Physical Processes of Matter at Extreme Conditions
Author: Jon Larsen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, this book is a valuable resource for research scientists and graduate students in physics and astrophysics.
Recent scientific and technical advances have made it possible to create matter in the laboratory under conditions relevant to astrophysical systems such as supernovae and black holes. These advances will also benefit inertial confinement fusion research and the nationâ€™s nuclear weaponâ€™s program. The report describes the major research facilities on which such high energy density conditions can be achieved and lists a number of key scientific questions about high energy density physics that can be addressed by this research. Several recommendations are presented that would facilitate the development of a comprehensive strategy for realizing these research opportunities.
Theoretical Foundations : an Annotated Reprint Collection
Author: Berndt Müller
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
The papers that comprise this collection trace the development of the theoretical understanding of quark-gluon plasma, both in terms of the equation of state and thermal correlation functions, and in terms of its manifestation in high energy nuclear collisions.
This unified guide brings together the underlying principles, and predictable material responses, that connect metals, polymers, brittle solids and energetic materials as they respond to extreme external stresses. Previously disparate scientific principles, concepts and terminology are combined within a single theoretical framework, across different materials and scales, to provide all the tools necessary to understand, and calculate, the responses of materials and structures to extreme static and dynamic loading. Real-world examples illustrate how material behaviours produce a component response, enabling recognition – and avoidance – of the deformation mechanisms that contribute to mechanical failure. A final synoptic chapter presents a case study of extreme conditions brought about by the infamous Chicxulub impact event. Bringing together simple concepts from diverse fields into a single, accessible, rigorous text, this is an indispensable reference for all researchers and practitioners in materials science, mechanical engineering, physics, physical chemistry and geophysics.
Below is a list of the prizewinners during the period 1981–1990 with a description of the works which won them their prizes: (1981) N BLOEMBERGEN & A L SCHAWLOW — for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy; K M SIEGBAHN — for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy; (1982) K G WILSON — for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions; (1983) S CHANDRASEKHAR — for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars; W A FOWLER — for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe; (1984) C RUBBIA & S VAN DER MEER — for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction; (1985) K VON KLITZING — for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect; (1986) E RUSKA — for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope; G BINNIG & H ROHRER — for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope; (1987) J G BEDNORZ & K A MUELLER — for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials; (1988) L M LEDERMAN, M SCHWARTZ & J STEINBERGER — for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino; (1989) N F RAMSAY — for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks; H G DEHMELT & W PAUL — for the development of the ion trap technique; (1990) J I FRIEDMAN, H W KENDALL & R E TAYLOR — for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics.
Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production and the Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, Second Session