This 2003 book describes a striking connection between topology and algebra, namely that 2D topological quantum field theories are equivalent to commutative Frobenius algebras. The precise formulation of the theorem and its proof is given in terms of monoidal categories, and the main purpose of the book is to develop these concepts from an elementary level, and more generally serve as an introduction to categorical viewpoints in mathematics. Rather than just proving the theorem, it is shown how the result fits into a more general pattern concerning universal monoidal categories for algebraic structures. Throughout, the emphasis is on the interplay between algebra and topology, with graphical interpretation of algebraic operations, and topological structures described algebraically in terms of generators and relations. The book will prove valuable to students or researchers entering this field who will learn a host of modern techniques that will prove useful for future work.
Understanding the Quantum World through Mathematical Innovation
Author: Hans Halvorson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
No scientific theory has caused more puzzlement and confusion than quantum theory. Physics is supposed to help us to understand the world, but quantum theory makes it seem a very strange place. This book is about how mathematical innovation can help us gain deeper insight into the structure of the physical world. Chapters by top researchers in the mathematical foundations of physics explore new ideas, especially novel mathematical concepts at the cutting edge of future physics. These creative developments in mathematics may catalyze the advances that enable us to understand our current physical theories, especially quantum theory. The authors bring diverse perspectives, unified only by the attempt to introduce fresh concepts that will open up new vistas in our understanding of future physics.
This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery graph TQFT derived from the center of that category. The book is of interest to researchers and students studying topological field theory, monoidal categories, Hopf algebras and Hopf monads.
This book is a collection of expository articles based on four lecture series presented during the 2012 Notre Dame Summer School in Topology and Field Theories. The four topics covered in this volume are: Construction of a local conformal field theory associated to a compact Lie group, a level and a Frobenius object in the corresponding fusion category; Field theory interpretation of certain polynomial invariants associated to knots and links; Homotopy theoretic construction of far-reaching generalizations of the topological field theories that Dijkgraf and Witten associated to finite groups; and a discussion of the action of the orthogonal group on the full subcategory of an -category consisting of the fully dualizable objects. The expository style of the articles enables non-experts to understand the basic ideas of this wide range of important topics.
Tony Pantev,Carlos Simpson,Bertrand Toën,Michel Vaquié,Gabriele Vezzosi
Author: Tony Pantev,Carlos Simpson,Bertrand Toën,Michel Vaquié,Gabriele Vezzosi
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
This volume contains the proceedings of the CATS4 Conference on Higher Categorical Structures and their Interactions with Algebraic Geometry, Algebraic Topology and Algebra, held from July 2-7, 2012, at CIRM in Luminy, France. Over the past several years, the CATS conference series has brought together top level researchers from around the world interested in relative and higher category theory and its applications to classical mathematical domains. Included in this volume is a collection of articles covering the applications of categories and stacks to geometry, topology and algebra. Techniques such as localization, model categories, simplicial objects, sheaves of categories, mapping stacks, dg structures, hereditary categories, and derived stacks, are applied to give new insight on cluster algebra, Lagrangians, trace theories, loop spaces, structured surfaces, stability, ind-coherent complexes and 1-affineness showing up in geometric Langlands, branching out to many related topics along the way.
MATRIX is Australia’s international, residential mathematical research institute. It facilitates new collaborations and mathematical advances through intensive residential research programs, each lasting 1-4 weeks. This book is a scientific record of the five programs held at MATRIX in its first year, 2016: Higher Structures in Geometry and Physics (Chapters 1-5 and 18-21); Winter of Disconnectedness (Chapter 6 and 22-26); Approximation and Optimisation (Chapters 7-8); Refining C*-Algebraic Invariants for Dynamics using KK-theory (Chapters 9-13); Interactions between Topological Recursion, Modularity, Quantum Invariants and Low-dimensional Topology (Chapters 14-17 and 27). The MATRIX Scientific Committee selected these programs based on their scientific excellence and the participation rate of high-profile international participants. Each program included ample unstructured time to encourage collaborative research; some of the longer programs also included an embedded conference or lecture series. The articles are grouped into peer-reviewed contributions and other contributions. The peer-reviewed articles present original results or reviews on selected topics related to the MATRIX program; the remaining contributions are predominantly lecture notes based on talks or activities at MATRIX.
Pavel Etingof,Shlomo Gelaki,Dmitri Nikshych,Victor Ostrik
Author: Pavel Etingof,Shlomo Gelaki,Dmitri Nikshych,Victor Ostrik
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
Is there a vector space whose dimension is the golden ratio? Of course not—the golden ratio is not an integer! But this can happen for generalizations of vector spaces—objects of a tensor category. The theory of tensor categories is a relatively new field of mathematics that generalizes the theory of group representations. It has deep connections with many other fields, including representation theory, Hopf algebras, operator algebras, low-dimensional topology (in particular, knot theory), homotopy theory, quantum mechanics and field theory, quantum computation, theory of motives, etc. This book gives a systematic introduction to this theory and a review of its applications. While giving a detailed overview of general tensor categories, it focuses especially on the theory of finite tensor categories and fusion categories (in particular, braided and modular ones), and discusses the main results about them with proofs. In particular, it shows how the main properties of finite-dimensional Hopf algebras may be derived from the theory of tensor categories. Many important results are presented as a sequence of exercises, which makes the book valuable for students and suitable for graduate courses. Many applications, connections to other areas, additional results, and references are discussed at the end of each chapter.
The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.
If classical Lie groups preserve bilinear vector norms, what Lie groups preserve trilinear, quadrilinear, and higher order invariants? Answering this question from a fresh and original perspective, Predrag Cvitanovic takes the reader on the amazing, four-thousand-diagram journey through the theory of Lie groups. This book is the first to systematically develop, explain, and apply diagrammatic projection operators to construct all semi-simple Lie algebras, both classical and exceptional. The invariant tensors are presented in a somewhat unconventional, but in recent years widely used, "birdtracks" notation inspired by the Feynman diagrams of quantum field theory. Notably, invariant tensor diagrams replace algebraic reasoning in carrying out all group-theoretic computations. The diagrammatic approach is particularly effective in evaluating complicated coefficients and group weights, and revealing symmetries hidden by conventional algebraic or index notations. The book covers most topics needed in applications from this new perspective: permutations, Young projection operators, spinorial representations, Casimir operators, and Dynkin indices. Beyond this well-traveled territory, more exotic vistas open up, such as "negative dimensional" relations between various groups and their representations. The most intriguing result of classifying primitive invariants is the emergence of all exceptional Lie groups in a single family, and the attendant pattern of exceptional and classical Lie groups, the so-called Magic Triangle. Written in a lively and personable style, the book is aimed at researchers and graduate students in theoretical physics and mathematics.
Supersymmetry has been the object of study by theoretical physicists since the early 1970's. In recent years it has attracted the interest of mathematicians because of its novelty, and because of significance, both in mathematics and physics, of the main issues it raises. This book presents the foundations of supersymmetry to the mathematically minded reader in a cogent and self-contained manner. It begins with a brief introduction to the physical foundations of the theory, especially the classification of relativistic particles and their wave equations, such as the equations of Dirac and Weyl. It then continues the development of the theory of supermanifolds stressing the analogy with the Grothendieck theory of schemes. All the super linear algebra needed for the book is developed here and the basic theorems are established: differential and integral calculus in supermanifolds, Frobenius theorem, foundations of the theory of super Lie groups, and so on. A special feature of the book is the treatment in depth of the theory of spinors in all dimensions and signatures, which is the basis of all developments of supergeometry both in physics and mathematics, especially in quantum field theory and supergravity.
Mathematicians wanting to get into the field ... will find a very well written and encyclopaedic account of the mathematics which was needed in, and was developed from, what now might be termed classical mirror symmetry. --Bulletin of the LMS The book is highly recommended for everyone who wants to learn about the fascinating recent interplay between physics and mathematics. --Mathematical Reviews Mirror symmetry began when theoretical physicists made some astonishing predictions about rational curves on quintic hypersurfaces in four-dimensional projective space. Understanding the mathematics behind these predictions has been a substantial challenge. This book is a completely comprehensive monograph on mirror symmetry, covering the original observations by the physicists through the most recent progress made to date. Subjects discussed include toric varieties, Hodge theory, Kahler geometry, moduli of stable maps, Calabi-Yau manifolds, quantum cohomology, Gromov-Witten invariants, and the mirror theorem.
Author: A. Bialynicki-Birula,J. Carrell,W.M. McGovern
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This is the second volume of the new subseries "Invariant Theory and Algebraic Transformation Groups". The aim of the survey by A. Bialynicki-Birula is to present the main trends and achievements of research in the theory of quotients by actions of algebraic groups. This theory contains geometric invariant theory with various applications to problems of moduli theory. The contribution by J. Carrell treats the subject of torus actions on algebraic varieties, giving a detailed exposition of many of the cohomological results one obtains from having a torus action with fixed points. Many examples, such as toric varieties and flag varieties, are discussed in detail. W.M. McGovern studies the actions of a semisimple Lie or algebraic group on its Lie algebra via the adjoint action and on itself via conjugation. His contribution focuses primarily on nilpotent orbits that have found the widest application to representation theory in the last thirty-five years.
Mathematical Analysis of Evolution, Information, and Complexity deals with the analysis of evolution, information and complexity. The time evolution of systems or processes is a central question in science, this text covers a broad range of problems including diffusion processes, neuronal networks, quantum theory and cosmology. Bringing together a wide collection of research in mathematics, information theory, physics and other scientific and technical areas, this new title offers elementary and thus easily accessible introductions to the various fields of research addressed in the book.
This book describes the history of Jordan algebras and describes in full mathematical detail the recent structure theory for Jordan algebras of arbitrary dimension due to Efim Zel'manov. Jordan algebras crop up in many surprising settings, and find application to a variety of mathematical areas. No knowledge is required beyond standard first-year graduate algebra courses.
This English edition of Yuri I. Manin's well-received lecture notes provides a concise but extremely lucid exposition of the basics of algebraic geometry and sheaf theory. The lectures were originally held in Moscow in the late 1960s, and the corresponding preprints were widely circulated among Russian mathematicians. This book will be of interest to students majoring in algebraic geometry and theoretical physics (high energy physics, solid body, astrophysics) as well as to researchers and scholars in these areas. "This is an excellent introduction to the basics of Grothendieck's theory of schemes; the very best first reading about the subject that I am aware of. I would heartily recommend every grad student who wants to study algebraic geometry to read it prior to reading more advanced textbooks."- Alexander Beilinson
The nature of interactions between mathematicians and physicists has been thoroughly transformed in recent years. String theory and quantum field theory have contributed a series of profound ideas that gave rise to entirely new mathematical fields and revitalized older ones. The influence flows in both directions, with mathematical techniques and ideas contributing crucially to major advances in string theory. A large and rapidly growing number of both mathematicians and physicists are working at the string-theoretic interface between the two academic fields. The String-Math conference series aims to bring together leading mathematicians and mathematically minded physicists working in this interface. This volume contains the proceedings of the inaugural conference in this series, String-Math 2011, which was held June 6-11, 2011, at the University of Pennsylvania.