Female Gladiators examines the legal and social history of the right of women to participate with men in contact sports. The impetus to begin legal proceedings was the 1972 enactment of Title IX, which prohibited discrimination in educational settings, but it was the Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Constitution and the equal rights amendments of state constitutions that ultimately opened doors. Despite court rulings, however, many in American society resisted--and continue to resist--allowing girls in dugouts and other spaces traditionally defined as male territories. When the leagues continued to bar girls simply because they were not boys, the girls went to court. Sarah K. Fields examines the legal and cultural conflicts over gender and contact sports that continue to rage today.
Is violence an intrinsic component of contemporary sport? How does violence within sport reflect upon the attitudes of wider society? In this landmark study of violence in and around contemporary sport, Kevin Young offers the first comprehensive sociological analysis of an issue of central importance within sport studies. The book explores organized and spontaneous violence, both on the field and off, and calls for a much broader definition of ‘sports-related violence’, to include issues as diverse as criminal behaviour by players, abuse within sport and exploitatory labor practices. Offering a sophisticated new theoretical framework for understanding violence in a sporting context, and including a wide range of case-studies and empirical data – from professional soccer in Europe to ice hockey in North America – the book establishes a benchmark for the study of violence within sport and wider society. Through close examination of often contradictory trends, from anti-violence initiatives in professional sports leagues to the role of the media in encouraging hyper-aggression, the book throws new light on our understanding of the socially-embedded character of sport and its fundamental ties to history, culture, politics, social class, gender and the law.
Sports figures cope with a level of celebrity once reserved for the stars of stage and screen. In Game Faces , Sarah K. Fields looks at the legal ramifications of the cases brought by six of them--golfer Tiger Woods, quarterback Joe Montana, college football coach Wally Butts, baseball pitchers Warren Spahn and Don Newcombe, and hockey enforcer Tony Twist--when faced with what they considered attacks on their privacy and image. Placing each case in its historical and legal context, Fields examines how sports figures in the U.S. have used the law to regain control of their image. As she shows, decisions in the cases significantly affected the evolution of laws related to privacy, defamation, and publicity--areas pertinent to the lives of the famous sports figure and the non-famous consumer alike. She also tells the stories of why the plaintiffs sought relief in the courts, uncovering motives that delved into the heart of issues separating individual rights from the public's perceived right to know. A fascinating exploration of a still-evolving phenomenon, Game Faces is an essential look at the legal playing fields that influence our enjoyment of sports.
This new collection examines not only how athletes looked to the nation’s judicial system to solve conflicts but also how their cases trans¬formed the interpretation of laws. These essays examine a vast array of social and legal controversies including Heywood v. NBA (1971), which allowed any player to enter the draft; Flood v. Kuhn (1972), which considered baseball’s antitrust status; the Danny Gardella lower level 1948 case regarding free agency and baseball; Muhammad Ali’s celebrated stance against the U.S. draft; Renée Richards’s 1976 lawsuit against the U.S. Tennis Association and its due process ramifications; and human rights violations in international law with respect to the increased recruitment of underage Latin baseball players in the Caribbean region are a few examples of the vast array of stories included. Sport and the Law links these cases to other cases and topics, giving the reader the opportunity to see the threads weaving law and sport together in American society.
This encyclopedia presents the social and cultural history of childhood from antiquity to the present through articles on education, parenting, child labor, economics, images of childhood, children's literature, play, toys and games, health, physiology, law, the criminal justice system and social welfare. Comparative articles include information about childhood in cultures throughout the world.
Rugby, a full contact sport played recreationally by both men and women, exposes participants to a high risk of injury. This cross-sectional study explored the patterns of injury among female rugby players in the U.S. and investigated several potential risk factors. A convenience sample of 364 females playing rugby in the U.S. was surveyed. Players had a mean age of 25.7 years. The majority of players (83.0%) had sustained an injury within their most recent 3 months of play. The general patterns of injury, reported as prevalence rates, indicated the most commonly injured body site was the head (28.3%) followed by knee (27.5%), fingers (27.5%), shoulder (26.4%), neck (21.4%), and ankle (21.2%). The types of injuries reported included strains/sprains (33.2%), concussions (11.5%), tears (7.7%), fractures (6.9%), and dislocations (5.5%). Patterns of injury were also investigated in terms of a strict study definition of injury. When only considering injuries sustained within the most recent three months which caused players to seek professional medical attention or prevented participation in rugby activities or normal work/school activities for ≥seven days, 159 of the 364 players (43.7%) were classified as injured. Among these 159 individuals, the sites most often injured, reported as prevalence rates, were shoulder (24.8%) followed by knee (22.9%), ankle (15.3%), and head (13.4%). Types of injuries sustained included strains/sprains (47.1%), tears (17.4%), fractures (16.1%), concussions (12.3%), and dislocations (11.0%). Over a third of the injured players reported sustaining injuries to more than one site (37.6%) and injuries of more than one type (33.6%) at their most recent injury event. The tackle was the phase of play most commonly associated with injury. Additionally, 12.7% of the injured players believed they had been injured as the result of foul play. Multivariate analyses found that while unpenalized foul play was significantly associated with injury, the use of protective equipment, warming up prior to playing, alcohol use, and a willingness to take risks were not associated with injury. The results of a comprehensive examination of injury in U.S. female rugby players had not been previously reported. Thus, this study fills a unique position.
Books in print is the major source of information on books currently published and in print in the United States. The database provides the record of forthcoming books, books in-print, and books out-of-print.
Hope Solo, die vielleicht beste Torhüterin der Welt, hat eine turbulente Kindheit hinter sich, als ihre Fußballkarriere als „Goalkeeper“ in den USA Fahrt aufnimmt. In ihrer Autobiografie berichtet sie über schwierige Familienverhältnisse, den Sport als verlässlichen Fixpunkt in ihrem Leben und die Probleme, die eine so ausgeprägte Individualistin wie sie in einer Mannschaft bekommen kann.
Étienne de La Boétie: Von der freiwilligen Knechtschaft des Menschen Discours de la servitude volontaire. Erstdruck: 1574. Hier in der Übersetzung von Gustav Landauer. Neuausgabe. Herausgegeben von Karl-Maria Guth. Berlin 2016. Umschlaggestaltung von Thomas Schultz-Overhage unter Verwendung des Bildes: Statue von Étienne de La Boétie in Sarlat-la-Canéda, fotografiert von Tommy-Boy. Ausschnitt, Lizenz: CC BY-SA 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.de https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: Statue_d'Étienne_de_La_Boétie.JPG. Gesetzt aus der Minion Pro, 12 pt.