*Volume II: Geometry*

**Author**: Felix Klein

**Publisher:** Springer

**ISBN:**

**Category:** Education

**Page:** 315

**View:** 767

These three volumes constitute the first complete English translation of Felix Klein’s seminal series “Elementarmathematik vom höheren Standpunkte aus”. “Complete” has a twofold meaning here: First, there now exists a translation of volume III into English, while until today the only translation had been into Chinese. Second, the English versions of volume I and II had omitted several, even extended parts of the original, while we now present a complete revised translation into modern English. The volumes, first published between 1902 and 1908, are lecture notes of courses that Klein offered to future mathematics teachers, realizing a new form of teacher training that remained valid and effective until today: Klein leads the students to gain a more comprehensive and methodological point of view on school mathematics. The volumes enable us to understand Klein’s far-reaching conception of elementarisation, of the “elementary from a higher standpoint”, in its implementation for school mathematics./div This volume II presents a paradigmatic realisation of Klein’s approach of elementarisation for teacher education. It is shown how the various geometries, elaborated particularly since the beginning of the 19th century, are revealed as becoming unified in a new restructured geometry. As Klein liked to stress: “Projective geometry is all geometry”. Non-Euclidean geometry proves to constitute a part of this unifying process. The teaching of geometry is discussed in a separate chapter, which provides moreover important information on the history of geometry teaching and an international comparison.

In the late summer of 1893, following the Congress of Mathematicians held in Chicago, Felix Klein gave two weeks of lectures on the current state of mathematics. Rather than offering a universal perspective, Klein presented his personal view of the most important topics of the time. It is remarkable how most of the topics continue to be important today. Originally published in 1893 and reissued by the AMS in 1911, we are pleased to bring this work into print once more with this new edition. Klein begins by highlighting the works of Clebsch and of Lie. In particular, he discusses Clebsch's work on Abelian functions and compares his approach to the theory with Riemann's more geometrical point of view. Klein devotes two lectures to Sophus Lie, focussing on his contributions to geometry, including sphere geometry and contact geometry. Klein's ability to connect different mathematical disciplines clearly comes through in his lectures on mathematical developments. For instance, he discusses recent progress in non-Euclidean geometry by emphasizing the connections to projective geometry and the role of transformation groups. In his descriptions of analytic function theory and of recent work in hyperelliptic and Abelian functions, Klein is guided by Riemann's geometric point of view. He discusses Galois theory and solutions of algebraic equations of degree five or higher by reducing them to normal forms that might be solved by non-algebraic means. Thus, as discovered by Hermite and Kronecker, the quintic can be solved "by elliptic functions". This also leads to Klein's well-known work connecting the quintic to the group of the icosahedron. Klein expounds on the roles of intuition and logical thinking in mathematics. He reflects on the influence of physics and the physical world on mathematics and, conversely, on the influence of mathematics on physics and the other natural sciences. The discussion is strikingly similar to today's discussions about ``physical mathematics''. There are a few other topics covered in the lectures which are somewhat removed from Klein's own work. For example, he discusses Hilbert's proof of the transcendence of certain types of numbers (including $\pi$ and $e$), which Klein finds much simpler than the methods used by Lindemann to show the transcendence of $\pi$. Also, Klein uses the example of quadratic forms (and forms of higher degree) to explain the need for a theory of ideals as developed by Kummer. Klein's look at mathematics at the end of the 19th Century remains compelling today, both as history and as mathematics. It is delightful and fascinating to observe from a one-hundred year retrospect, the musings of one of the masters of an earlier era.

Highly illustrated realization of infinitely reflected images related to fractals, chaos and symmetry.

Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the 1900s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive. We are republishing these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the original text and artwork.

When the mathematician Felix Klein first went to university, he was surprised at just how little what he had learned up to that point was relevant to his new studies. Professors had their own interests, and these they conveyed without regard for the math students of the future that these prospective secondary schoolteachers would one day instruct. Elementary Mathematics from an Advanced Standpoint was written to help remedy that problem. Though highly regarded as one of the finest mathematical minds of his day, Professor Klein took a great deal of interest in guiding teachers and "reducing the gap between the school and the university." Readers will come away impressed at the clarity of Klein's writing, and the ease with which he conveys complex mathematical ideas. Divided into three parts-arithmetic, algebra, and analysis-and covering such topics as complex numbers, real equations, and logarithmic and exponential functions, Klein's classic is essential reading for math instructors and students planning to become math instructors. German mathematician FELIX KLEIN (1849-1925), a great teacher and scientific thinker, significantly advanced the field of mathematical physics and made a number of profound discoveries in the field of geometry. His published works include Elementary Mathematics from an Advanced Standpoint: Geometry and Famous Problems of Elementary Geometry.

Focusing on functions defined on Riemann surfaces, this text demonstrates how Riemann's ideas about Abelian integrals can be arrived in terms of the flow of electric current on surfaces. 1893 edition.