Foundations of High-Energy-Density Physics

Physical Processes of Matter at Extreme Conditions

Author: Jon Larsen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316883221

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 5384

High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, this book is a valuable resource for research scientists and graduate students in physics and astrophysics.

Extreme Physics

Properties and Behavior of Matter at Extreme Conditions

Author: Jeff Colvin,Jon Larsen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107019672

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 7590

Emphasising computational modeling, this introduction to the physics on matter at extreme conditions is invaluable for researchers and graduate students.

Physics of High Temperature Plasmas

Author: George Schmidt

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323161766

Category: Science

Page: 422

View: 712

Physics of High Temperature Plasmas, Second Edition focuses on plasma physics and the advances in this field. This book explores the experimental observations on linear waves and instabilities. Comprised of 11 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of heat transition as a result of the heating of a solid or liquid substance. This book then examines the behavior of plasmas, which has great significance for the understanding of our universe. This text also investigates the possible application of plasmas, such as the application of hot plasma as thermonuclear fuel. Other chapters discuss the laws of plasma physics, with emphasis on those phenomena that are relevant to the operation of thermonuclear machines. This text discusses as well the electromagnetic forces on an earthly scale, the quantum effects, particle collisions, and Maxwell’s equation. The final chapter of the book deals with the motion of charged particles. This book is intended for researchers engaged in plasma research and graduate students taking a course in plasma physics.

The Physics Of Laser Plasma Interactions

Author: William Kruer

Publisher: Westview Press

ISBN: 9780813340838

Category: Science

Page: 202

View: 8077

Based on a graduate course in plasma physics taught at University of California, Davis, this classic book provides a concise overview and a physically-motivated treatment of the major plasma processes which determine the interaction of intense light waves with plasmas. It also includes a discussion of basic plasma concepts, plasma simulation using particle codes, and laser plasma experiments. This is the most elementary book currently available that successfully blends theory, simulation, and experiment, and presents a clear exposition of the major physical processes involved in laser-plasma interactions. This was also the first book on the topic by anyone involved in the United States Laser Fusion Program. Dr. Kruer has more than 30 years of active participation in this field.

Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics

The X-Games of Contemporary Science

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Physics and Astronomy,Plasma Science Committee,Committee on High Energy Density Plasma Physics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309168830

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 7661

Recent scientific and technical advances have made it possible to create matter in the laboratory under conditions relevant to astrophysical systems such as supernovae and black holes. These advances will also benefit inertial confinement fusion research and the nation’s nuclear weapon’s program. The report describes the major research facilities on which such high energy density conditions can be achieved and lists a number of key scientific questions about high energy density physics that can be addressed by this research. Several recommendations are presented that would facilitate the development of a comprehensive strategy for realizing these research opportunities.

In Search of Stardust

Amazing Micrometeorites and Their Terrestrial Imposters

Author: Jon Larsen

Publisher: Voyageur Press (MN)

ISBN: 076035264X

Category: Science

Page: 152

View: 3766

Tiny pieces of space rock called micrometeorites are everywhere on Earth. In Search of Stardust shows you how to find them! The solar system is a dusty place. Every day approximately 100 metric tons of cosmic dust collides with Earth, mainly in the form of micrometeorites. Most of these mineral particles (iron, nickel, etc.) are smaller than grains of sand, and they are falling down on us all the time and all over the globe. Still, little is known about these exotic extraterrestrials. In Search of Stardust is the first comprehensive popular science book about micrometeorites. It's also a photo documentary comprising more than 1,500 previously unpublished images: the first atlas of micrometeorites, hundreds of which are depicted here in high-resolution color microscopic photography and in scanning electron microscope imagery. Author Jon Larsen shows readers how and where to look for micrometeorites, explains the history of micrometeoritics, and offers chapters about micrometeorite formation, classification, and analysis. Thanks to Larsen's work, for the first time it is now possible for anyone to find these amazing tiny stones from space. For more than a century it was believed these incredible space objects could be found only in pristine, unsullied environs like Antarctica and ocean floors. Larsen became the first to break the code and find micrometeorites in populated areas -- in fact, they can be found in the nearest rain gutter. In the book Larsen explains how anyone with a bit of inexpensive equipment can find their own micrometeorites. It was recently discovered that King Tut's dagger was forged from a chunk of a meteorite. What else is made of extraterrestrial rock? Join the hunt!

Materials Under Extreme Conditions

Recent Trends and Future Prospects

Author: A.K. Tyagi,S. Banerjee

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128014423

Category: Science

Page: 870

View: 9885

Materials Under Extreme Conditions: Recent Trends and Future Prospects analyzes the chemical transformation and decomposition of materials exposed to extreme conditions, such as high temperature, high pressure, hostile chemical environments, high radiation fields, high vacuum, high magnetic and electric fields, wear and abrasion related to chemical bonding, special crystallographic features, and microstructures. The materials covered in this work encompass oxides, non-oxides, alloys and intermetallics, glasses, and carbon-based materials. The book is written for researchers in academia and industry, and technologists in chemical engineering, materials chemistry, chemistry, and condensed matter physics. Describes and analyzes the chemical transformation and decomposition of a wide range of materials exposed to extreme conditions Brings together information currently scattered across the Internet or incoherently dispersed amongst journals and proceedings Presents chapters on phenomena, materials synthesis, and processing, characterization and properties, and applications Written by established researchers in the field

Controlling the Quantum World:

The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons

Author: Board on Physics and Astronomy,Committee on AMO2010,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309102707

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 8804

As part of the Physics 2010 decadal survey project, the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation requested that the National Research Council assess the opportunities, over roughly the next decade, in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) science and technology. In particular, the National Research Council was asked to cover the state of AMO science, emphasizing recent accomplishments and identifying new and compelling scientific questions. Controlling the Quantum World, discusses both the roles and challenges for AMO science in instrumentation; scientific research near absolute zero; development of extremely intense x-ray and laser sources; exploration and control of molecular processes; photonics at the nanoscale level; and development of quantum information technology. This book also offers an assessment of and recommendations about critical issues concerning maintaining U.S. leadership in AMO science and technology.

Fundamentals of Plasma Physics

Author: J. A. Bittencourt

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 148329319X

Category: Science

Page: 730

View: 6019

A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

Physics

An Illustrated History of the Foundations of Science

Author: Tom Jackson

Publisher: Ponderables

ISBN: 9781627950961

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 1408

Here is the essential guide to physics, an authoritative reference book and timeline that examines the foundations upon which all scientific knowledge rests. Without physics, everything else -- from astronomy to zoology -- would be a meaningless conjecture. Our journey begins with the first attempts to understand reality, Mother Nature -- or as the ancient Greeks called it, physics. Follow the journey through history as great scientists, such as Thales, Galileo, Feynman, and many others, gradually unpick the fabric of the Universe, revealing an array of fundamental forces, intangible particles, and indestructible energy. Today, physics discoveries make headline news as we confirm the fresh mysteries of the Higgs boson, supersymmetry, and dark energy.

Materials in Mechanical Extremes

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: Neil Bourne

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107023750

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 2631

This unified guide brings together the underlying principles, and predictable material responses, that connect metals, polymers, brittle solids and energetic materials as they respond to extreme external stresses. Previously disparate scientific principles, concepts and terminology are combined within a single theoretical framework, across different materials and scales, to provide all the tools necessary to understand, and calculate, the responses of materials and structures to extreme static and dynamic loading. Real-world examples illustrate how material behaviours produce a component response, enabling recognition – and avoidance – of the deformation mechanisms that contribute to mechanical failure. A final synoptic chapter presents a case study of extreme conditions brought about by the infamous Chicxulub impact event. Bringing together simple concepts from diverse fields into a single, accessible, rigorous text, this is an indispensable reference for all researchers and practitioners in materials science, mechanical engineering, physics, physical chemistry and geophysics.

Fundamentals of Charged Particle Transport in Gases and Condensed Matter

Author: Robert Robson,Ronald White,Malte Hildebrandt

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351647253

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 5635

This book offers a comprehensive and cohesive overview of transport processes associated with all kinds of charged particles, including electrons, ions, positrons, and muons, in both gases and condensed matter. The emphasis is on fundamental physics, linking experiment, theory and applications. In particular, the authors discuss: The kinetic theory of gases, from the traditional Boltzmann equation to modern generalizations A complementary approach: Maxwell’s equations of change and fluid modeling Calculation of ion-atom scattering cross sections Extension to soft condensed matter, amorphous materials Applications: drift tube experiments, including the Franck-Hertz experiment, modeling plasma processing devices, muon catalysed fusion, positron emission tomography, gaseous radiation detectors Straightforward, physically-based arguments are used wherever possible to complement mathematical rigor. Robert Robson has held professorial positions in Japan, the USA and Australia, and was an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at several universities in Germany. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society. Ronald White is Professor of Physics and Head of Physical Sciences at James Cook University, Australia. Malte Hildebrandt is Head of the Detector Group in the Laboratory of Particle Physics at the Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland.

Quark-gluon Plasma

Theoretical Foundations : an Annotated Reprint Collection

Author: Berndt Müller,Johann Rafelski

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780444511102

Category: Science

Page: 817

View: 1107

The papers that comprise this collection trace the development of the theoretical understanding of quark-gluon plasma, both in terms of the equation of state and thermal correlation functions, and in terms of its manifestation in high energy nuclear collisions.

Physics 1981-1990

Author: Tore Fr„ngsmyr,G”sta Ekspong,Nobelstiftelsen

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810207298

Category: Nobel Prizes

Page: 738

View: 9915

Science and Engineering of Materials, SI Edition

Author: Donald R. Askeland,Wendelin J. Wright

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 130544633X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 960

View: 6574

Succeed in your materials science course with THE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MATERIALS, 7e. Filled with built-in study tools to help you master key concepts, this proven book will help you develop an understanding of the relationship between structure, processing, and properties of materials and will serve as a useful reference for future courses in manufacturing, materials, design, or materials selection. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Author: Bruce Alberts

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 1317563743

Category: Science

Page: 1464

View: 7284

As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. The Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated with the latest research in the field of cell biology, and it provides an exceptional framework for teaching and learning. The entire illustration program has been greatly enhanced.Protein structures better illustrate structure–function relationships, icons are simpler and more consistent within and between chapters, and micrographs have been refreshed and updated with newer, clearer, or better images. As a new feature, each chapter now contains intriguing openended questions highlighting “What We Don’t Know,” introducing students to challenging areas of future research. Updated end-of-chapter problems reflect new research discussed in the text, and these problems have been expanded to all chapters by adding questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, pathogens, and the immune system.

Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos

Eleven Science Questions for the New Century

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Physics and Astronomy,Committee on the Physics of the Universe

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309171137

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 6324

Advances made by physicists in understanding matter, space, and time and by astronomers in understanding the universe as a whole have closely intertwined the question being asked about the universe at its two extremesâ€"the very large and the very small. This report identifies 11 key questions that have a good chance to be answered in the next decade. It urges that a new research strategy be created that brings to bear the techniques of both astronomy and sub-atomic physics in a cross-disciplinary way to address these questions. The report presents seven recommendations to facilitate the necessary research and development coordination. These recommendations identify key priorities for future scientific projects critical for realizing these scientific opportunities.

Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry

Author: Ruren Xu,Yan Xu

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444635955

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 808

View: 1822

Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry, Second Edition captures, in five distinct sections, the latest advancements in inorganic synthetic chemistry, providing materials chemists, chemical engineers, and materials scientists with a valuable reference source to help them advance their research efforts and achieve breakthroughs. Section one includes six chapters centering on synthetic chemistry under specific conditions, such as high-temperature, low-temperature and cryogenic, hydrothermal and solvothermal, high-pressure, photochemical and fusion conditions. Section two focuses on the synthesis and related chemistry problems of highly distinct categories of inorganic compounds, including superheavy elements, coordination compounds and coordination polymers, cluster compounds, organometallic compounds, inorganic polymers, and nonstoichiometric compounds. Section three elaborates on the synthetic chemistry of five important classes of inorganic functional materials, namely, ordered porous materials, carbon materials, advanced ceramic materials, host-guest materials, and hierarchically structured materials. Section four consists of four chapters where the synthesis of functional inorganic aggregates is discussed, giving special attention to the growth of single crystals, assembly of nanomaterials, and preparation of amorphous materials and membranes. The new edition’s biggest highlight is Section five where the frontier in inorganic synthetic chemistry is reviewed by focusing on biomimetic synthesis and rationally designed synthesis. Focuses on the chemistry of inorganic synthesis, assembly, and organization of wide-ranging inorganic systems Covers all major methodologies of inorganic synthesis Provides state-of-the-art synthetic methods Includes real examples in the organization of complex inorganic functional materials Contains more than 4000 references that are all highly reflective of the latest advancement in inorganic synthetic chemistry Presents a comprehensive coverage of the key issues involved in modern inorganic synthetic chemistry as written by experts in the field

How People Learn

Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309131979

Category: Education

Page: 384

View: 1146

First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.