Gang Delinquency" provides more explanation of female gangs. Increased coverage of international juvenile justice in Chapters 14 and 15.