Physical Processes of Matter at Extreme Conditions
Author: Jon Larsen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, this book is a valuable resource for research scientists and graduate students in physics and astrophysics.
Foundation of Inertial Fusion and Experimental Astrophysics
Author: R Paul Drake
The raw numbers of high-energy-density physics are amazing: shock waves at hundreds of km/s (approaching a million km per hour), temperatures of millions of degrees, and pressures that exceed 100 million atmospheres. This title surveys the production of high-energy-density conditions, the fundamental plasma and hydrodynamic models that can describe them and the problem of scaling from the laboratory to the cosmos. Connections to astrophysics are discussed throughout. The book is intended to support coursework in high-energy-density physics, to meet the needs of new researchers in this field, and also to serve as a useful reference on the fundamentals. Specifically the book has been designed to enable academics in physics, astrophysics, applied physics and engineering departments to provide in a single-course, an introduction to fluid mechanics and radiative transfer, with dramatic applications in the field of high-energy-density systems. This second edition includes pedagogic improvements to the presentation throughout and additional material on equations of state, heat waves, and ionization fronts, as well as problem sets accompanied by solutions.
Based on a graduate course in plasma physics taught at University of California, Davis, this classic book provides a concise overview and a physically-motivated treatment of the major plasma processes which determine the interaction of intense light waves with plasmas. It also includes a discussion of basic plasma concepts, plasma simulation using particle codes, and laser plasma experiments. This is the most elementary book currently available that successfully blends theory, simulation, and experiment, and presents a clear exposition of the major physical processes involved in laser-plasma interactions. This was also the first book on the topic by anyone involved in the United States Laser Fusion Program. Dr. Kruer has more than 30 years of active participation in this field.
National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Physics and Astronomy,Plasma Science Committee,Committee on High Energy Density Plasma Physics
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Physics and Astronomy,Plasma Science Committee,Committee on High Energy Density Plasma Physics
Publisher: National Academies Press
Recent scientific and technical advances have made it possible to create matter in the laboratory under conditions relevant to astrophysical systems such as supernovae and black holes. These advances will also benefit inertial confinement fusion research and the nationâ€™s nuclear weaponâ€™s program. The report describes the major research facilities on which such high energy density conditions can be achieved and lists a number of key scientific questions about high energy density physics that can be addressed by this research. Several recommendations are presented that would facilitate the development of a comprehensive strategy for realizing these research opportunities.
Amazing Micrometeorites and Their Terrestrial Imposters
Author: Jon Larsen
Publisher: Voyageur Press (MN)
Tiny pieces of space rock called micrometeorites are everywhere on Earth. In Search of Stardust shows you how to find them! The solar system is a dusty place. Every day approximately 100 metric tons of cosmic dust collides with Earth, mainly in the form of micrometeorites. Most of these mineral particles (iron, nickel, etc.) are smaller than grains of sand, and they are falling down on us all the time and all over the globe. Still, little is known about these exotic extraterrestrials. In Search of Stardust is the first comprehensive popular science book about micrometeorites. It's also a photo documentary comprising more than 1,500 previously unpublished images: the first atlas of micrometeorites, hundreds of which are depicted here in high-resolution color microscopic photography and in scanning electron microscope imagery. Author Jon Larsen shows readers how and where to look for micrometeorites, explains the history of micrometeoritics, and offers chapters about micrometeorite formation, classification, and analysis. Thanks to Larsen's work, for the first time it is now possible for anyone to find these amazing tiny stones from space. For more than a century it was believed these incredible space objects could be found only in pristine, unsullied environs like Antarctica and ocean floors. Larsen became the first to break the code and find micrometeorites in populated areas -- in fact, they can be found in the nearest rain gutter. In the book Larsen explains how anyone with a bit of inexpensive equipment can find their own micrometeorites. It was recently discovered that King Tut's dagger was forged from a chunk of a meteorite. What else is made of extraterrestrial rock? Join the hunt!
Can you really lose weight by consuming nothing but ice cream and beer? How does the latest blockbuster movie get squeezed onto a disk, and how do they make the pictures seem 3D? How much does a selfie weigh? What's the science behind forensic investigations, body scans, and the dating of ancient artefacts? The Physics Behind... takes the reader on a fascinating journey through the scientific principles that that make the modern world work. Could there be life on Mars? Why is north really south? How do self-driving cars find their way around? These and many more topics are explored by starting with the basic science that makes them tick - examining the physics behind them. Packed with detailed original artwork and infographics, The Physics Behind... is perfect for anyone who has ever been curious about the science of life. Including: - The physics behind modern life: Wi-Fi, Facial recognition, touchscreens, microwave ovens, the ice cream and beer diet, taking a selfie, Flash memory, a bag of sugar, catching the train, calendars and clocks - The physics behind entertainment: optical discs, lasers, white water, executive toys, the electric guitar, music, 3D movies - The physics behind analysis: medical imaging, looking at little things, spectroscopy, crime scene investigation, tricorder, microfluidics, radiocarbon dating, proving the Earth is round - The physics behind space: rocket science, space weather, Planet Nine, space telescopes, is there anybody out there? life on Earth, life on Mars - The physics behind big science: what's the matter?, time travel, bomb or meltdown?, the Large Hadron Collider, the Human Genome Project, the Standard Model, gravity, everything - The physics behind the weird universe: strings, rings and other things, N-dimensional space, the hypercube, antimatter, the dark universe, quantum weirdness, quantum biology, time crystals and Majorana - The physics behind the environment: weather forecasts, climate change, renewable energy, migration, peacock feathers, sunburn, rainbows, spider silk - The physics behind transportation: autonomous autos, Hyperloop, Maglev, satellite navigation, motor sport, going rreeaallllyy fast, stealth - The physics behind everything else: curve balls, the Mpemba Effect, why north is really south, perpetual motion and the heat death of the universe, and the physics behind this book.
This unified guide brings together the underlying principles, and predictable material responses, that connect metals, polymers, brittle solids and energetic materials as they respond to extreme external stresses. Previously disparate scientific principles, concepts and terminology are combined within a single theoretical framework, across different materials and scales, to provide all the tools necessary to understand, and calculate, the responses of materials and structures to extreme static and dynamic loading. Real-world examples illustrate how material behaviours produce a component response, enabling recognition – and avoidance – of the deformation mechanisms that contribute to mechanical failure. A final synoptic chapter presents a case study of extreme conditions brought about by the infamous Chicxulub impact event. Bringing together simple concepts from diverse fields into a single, accessible, rigorous text, this is an indispensable reference for all researchers and practitioners in materials science, mechanical engineering, physics, physical chemistry and geophysics.
An abridged, student-oriented edition of Hillel's earlier published Environmental Soil Physics, Introduction to Environmental Soil Physics is a more succinct elucidation of the physical principles and processes governing the behavior of soil and the vital role it plays in both natural and managed ecosystems. The textbook is self-contained and self-explanatory, with numerous illustrations and sample problems. Based on sound fundamental theory, the textbook leads to a practical consideration of soil as a living system in nature and illustrates the influences of human activity upon soil structure and function. Students, as well as other readers, will better understand the importance of soils and the pivotal possition they occupy with respect to careful and knowledgeable conservation. Written in an engaging and clear style, posing and resolving issues relevant to the terrestrial environment Explores the gamut of the interactions among the phases in the soil and the dynamic interconnection of the soil with the subterranean and atmospheric domains Reveals the salient ideas, approaches, and methods of environmental soil physics Includes numerous illustrative exercises, which are explicitly solved Designed to serve for classroom and laboratory instruction, for self-study, and for reference Oriented toward practical problems in ecology, field-scale hydrology, agronomy, and civil engineering Differs from earlier texts in its wider scope and holistic environmental conception
A tribute to Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday
Author: G. N. N. Angilella
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book addresses a wide range of topics relating to the properties and behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions such as intense magnetic and electric fields, high pressures, heat and cold, and mechanical stresses. It is divided into four sections devoted to condensed matter theory, molecular chemistry, theoretical physics, and the philosophy and history of science. The main themes include electronic correlations in material systems under extreme pressure and temperature conditions, surface physics, the transport properties of low-dimensional electronic systems, applications of the density functional theory in molecular systems, and graphene. The book is the outcome of a workshop held at the University of Catania, Italy, in honor of Professor Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It includes selected invited contributions from collaborators and co-authors of Professor Pucci during his long and successful career, as well as from other distinguished guest authors.
Theoretical Foundations : an Annotated Reprint Collection
Author: Berndt Müller,Johann Rafelski
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
The papers that comprise this collection trace the development of the theoretical understanding of quark-gluon plasma, both in terms of the equation of state and thermal correlation functions, and in terms of its manifestation in high energy nuclear collisions.
Author: Board on Physics and Astronomy,Committee on AMO2010,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
As part of the Physics 2010 decadal survey project, the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation requested that the National Research Council assess the opportunities, over roughly the next decade, in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) science and technology. In particular, the National Research Council was asked to cover the state of AMO science, emphasizing recent accomplishments and identifying new and compelling scientific questions. Controlling the Quantum World, discusses both the roles and challenges for AMO science in instrumentation; scientific research near absolute zero; development of extremely intense x-ray and laser sources; exploration and control of molecular processes; photonics at the nanoscale level; and development of quantum information technology. This book also offers an assessment of and recommendations about critical issues concerning maintaining U.S. leadership in AMO science and technology.
Researchers believe that the universe is vast enough that life has evolved and become technological many times, - yet we have seen no trace of extraterrestrial intelligence. This conundrum, known as the Fermi paradox, is the deepest mystery in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Put simply, where is everybody?
Below is a list of the prizewinners during the period 1981–1990 with a description of the works which won them their prizes: (1981) N BLOEMBERGEN & A L SCHAWLOW — for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy; K M SIEGBAHN — for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy; (1982) K G WILSON — for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions; (1983) S CHANDRASEKHAR — for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars; W A FOWLER — for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe; (1984) C RUBBIA & S VAN DER MEER — for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction; (1985) K VON KLITZING — for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect; (1986) E RUSKA — for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope; G BINNIG & H ROHRER — for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope; (1987) J G BEDNORZ & K A MUELLER — for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials; (1988) L M LEDERMAN, M SCHWARTZ & J STEINBERGER — for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino; (1989) N F RAMSAY — for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks; H G DEHMELT & W PAUL — for the development of the ion trap technique; (1990) J I FRIEDMAN, H W KENDALL & R E TAYLOR — for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics.
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Physics and Astronomy,Committee on the Physics of the Universe
Publisher: National Academies Press
Advances made by physicists in understanding matter, space, and time and by astronomers in understanding the universe as a whole have closely intertwined the question being asked about the universe at its two extremesâ€"the very large and the very small. This report identifies 11 key questions that have a good chance to be answered in the next decade. It urges that a new research strategy be created that brings to bear the techniques of both astronomy and sub-atomic physics in a cross-disciplinary way to address these questions. The report presents seven recommendations to facilitate the necessary research and development coordination. These recommendations identify key priorities for future scientific projects critical for realizing these scientific opportunities.
Author: Robert E. Robson,Ron White,Malte Hildebrandt
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Condensed matter
This book offers a comprehensive and cohesive overview of transport processes associated with all kinds of charged particles, including electrons, ions, positrons, and muons, in both gases and condensed matter. The emphasis is on fundamental physics, linking experiment, theory and applications. In particular, the authors discuss: The kinetic theory of gases, from the traditional Boltzmann equation to modern generalizations A complementary approach: Maxwell's equations of change and fluid modeling Calculation of ion-atom scattering cross sections Extension to soft condensed matter, amorphous materials Applications: drift tube experiments, including the Franck-Hertz experiment, modeling plasma processing devices, muon catalysed fusion, positron emission tomography, gaseous radiation detectors Straightforward, physically-based arguments are used wherever possible to complement mathematical rigor. Robert Robson has held professorial positions in Japan, the USA and Australia, and was an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at several universities in Germany. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society. Ronald White is Professor of Physics and Head of Physical Sciences at James Cook University, Australia. Malte Hildebrandt is Head of the Detector Group in the Laboratory of Particle Physics at the Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland.