Food Webs

Author: S. Pimm

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400959257

Category: Science

Page: 220

View: 5597

Often the meanings of words are changed subtly for interesting reasons. The implication of the word 'community' has changed from including all the organisms in an area to only those species at a particular trophic level (and often a taxonomically restricted group), for example, 'bird-community'. If this observation is correct, its probable cause is the dramatic growth in our knowledge of the ecological patterns along trophic levels (I call these horizontal patterns) and the processes that generate them. This book deals with vertical patterns - those across trophic levels -and tries to compensate for their relative neglect. In cataloging a dozen vertical patterns I hope to convince the reader that species interactions across trophic levels are as patterned as those along trophic levels and demand explanations equally forcefully. But this is not the only objective. A limited number of processes shape the patterns of species interaction; to demonstrate their existence is an essential step in understanding why ecosystems are the way they are. To achieve these aims I must resort to both mathematical techniques to develop theories and statistical techniques to decide between rival hypotheses. The level of mathematics is likely to offend nearly everyone. Some will find any mathematics too much, while others will consider the material to be old, familiar ground and probably explained with a poor regard for rigour and generality.

Food Webs (MPB-50)

Author: Kevin S. McCann

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691134189

Category: Science

Page: 241

View: 3865

"Human impacts are dramatically altering our natural ecosystems. The implications of these human impacts on the sustainability and functioning of these amazingly complex entities remains uncertain. As a result, food web theory has experienced a proliferation of research that seeks to address this critical area. This book synthesizes modern and classical results into a general theory. Finally, this book takes this general theoretical framework and discusses the implications of human impact for the stability and sustainability of ecological systems"--

Adaptive Food Webs

Stability and Transitions of Real and Model Ecosystems

Author: John C. Moore,Peter C. de Ruiter,Kevin S. McCann,Volkmar Wolters

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316877256

Category: Nature

Page: N.A

View: 2616

Presenting new approaches to studying food webs, this book uses practical management and policy examples to demonstrate the theory behind ecosystem management decisions and the broader issue of sustainability. All the information that readers need to use food web analyses as a tool for understanding and quantifying transition processes is provided. Advancing the idea of food webs as complex adaptive systems, readers are challenged to rethink how changes in environmental conditions affect these systems. Beginning with the current state of thinking about community organisation, complexity and stability, the book moves on to focus on the traits of organisms, the adaptive nature of communities and their impacts on ecosystem function. The final section of the book addresses the applications to management and sustainability. By helping to understand the complexities of multispecies networks, this book provides insights into the evolution of organisms and the fate of ecosystems in a changing world.

Food Webs

Integration of Patterns & Dynamics

Author: Gary A. Polis,Kirk O. Winemiller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461570077

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 7836

Reflecting the recent surge of activity in food web research fueled by new empirical data, this authoritative volume successfully spans and integrates the areas of theory, basic empirical research, applications, and resource problems. Written by recognized leaders from various branches of ecological research, this work provides an in-depth treatment of the most recent advances in the field and examines the complexity and variability of food webs through reviews, new research, and syntheses of the major issues in food web research. Food Webs features material on the role of nutrients, detritus and microbes in food webs, indirect effects in food webs, the interaction of productivity and consumption, linking cause and effect in food webs, temporal and spatial scales of food web dynamics, applications of food webs to pest management, fisheries, and ecosystem stress. Three comprehensive chapters synthesize important information on the role of indirect effects, productivity and consumer regulation, and temporal, spatial and life history influences on food webs. In addition, numerous tables, figures, and mathematical equations found nowhere else in related literature are presented in this outstanding work. Food Webs offers researchers and graduate students in various branches of ecology an extensive examination of the subject. Ecologists interested in food webs or community ecology will also find this book an invaluable tool for understanding the current state of knowledge of food web research.

Dynamic Food Webs

Multispecies Assemblages, Ecosystem Development and Environmental Change

Author: Peter C de Ruiter,Volkmar Wolters,John C Moore

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080460949

Category: Science

Page: 608

View: 2156

Dynamic Food Webs challenges us to rethink what factors may determine ecological and evolutionary pathways of food web development. It touches upon the intriguing idea that trophic interactions drive patterns and dynamics at different levels of biological organization: dynamics in species composition, dynamics in population life-history parameters and abundances, and dynamics in individual growth, size and behavior. These dynamics are shown to be strongly interrelated governing food web structure and stability and the role of populations and communities play in ecosystem functioning. Dynamic Food Webs not only offers over 100 illustrations, but also contains 8 riveting sections devoted to an understanding of how to manage the effects of environmental change, the protection of biological diversity and the sustainable use of natural resources. Dynamic Food Webs is a volume in the Theoretical Ecology series. Relates dynamics on different levels of biological organization: individuals, populations, and communities Deals with empirical and theoretical approaches Discusses the role of community food webs in ecosystem functioning Proposes methods to assess the effects of environmental change on the structure of biological communities and ecosystem functioning Offers an analyses of the relationship between complexity and stability in food webs

Food Webs and Biodiversity

Foundations, Models, Data

Author: Axel G. Rossberg

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118502175

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 5507

Food webs have now been addressed in empirical and theoretical research for more than 50 years. Yet, even elementary foundational issues are still hotly debated. One difficulty is that a multitude of processes need to be taken into account to understand the patterns found empirically in the structure of food webs and communities. Food Webs and Biodiversity develops a fresh, comprehensive perspective on food webs. Mechanistic explanations for several known macroecological patterns are derived from a few fundamental concepts, which are quantitatively linked to field-observables. An argument is developed that food webs will often be the key to understanding patterns of biodiversity at community level. Key Features: Predicts generic characteristics of ecological communities in invasion-extirpation equilibrium. Generalizes the theory of competition to food webs with arbitrary topologies. Presents a new, testable quantitative theory for the mechanisms determining species richness in food webs, and other new results. Written by an internationally respected expert in the field. With global warming and other pressures on ecosystems rising, understanding and protecting biodiversity is a cause of international concern. This highly topical book will be of interest to a wide ranging audience, including not only graduate students and practitioners in community and conservation ecology but also the complex-systems research community as well as mathematicians and physicists interested in the theory of networks. "This is a comprehensive work outlining a large array of very novel and potentially game-changing ideas in food web ecology." —Ken Haste Andersen, Technical University of Denmark "I believe that this will be a landmark book in community ecology … it presents a well-established and consistent mathematical theory of food-webs. It is testable in many ways and the author finds remarkable agreements between predictions and reality." —Géza Meszéna, Eötvös University, Budapest

Food Webs

Interconnecting Food Chains

Author: Susan Heinrichs Gray,Ashlee Schultz

Publisher: Capstone

ISBN: 0756532612

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 48

View: 9585

Discusses how organisms in a food web interact with each other, helping to understand the balance of nature.

Ocean Food Webs in Action

Author: Paul Fleisher

Publisher: Lerner Publications

ISBN: 1541507126

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 40

View: 8338

Seals, otters, oysters, fish, pelicans, and sharks are a few of the animals that make up an ocean food web. But did you know that almost all ocean creatures depend on algae to live? Or that bacteria, crabs, and lobsters break down dead plants and animals into nutrients? See ocean food webs in action in this fascinating book.

Aquatic Food Webs

An Ecosystem Approach

Author: Andrea Belgrano

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198564829

Category: Science

Page: 262

View: 979

'Aquatic Food Webs' provides a current synthesis of theoretical and empirical food web research. The textbook is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers in community, ecosystem, and theoretical ecology, in aquatic ecology, and in conservation biology.

Food Webs

Author: Lisa Perlman Greathouse

Publisher: Teacher Created Materials

ISBN: 148074638X

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 32

View: 2975

What are food webs and how do they affect our environment? Discover the ways in which energy is transferred through interdependent living things in this engaging book! Third-grade students will enjoy learning about producers, consumers, and decomposers through this high-interest informational text filled with fun facts and colorful images. Aligned to the Next Generation Science Standards, a “Think Like a Scientist” lab activity is included at the end of the book to provide students with an opportunity to apply what they've learned in the text. Helpful diagrams and text features, such as a glossary and index, are also included to improve content-area literacy and support STEM education.

Food Webs at the Landscape Level

Author: Gary A. Polis,Mary E. Power,Gary R. Huxel

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226673271

Category: Science

Page: 548

View: 1138

Scientists rely on food webs—complex networks that trace the flow of nutrients and energy between species and through ecosystems—to understand the infrastructure of ecological communities. But given the complexities of food webs—think of following the flow of nutrients through the microbes, fungi, roots, worms, ants, and birds that pass over or through a single cubic meter of prairie soil—it's not difficult to see why most experiments on food-web dynamics focus on small, local habitats. Yet as this book convincingly shows, important insights come when scientists expand the temporal and spatial scope of their research to look at the ways energy, organisms, nutrients, and pollutants flow not just at the local level, but across whole landscapes—between and among food webs in a wide variety of habitats. Paying special attention to the fertile boundaries between terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems, Food Webs at the Landscape Level not only shows what this new methodology means for ecology, conservation, and agriculture but also serves as a fitting tribute to Gary Polis and his major contributions to the field.

Desert Food Webs in Action

Author: Paul Fleisher

Publisher: Lerner Publications

ISBN: 1541507045

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 40

View: 9766

Snakes, lizards, rabbits, mice, mountain lions, and hawks are some of the many animals that make up a desert food web. But do you know how desert animals depend on cactuses, grasses, and other plants to stay alive? Or why tiny insects, fungi, and bacteria may be among the most important living things in a desert? See desert food webs in action in this fascinating book.

Energetic Food Webs

An Analysis of Real and Model Ecosystems

Author: John C. Moore,Peter C. de Ruiter

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198566182

Category: Mathematics

Page: 333

View: 1692

Food webs describe biological communities in terms of feeding interactions. This book integrates the latest work on community dynamics, ecosystems energetics, and stability to dispel categorisation of the field into separate subdiciplines of population, community, and ecosystem ecology.

Grassland Food Webs in Action

Author: Paul Fleisher

Publisher: Lerner Publications

ISBN: 1541507088

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 40

View: 2206

Prairie dogs, vultures, grasshoppers, goldfinches, pocket gophers, and bison are some of the many animals that make up a grassland food web. But do you know how the many types of grasses in a grassland benefit these animals? Or how earthworms and other decomposers play an important role in the food web? See grassland food webs in action in this fascinating book.

Food Webs: From Connectivity to Energetics

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080490298

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 2680

The most recent volume of this series, Advances in Ecological Research, demonstrates a captivating knowledge of recent advances in the analysis of food webs. A food web describes the network of predator-prey interactions within a community. The simplest description of a food web specifies only who eats whom (a connectance web), with no indication of how much or how often. Chapters in this book begin with a discussion of the most detailed connectance webs ever compiled, and advance to incorporate information on the body size and numerical abundance of the species. The results yield new ways of describing food webs and powerful new models for estimating patterns of energy flow in ecosystems. Provides fresh ways of describing food webs and applies previous observations in a new context Ranked as the #1 publication in the Institute for Scientific Information in the Ecology section of 2000 Powerful new theory AND application to some of the best food web data in the world Many mathematical models for food web structure and function Integrates previously unconnected perspectives on the description of ecological communities

What Do You Know about Food Chains and Food Webs?

Author: Suzanne Slade

Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group

ISBN: 9781404242029

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 24

View: 6879

Asks and answers twenty questions about animal food chains and food webs.

Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs

Author: Tim McClanahan,George Branch

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198043195

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 9677

Biologists have made significant advances in our understanding of the Earth's shallow subtidal marine ecosystems, but the findings on these disparate regions have never before been documented and gathered in a single volume. Now, in Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs, Tim R. McClanahan and George M. Branch fill this lacuna with a comparative and comprehensive collection of nine essays written by experts on specific aquatic regions. Each essay focuses on the food webs of a respective ecosystem and the factors affecting these communities, from the intense and direct pressure of human influence on fisheries to the multi-vector contributors to climate change. The book covers nine shallow water marine ecosystems from selected areas throughout the world: four coral reef systems, three hard bottom systems, and two kelp systems. In summarizing their organization, human influence on them, and recent developments in these ecosystems, the authors contribute to our understanding of their ecological organization and management. Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs will be a useful tool for all benthic marine investigators, providing an expert, comparative view of these aquatic regions.

Food Webs and Niche Space

Author: Joel E. Cohen

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691082028

Category: Science

Page: 189

View: 2664

What is the minimum dimension of a niche space necessary to represent the overlaps among observed niches? This book presents a new technique for obtaining a partial answer to this elementary question about niche space. The author bases his technique on a relation between the combinatorial structure of food webs and the mathematical theory of interval graphs. Professor Cohen collects more than thirty food webs from the ecological literature and analyzes their statistical and combinatorial properties in detail. As a result, he is able to generalize: within habitats of a certain limited physical and temporal heterogeneity, the overlaps among niches, along their trophic (feeding) dimensions, can be represented in a one-dimensional niche space far more often than would be expected by chance alone and perhaps always. This compatibility has not previously been noticed. It indicates that real food webs fall in a small subset of the mathematically possible food webs. Professor Cohen discusses other apparently new features of real food webs, including the constant ratio of the number of kinds of prey to the number of kinds of predators in food webs that describe a community. In conclusion he discusses possible extensions and limitations of his results and suggests directions for future research.

What Are Food Chains and Food Webs?

Author: Julia Vogel

Publisher: ABDO

ISBN: 9781602707962

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 32

View: 7129

"Food chains are fascinating! Did you know that all food starts with the sun? Plants use the sun's energy to grow, and then they become energy for animals. Every environment has factors that affect the flow of energy in its food chains--all the way up toyou! Discover what plants and animals create the links of food chains and webs in each environment." -- p. 4 of cover.

Forest Food Webs

Author: Paul Fleisher

Publisher: LernerClassroom

ISBN: 082257988X

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 48

View: 5258

Introduces the components of a forest food chain, including plants, plant eaters, meat eaters, and decomposers.