This book brings together eleven topics on different aspects of fractional calculus in a single volume. It provides readers the basic knowledge of fractional calculus and introduces advanced topics and applications. The information in the book is presented in four parts: Fractional Diffusion Equations: (i) solutions of fractional diffusion equations using wavelet methods, (ii) the maximum principle for time fractional diffusion equations, (iii) nonlinear sub-diffusion equations. Mathematical Analysis: (i) shifted Jacobi polynomials for solving and identifying coupled fractional delay differential equations, (ii) the monotone iteration principle in the theory of Hadamard fractional delay differential equations, (iii) dynamics of fractional order modified Bhalekar-Gejji System, (iv) Grunwald-Letnikov derivatives. Computational Techniques: GPU computing of special mathematical functions used in fractional calculus. Reviews: (i) the popular iterative method NIM, (ii) fractional derivative with non-singular kernels, (iii) some open problems in fractional order nonlinear system This is a useful reference for researchers and graduate level mathematics students seeking knowledge about of fractional calculus and applied mathematics.
This monograph contains the author's work of the last four years in discrete and fractional analysis. It introduces the right delta and right nabla fractional calculus on time scales and continues with the right delta and right nabla discrete fractional calculus in the Caputo sense. Then, it shows representation formulae of functions on time scales and presents Ostrowski type inequalities, Landau type inequalities, Grüss type and comparison of means inequalities, all these over time scales. The volume continues with integral operator inequalities and their multivariate vectorial versions using convexity of functions, again all these over time scales. It follows the Grüss and Ostrowski type inequalities involving s-convexity of functions; and also examines the general case when several functions are involved. Then, it presents the general fractional Hermite–Hadamard type inequalities using m-convexity and (s, m)-convexity. Finally, it introduces the reduction method in fractional calculus and its connection to fractional Ostrowski type inequalities is studied. This book's results are expected to find applications in many areas of pure and applied mathematics, especially in difference equations and fractional differential equations. The chapters are self-contained and can be read independently, and advanced courses can be taught out of it. It is suitable for researchers, graduate students, seminars of the above subjects, and serves well as an invaluable resource for all science libraries. Contents:Foundations of Right Delta Fractional Calculus on Time ScalesPrinciples of Right Nabla Fractional Calculus on Time ScalesAbout Right Delta Discrete FractionalityAbout Right Nabla Discrete Fractional CalculusRepresentations and Ostrowski Inequalities over Time ScalesLandau Inequalities on Time ScalesGrüss and Comparison of Means Inequalities over Time ScalesAbout Integral Operator Inequalities over Time ScalesAbout Vectorial Integral Operator Inequalities Using Convexity over Time ScalesGeneral Grüss and Ostrowski Inequalities Using s-ConvexityEssential and s-Convexity Ostrowski and Grüss Inequalities Using Several FunctionsGeneral Fractional Hermite–Hadamard Inequalities Using m-Convexity and (s, m)-ConvexityAbout the Reduction Method in Fractional Calculus and Fractional Ostrowski Inequalities Readership: Advanced graduate students and researchers interested in time scales, inequalities and difference/differential equations. Key Features:Presents new research on time scales and related inequalitiesMaterials are crucially related to difference/differential equationsSelf-contained chapters that can be read independentlyAn extensive list of references is given in each chapterThe topics covered are diverseKeywords:Time Scale;Fractional Derivative;Difference Equation;Fractional Inequality
José António Tenreiro Machado,Dumitru Baleanu,Albert C. J. Luo
Applications in Physical, Biological, and Financial Systems
Author: José António Tenreiro Machado,Dumitru Baleanu,Albert C. J. Luo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
Nonlinear Dynamics of Complex Systems describes chaos, fractal and stochasticities within celestial mechanics, financial systems and biochemical systems. Part I discusses methods and applications in celestial systems and new results in such areas as low energy impact dynamics, low-thrust planar trajectories to the moon and earth-to-halo transfers in the sun, earth and moon. Part II presents the dynamics of complex systems including bio-systems, neural systems, chemical systems and hydro-dynamical systems. Finally, Part III covers economic and financial systems including market uncertainty, inflation, economic activity and foreign competition and the role of nonlinear dynamics in each.
This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the subject. Most chapters may be covered or omitted, depending upon the background of the student. For example, the text may be used as a primary reference in an introductory course for difference equations which also includes discrete fractional calculus. Chapters 1—2 provide a basic introduction to the delta calculus including fractional calculus on the set of integers. For courses where students already have background in elementary real analysis, Chapters 1—2 may be covered quickly and readers may then skip to Chapters 6—7 which present some basic results in fractional boundary value problems (FBVPs). Chapters 6—7 in conjunction with some of the current literature listed in the Bibliography can provide a basis for a seminar in the current theory of FBVPs. For a two-semester course, Chapters 1—5 may be covered in depth, providing a very thorough introduction to both the discrete fractional calculus as well as the integer-order calculus.
"FRONTIERS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS is the first all-in-one resource to bring in-depth original papers on today's major advances in long-standing electromagnetics problems. Highly regarded editors Douglas H. Werner and Raj Mittra have meticulously selected new contributed papers from preeminent researchers in the field to provide state-of-the-art discussions on emerging areas of electromagnetics. Antenna and microwave engineers and students will find key insights into current trends and techniques of electromagnetics likely to shape future directions of this increasingly important topic. Each chapter includes a comprehensive analysis and ample references on innovative subjects that range from combining electromagnetic theory with mathematical concepts to the most recent techniques in electromagnetic optimization and estimation. The contributors also present the latest developments in analytical and numerical methods for solving electromagnetics problems. With a level of expertise unmatched in the field, FRONTIERS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS provides readers with a solid foundation to understand this rapidly changing area of technology. Topics covering fast-developing applications in electromagnetics include: * Fractal electrodynamics, fractal antennas and arrays, and scattering from fractally rough surfaces * Knot electrodynamics * The role of group theory and symmetry * Fractional calculus * Lommel and multiple expansions. Professors: To request an examination copy simply e-mail [email protected]" Sponsored by: IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society.
This book is not a text devoted to a pedagogical presentation of a specialized topic nor is it a monograph focused on the author's area of research. It accomplishes both these things while providing a rationale for why the reader ought to be interested in learning about fractional calculus. This book is for researchers who has heard about many of these scientifically exotic activities, but could not see how they fit into their own scientific interests, or how they could be made compatible with the way they understand science. It is also for beginners who have not yet decided where their scientific talents could be most productively applied. The book provides insight into the long-term direction of science and show how to develop the skills necessary to successfully do research in the twenty-first century.
Dieses Buch beinhaltet eine Einführung in die faszinierende Welt der mathematischen Modellierung für alle, die auf diesem Gebiet noch keine großen Erfahrungen sammeln konnten. Die Darstellungstiefe orientiert sich dabei an Studierenden im Bachelorstudium. Während der erste Teil des Buchs sich der Methodik des Modellierens und den Aktivitäten im Modellierungszyklus widmet, hält der zweite Teil einen Werkzeugkasten für die einzelnen Modellierungsschritte parat. Die dritte Säule des Buches bilden einige Fallstudien, die nach unserer Methodik und mit den Techniken aus dem Werkzeugkasten bearbeitet werden. Das Modellieren beschränkt sich dabei nicht – und das ist das Besondere an dem Buch – auf die Modellentwürfe, sondern beinhaltet auch ihre Analyse, numerische Behandlung, Implementierung von Algorithmen, Rechnungen, Visualisierung und Analyse der Ergebnisse. Für die Implementierung der Berechnungen und die Visualisierung der Ergebnisse wird dabei konsequent das Softwarepaket MATLAB eingesetzt. Das Buch stattet Sie mit dem nötigen Rüstzeug aus, sich selbstständig an die mathematische Modellierung von realen Anwendungsproblemen zu wagen und die in der Spezialliteratur beschriebenen Modelle kreativ anzupassen und einzusetzen.
When a new extraordinary and outstanding theory is stated, it has to face criticism and skeptism, because it is beyond the usual concept. The fractional calculus though not new, was not discussed or developed for a long time, particularly for lack of its application to real life problems. It is extraordinary because it does not deal with ‘ordinary’ differential calculus. It is outstanding because it can now be applied to situations where existing theories fail to give satisfactory results. In this book not only mathematical abstractions are discussed in a lucid manner, with physical mathematical and geometrical explanations, but also several practical applications are given particularly for system identification, description and then efficient controls. The normal physical laws like, transport theory, electrodynamics, equation of motions, elasticity, viscosity, and several others of are based on ‘ordinary’ calculus. In this book these physical laws are generalized in fractional calculus contexts; taking, heterogeneity effect in transport background, the space having traps or islands, irregular distribution of charges, non-ideal spring with mass connected to a pointless-mass ball, material behaving with viscous as well as elastic properties, system relaxation with and without memory, physics of random delay in computer network; and several others; mapping the reality of nature closely. The concept of fractional and complex order differentiation and integration are elaborated mathematically, physically and geometrically with examples. The practical utility of local fractional differentiation for enhancing the character of singularity at phase transition or characterizing the irregularity measure of response function is deliberated. Practical results of viscoelastic experiments, fractional order controls experiments, design of fractional controller and practical circuit synthesis for fractional order elements are elaborated in this book. The book also maps theory of classical integer order differential equations to fractional calculus contexts, and deals in details with conflicting and demanding initialization issues, required in classical techniques. The book presents a modern approach to solve the ‘solvable’ system of fractional and other differential equations, linear, non-linear; without perturbation or transformations, but by applying physical principle of action-and-opposite-reaction, giving ‘approximately exact’ series solutions. Historically, Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wihelm Leibniz independently discovered calculus in the middle of the 17th century. In recognition to this remarkable discovery, J.von Neumann remarked, “...the calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. I think it defines more equivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematical analysis which is logical development, still constitute the greatest technical advance in exact thinking.” This XXI century has thus started to ‘think-exactly’ for advancement in science & technology by growing application of fractional calculus, and this century has started speaking the language which nature understands the best.
This book covers the wide-ranging scientific areas of computational science, from basic research fields such as algorithms and soft-computing to diverse applied fields targeting macro, micro, nano, genome and complex systems. It presents the proceedings of the International Symposium on Frontiers of Computational Science 2005, held in Nagoya in December 2005.
Wie bewegt sich ein Massenpunkt in einem Gebiet, an dessen Rand er elastisch zurückprallt? Welchen Weg nimmt ein Lichtstrahl in einem Gebiet mit ideal reflektierenden Rändern? Anhand dieser und ähnlicher Fragen stellt das vorliegende Buch Zusammenhänge zwischen Billard und Differentialgeometrie, klassischer Mechanik sowie geometrischer Optik her. Dabei beschäftigt sich das Buch unter anderem mit dem Variationsprinzip beim mathematischen Billard, der symplektischen Geometrie von Lichtstrahlen, der Existenz oder Nichtexistenz von Kaustiken, periodischen Billardtrajektorien und dem Mechanismus für Chaos bei der Billarddynamik. Ergänzend wartet dieses Buch mit einer beachtlichen Anzahl von Exkursen auf, die sich verwandten Themen widmen, darunter der Vierfarbensatz, die mathematisch-physikalische Beschreibung von Regenbögen, der poincaresche Wiederkehrsatz, Hilberts viertes Problem oder der Schließungssatz von Poncelet.
To many scientists the gap between the nineteenth century views of consciousness proposed by the psychologist William James and that developed by the inventor of psychophysics Gustav Fechner has never seemed wider. However the twentieth century concept of collective/cooperative behavior within the brain has partially reconciled these diverging perspectives suggesting the notion of consciousness as a physical phenomenon. A kernel of twenty-first century investigators bases their investigations on physiological fluctuations experiments. These fluctuations, although apparently erratic, when analyzed with advanced methods of fractal statistical analysis reveal the emergence of complex behavior, intermediate between complete order and total randomness, a property usually referred to as temporal complexity. Others, with the help of modern technologies, such MRI, establish a more direct analysis of brain dynamics, and focus on the brain’s topological complexity. Consequently the two groups adopt different approaches, the former being based on phenomenological and macroscopic considerations, and the latter resting on the crucial role of neuron interactions. The neurophysiology research work has an increasing overlap with the emerging field of complex networks, whereas the behavior psychology experiments have until recently ignored the complex cooperative dynamics that are proved by increasing experimental evidence to characterize the brain function. It is crucial to examine both the experimental and theoretical studies that support and those that challenge the view that it is an emergent collective property that allows the healthy brain to function. What needs to be discussed are new ways to understand the transport of information through complex networks sharing the same dynamical properties as the brain. In addition we need to understand information transfer between complex networks, say between the brain and a controlled experimental stimulus. Experiments suggest that brain excitation is described by inverse power-law distributions and recent studies in network dynamics indicate that this distribution is the result of phase transitions due to neuron network dynamics. It is important to stress that the development of dynamic networking establishes a connection between topological and temporal complexity, establishing that a scale-free distribution of links is generated by the dynamic correlation between dynamic elements located at very large Euclidean distances from one another. Dynamic networking and dynamics networks suggest a new way to transfer information: the long-distance communication through local cooperative interaction. It is anticipated that the contributed discussions will clarify how the global intelligence of a complex network emerges from the local cooperation of units and the role played by critical phase transitions in the observed persistence of this cooperation.