**Author**: Jack K. Hale

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:** 146129892X

**Category:** Mathematics

**Page:** 366

**View:** 1652

Since the publication of my lecture notes, Functional Differential Equations in the Applied Mathematical Sciences series, many new developments have occurred. As a consequence, it was decided not to make a few corrections and additions for a second edition of those notes, but to present a more compre hensive theory. The present work attempts to consolidate those elements of the theory which have stabilized and also to include recent directions of research. The following chapters were not discussed in my original notes. Chapter 1 is an elementary presentation of linear differential difference equations with constant coefficients of retarded and neutral type. Chapter 4 develops the recent theory of dissipative systems. Chapter 9 is a new chapter on perturbed systems. Chapter 11 is a new presentation incorporating recent results on the existence of periodic solutions of autonomous equations. Chapter 12 is devoted entirely to neutral equations. Chapter 13 gives an introduction to the global and generic theory. There is also an appendix on the location of the zeros of characteristic polynomials. The remainder of the material has been completely revised and updated with the most significant changes occurring in Chapter 3 on the properties of solutions, Chapter 5 on stability, and Chapter lOon behavior near a periodic orbit.

Features new results and up-to-date advances in modeling and solving differential equations Introducing the various classes of functional differential equations, Functional Differential Equations: Advances and Applications presents the needed tools and topics to study the various classes of functional differential equations and is primarily concerned with the existence, uniqueness, and estimates of solutions to specific problems. The book focuses on the general theory of functional differential equations, provides the requisite mathematical background, and details the qualitative behavior of solutions to functional differential equations. The book addresses problems of stability, particularly for ordinary differential equations in which the theory can provide models for other classes of functional differential equations, and the stability of solutions is useful for the application of results within various fields of science, engineering, and economics. Functional Differential Equations: Advances and Applications also features: • Discussions on the classes of equations that cannot be solved to the highest order derivative, and in turn, addresses existence results and behavior types • Oscillatory motion and solutions that occur in many real-world phenomena as well as in man-made machines • Numerous examples and applications with a specific focus on ordinary differential equations and functional differential equations with finite delay • An appendix that introduces generalized Fourier series and Fourier analysis after periodicity and almost periodicity • An extensive Bibliography with over 550 references that connects the presented concepts to further topical exploration Functional Differential Equations: Advances and Applications is an ideal reference for academics and practitioners in applied mathematics, engineering, economics, and physics. The book is also an appropriate textbook for graduate- and PhD-level courses in applied mathematics, differential and difference equations, differential analysis, and dynamics processes. CONSTANTIN CORDUNEANU, PhD, is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Mathematics at The University of Texas at Arlington, USA. The author of six books and over 200 journal articles, he is currently Associate Editor for seven journals; a member of the American Mathematical Society, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, and the Romanian Academy; and past president of the American Romanian Academy of Arts and Sciences. YIZENG LI, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Mathematics at Tarrant County College, USA. He is a member of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. MEHRAN MAHDAVI, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Mathematics at Bowie State University, USA. The author of numerous journal articles, he is a member of the American Mathematical Society, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, and the Mathematical Association of America.

Delay and Functional Differential Equations and Their Applications provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of functional differential equations and its applications. This book covers a variety of topics, including qualitative and geometric theory, control theory, Volterra equations, numerical methods, the theory of epidemics, problems in physiology, and other areas of applications. Organized into two parts encompassing 25 chapters, this book begins with an overview of problems involving functional differential equations with terminal conditions in function spaces. This text then examines the numerical methods for functional differential equations. Other chapters consider the theory of radiative transfer, which give rise to several interesting functional partial differential equations. This book discusses as well the theory of embedding fields, which studies systems of nonlinear functional differential equations that can be derived from psychological postulates and interpreted as neural networks. The final chapter deals with the usefulness of the flip-flop circuit. This book is a valuable resource for mathematicians.

The first general introduction to stability of ordinary and functional differential equations by means of fixed point techniques, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. 2006 edition.

This book provides an introduction to the structure and stability properties of solutions of functional differential equations. Numerous examples of applications (such as feedback systrems with aftereffect, two-reflector antennae, nuclear reactors, mathematical models in immunology, viscoelastic bodies, aeroautoelastic phenomena and so on) are considered in detail. The development is illustrated by numerous figures and tables.

The need to investigate functional differential equations with discontinuous delays is addressed in this book. Recording the work and findings of several scientists on differential equations with piecewise continuous arguments over the last few years, this book serves as a useful source of reference. Great interest is placed on discussing the stability, oscillation and periodic properties of the solutions. Considerable attention is also given to the study of initial and boundary-value problems for partial differential equations of mathematical physics with discontinuous time delays. In fact, a large part of the book is devoted to the exploration of differential and functional differential equations in spaces of generalized functions (distributions) and contains a wealth of new information in this area. Each topic discussed appears to provide ample opportunity for extending the known results. A list of new research topics and open problems is also included as an update.

Abstract semilinear functional differential equations arise from many biological, chemical, and physical systems which are characterized by both spatial and temporal variables and exhibit various spatio-temporal patterns. The aim of this book is to provide an introduction of the qualitative theory and applications of these equations from the dynamical systems point of view. The required prerequisites for that book are at a level of a graduate student. The style of presentation will be appealing to people trained and interested in qualitative theory of ordinary and functional differential equations.

Examines developments in the oscillatory and nonoscillatory properties of solutions for functional differential equations, presenting basic oscillation theory as well as recent results. The book shows how to extend the techniques for boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations to those of functional differential equations.

The present book builds upon an earlier work of J. Hale, "Theory of Func tional Differential Equations" published in 1977. We have tried to maintain the spirit of that book and have retained approximately one-third of the material intact. One major change was a complete new presentation of lin ear systems (Chapters 6~9) for retarded and neutral functional differential equations. The theory of dissipative systems (Chapter 4) and global at tractors was completely revamped as well as the invariant manifold theory (Chapter 10) near equilibrium points and periodic orbits. A more complete theory of neutral equations is presented (see Chapters 1, 2, 3, 9, and 10). Chapter 12 is completely new and contains a guide to active topics of re search. In the sections on supplementary remarks, we have included many references to recent literature, but, of course, not nearly all, because the subject is so extensive. Jack K. Hale Sjoerd M. Verduyn Lunel Contents Preface............................................................ v Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Linear differential difference equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . 1.1 Differential and difference equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . 1.2 Retarded differential difference equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . 1.3 Exponential estimates of x( ¢,f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 The characteristic equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 The fundamental solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 The variation-of-constants formula............................. 23 1. 7 Neutral differential difference equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . 1.8 Supplementary remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Functional differential equations: Basic theory . . . . . . . . 38 . . 2.1 Definition of a retarded equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence . . . . . . . . . . 39 . . . 2.3 Continuation of solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . . . .

Functional differential equations have received attention since the 1920's. Within that development, boundary value problems have played a prominent role in both the theory and applications dating back to the 1960's. This book attempts to present some of the more recent developments from a cross-section of views on boundary value problems for functional differential equations.Contributions represent not only a flavor of classical results involving, for example, linear methods and oscillation-nonoscillation techiques, but also modern nonlinear methods for problems involving stability and control as well as cone theoretic, degree theoretic, and topological transversality strategies. A balance with applications is provided through a number of papers dealing with a pendulum with dry friction, heat conduction in a thin stretched resistance wire, problems involving singularities, impulsive systems, traveling waves, climate modeling, and economic control.With the importance of boundary value problems for functional differential equations in applications, it is not surprising that as new applications arise, modifications are required for even the definitions of the basic equations. This is the case for some of the papers contributed by the Perm seminar participants. Also, some contributions are devoted to delay Fredholm integral equations, while a few papers deal with what might be termed as boundary value problems for delay-difference equations.

This book is devoted to impulsive functional differential equations which are a natural generalization of impulsive ordinary differential equations (without delay) and of functional differential equations (without impulses). At the present time the qualitative theory of such equationsis under rapid development. After a presentation of the fundamental theory of existence, uniqueness and continuability of solutions, a systematic development of stability theory for that class of problems is given which makes the book unique. It addresses to a wide audience such as mathematicians, applied researches and practitioners.

It is hoped that these notes will serve as an introduction to the subject of functional differential equations. The topics are very selective and represent only one particular viewpoint. Complementary material dealing with extensions of closely related topics are given in the notes at the end. A short bibliography is appended as source material for further study. The author is very grateful to the Mathematics Department at UCLA for having extended the invitation to give a series of lectures on functional differ ential equations during the Applied Mathematics Year, 1968-1969. The extreme interest and sincere criticism of the members of the audience were a constant source of inspiration in the preparation of the lectures as well as the notes. Except for Sections 6, 32, 33, 34 and some other minor modifications, the notes represent the material covered in two quarters at UCLA. The author wishes to thank Katherine McDougall and Sandra Spinacci for their excellent preparation of the text. The author is also indebted to Eleanor Addison for her work on the drawings and to Dr. H. T. Banks for his careful proofreading of this material. Jack K. Hale Providence March 4, 1971 v TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION •••••.•..••.•••••••••.•••..•.••••••.••••••.••.••.•••.••• 1 2 • A GENERAL INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM 11 3 • EXISTENCE 13 4. CONTINUATION OF SOLUTIONS 16 CONTINUOUS DEPENDENCE AND UNIQUENESS 21 5.

In the theory of functional differential equations with infinite delay, there are several ways to choose the space of initial functions (phase space); and diverse (duplicated) theories arise, according to the choice of phase space. To unify the theories, an axiomatic approach has been taken since the 1960's. This book is intended as a guide for the axiomatic approach to the theory of equations with infinite delay and a culmination of the results obtained in this way. It can also be used as a textbook for a graduate course. The prerequisite knowledge is foundations of analysis including linear algebra and functional analysis. It is hoped that the book will prepare students for further study of this area, and that will serve as a ready reference to the researchers in applied analysis and engineering sciences.

The purpose of this volume is to present general results concerning solvability and spectrum of boundary value problems within elliptic differential-difference equations.

Together with the authors' Volume I. C*-Theory, the two parts comprising Functional Differential Equations: II. C*-Applications form a masterful work-the first thorough, up-to-date exposition of this field of modern analysis lying between differential equations and C*-algebras. The two parts of Volume II contain the applications of the C*-structures and theory developed in Volume I. They show the technique of using the C*-results in the study of the solvability conditions of non-local functional differential equations and demonstrate the fundamental principles underlying the interrelations between C* and functional differential objects. The authors focus on non-local pseudodifferential, singular integral, and Toeplitz operators-with continuous and piecewise continuous coefficients-convolution type operators with oscillating coefficients and shifts, and operators associated with non-local boundary value problems containing transformation operators of an argument on the boundary. They build the symbolic calculus for all these classes of operators, use it to treat concrete examples of non-local operators, present the explicit computation of their Fredholmity conditions and the index formulae, and obtain a number of related results. Part 1: Equations with Continuous Coefficients and Part 2: Equations with Discontinuous Coefficients and Boundary Value Problems can each stand alone and prove a valuable resource for researchers and students interested in operator algebraic methods in the theory of functional differential equations, and to pure C*-algebraists looking for important and promising new applications. Together these books form a powerful library for this intriguing field of modern analysis.