Existentialism From Dostoevsky To Sartre

Author: Walter Kaufmann

Publisher: Pickle Partners Publishing

ISBN: 1786258676

Category: Psychology

Page: 284

View: 7649

What is Existentialism? It is perhaps the most misunderstood of modern philosophic positions—misunderstood by reason of its broad popularity and general unfamiliarity with its origins, representatives, and principles. Existential thinking does not originate with Jean Paul Sartre. It has prior religious, literary, and philosophic origins. In its narrowest formulation it is a metaphysical doctrine, arguing as it does that any definition of man’s essence must follow, not precede, an estimation of his existence. In Heidegger, it affords a view of Being in its totality; in Kierkegaard an approach to that inwardness indispensable to authentic religious experience; for Dostoevsky, Kafka, and Rilke the existential situation bears the stamp of modern man’s alienation, uprootedness, and absurdity; to Sartre it has vast ethical and political implications. Walter Kaufmann, author of Nietzsche, is eminently qualified to present and interpret the insights of existentialism as they occur and are deepened by the major thinkers who express them. In every case complete selections or entire works have been employed: The Wall, Existentialism, and the complete chapter on “Self-Deception” from L’être et le Néant by Sartre; two lectures from Jaspers’ book Reason and Existenz; original translations of On My Philosophy by Jaspers and The Way Back into the Ground of Metaphysics by Heidegger. There is, as well, material from Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Rilke, and Camus.

From Shakespeare to Existentialism

An Original Study : Essays on Shakespeare and Goethe, Hegel and Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Rilke, and Freud, Jaspers, Heidegger, and Toynbee

Author: Walter Arnold Kaufmann

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691013671

Category: Philosophy

Page: 455

View: 4296

Explores such themes as philosophy versus poetry, post-World War II German thought, art, tradition, and truth in a collection of essays

The Faith of a Heretic

Updated Edition

Author: Walter A. Kaufmann

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400866162

Category: Philosophy

Page: 448

View: 1086

Originally published in 1959, The Faith of a Heretic is the most personal statement of the beliefs of Nietzsche biographer and translator Walter Kaufmann. A first-rate philosopher in his own right, Kaufmann here provides the fullest account of his views on religion. Although he considered himself a heretic, he was not immune to the wellsprings and impulses from which religion originates, declaring it among the most vital and radical expressions of the human mind. Beginning with an autobiographical prologue that traces his evolution from religious believer to "heretic," the book touches on theology, organized religion, morality, suffering, and death—all examined from the perspective of a "quest for honesty." Kaufmann also subjects philosophy's faith in truth, reason, and absolute morality to the same heretical treatment. The resulting exploration of the faiths of a nonbeliever in a secular age is as fresh and challenging as when it was first published. In a new foreword, Stanley Corngold vividly describes the intellectual and biographical milieu of Kaufmann’s provocative book.

Notes from the Underground

Author: Fyodor Dostoyevsky

Publisher: BookRix

ISBN: 3736802579

Category: Fiction

Page: 177

View: 6958

Notes from the Underground is a novella by Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Notes is considered by many to be the first existentialist novel. It presents itself as an excerpt from the rambling memoirs of a bitter, isolated, unnamed narrator (generally referred to by critics as the Underground Man) who is a retired civil servant living in St. Petersburg. The first part of the story is told in monologue form, or the underground man's diary, and attacks emerging Western philosophy, especially Nikolay Chernyshevsky's What Is to Be Done?. The second part of the book is called "Àpropos of the Wet Snow", and describes certain events that, it seems, are destroying and sometimes renewing the underground man, who acts as a first person, unreliable narrator. Dostoyevsky again confronts the concept of free will and constructs a negative argument to validate free will against determinism in the character Kirillov's suicide in his novel The Demons. Notes from Underground marks the starting point of Dostoyevsky's move from psychological and sociological themed novels to novels based on existential and general human experience in crisis. War is described as people's rebellion against the assumption that everything needs to happen for a purpose, because humans do things without purpose, and this is what determines human history. The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche called Dostoevsky "the only psychologist, incidentally, from whom I had anything to learn."

Basic Writings of Existentialism

Author: Gordon Marino

Publisher: Modern Library

ISBN: 0307430677

Category: Philosophy

Page: 528

View: 6275

Edited and with an Introduction by Gordon Marino Basic Writings of Existentialism, unique to the Modern Library, presents the writings of key nineteenth- and twentieth-century thinkers broadly united by their belief that because life has no inherent meaning humans can discover, we must determine meaning for ourselves. This anthology brings together into one volume the most influential and commonly taught works of existentialism. Contributors include Simone de Beauvoir, Albert Camus, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Ralph Ellison, Martin Heidegger, Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Tragedy and Philosophy

Author: Walter Arnold Kaufmann

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691020051

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 386

View: 9037

A critical re-examination of the views of Plato, Aristotle, Hegel and Nietzsche on tragedy. Ancient Greek tragedy is revealed as surprisingly modern and experimental, while such concepts as mimesis, catharsis, hubris and the tragic collision are discussed from different perspectives.

Literature & Existentialism

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1453228845

Category: Philosophy

Page: 158

View: 4114

In a probing philosophical exploration of the act of literary creation, Sartre asks: “What is writing?,” “Why write?,” and “For whom does one write?” After discussing existentialism as it pertains to art, human emotions, and psychology, French existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre turns the question of existentialism to the subject of literature by stating that he wishes to “examine the art of writing without prejudice.” Sartre eschews the idea of artists and writers comparing their works of art to one another; instead, he argues, “they exist by themselves.” Tying into his thoughts on literature, Sartre additionally delves into Marxist politics, the intellectual labor of the writer, the individual reader, and the reading public.

Existentialism

An Introduction

Author: Kevin Aho

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745682855

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 5807

Existentialism: An Introduction provides an accessible and scholarly introduction to the core ideas of the existentialist tradition. Kevin Aho draws on a wide range of existentialist thinkers in chapters centering on the key themes of freedom, being-in-the-world, alienation, nihilism, anxiety and authenticity. He also addresses important but often overlooked issues in the canon of existentialism, with discussions devoted to the role of embodiment, the movement’s contribution to ethics, politics, and environmental and comparative philosophies, as well as its influence on contemporary psychiatry and psychotherapy. The enduring relevance of existentialism is shown by applying existentialist ideas to contemporary philosophical discussions of interest to a wide audience. The book covers secular thinkers such as Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Nietzsche, Sartre, Camus, and Beauvoir as well as religious authors, such as Buber, Dostoevsky, Marcel, and Kierkegaard. In this engaging and accessible text Aho shows why existentialism cannot be easily dismissed as a moribund or outdated movement. In the aftermath of 'God’s death', existentialist philosophy engages questions with lasting philosophical significance, questions such as 'Who am I?' and 'How should I live?' By showing how existentialism offers insight into what it means to be human, the author illuminates existentialism’s enduring value. Existentialism: An Introduction provides the ideal introduction for upper level students and anyone interested in knowing more about one of the most vibrant and important areas of philosophy today.

French Existentialism

Consciousness, Ethics, and Relations with Others

Author: James Giles

Publisher: Rodopi

ISBN: 9789042004887

Category: Philosophy

Page: 219

View: 454

This book is a critical appraisal of the distinctive modern school of thought known as French existentialism. It philosophically engages the ideas of the major French existentialists, namely, Beauvoir, Merleau-Ponty, Marcel, Camus, and, because of his central role in the movement, especially Sartre, in a fresh attempt to elucidate their contributions to contemporary philosophy.

The Rebel

An Essay on Man in Revolt

Author: Albert Camus

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307827836

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

View: 5888

By one of the most profoundly influential thinkers of our century, The Rebel is a classic essay on revolution. For Albert Camus, the urge to revolt is one of the "essential dimensions" of human nature, manifested in man's timeless Promethean struggle against the conditions of his existence, as well as the popular uprisings against established orders throughout history. And yet, with an eye toward the French Revolution and its regicides and deicides, he shows how inevitably the course of revolution leads to tyranny. As old regimes throughout the world collapse, The Rebel resonates as an ardent, eloquent, and supremely rational voice of conscience for our tumultuous times. Translated from the French by Anthony Bower.

Existential Monday

Philosophical Essays

Author: Benjamin Fondane

Publisher: New York Review of Books

ISBN: 1590178998

Category: Philosophy

Page: 160

View: 9110

Benjamin Fondane—who was born and educated in Romania, moved as an adult to Paris, lived for a time in Buenos Aires, where he was close to Victoria Ocampo, Jorge Luis Borges’s friend and publisher, and died in Auschwitz—was an artist and thinker who found in every limit, in every border, “a torture and a spur.” Poet, critic, man of the theater, movie director, Fondane was the most daring of the existentialists, a metaphysical anarchist, affirming individual against those great abstractions that limit human freedom—the State, History, the Law, the Idea. Existential Monday, the first selection of his philosophical work to appear in English, includes four of Fondane's most thought-provoking and important texts, "Existential Monday and the Sunday of History," "Preface for the Present Moment," "Man Before History" (co-translated by Andrew Rubens), and "Boredom." Here Fondane, until now little-known except to specialists, emerges as one of the enduring French philosophers of the twentieth century.

Irrational Man

A Study in Existential Philosophy

Author: William Barrett

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 9780307761088

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

View: 7210

Widely recognized as the finest definition of existentialist philosophy ever written, this book introduced existentialism to America in 1958. Barrett speaks eloquently and directly to concerns of the 1990s: a period when the irrational and the absurd are no better integrated than before and when humankind is in even greater danger of destroying its existence without ever understanding the meaning of its existence. Irrational Man begins by discussing the roots of existentialism in the art and thinking of Augustine, Aquinas, Pascal, Baudelaire, Blake, Dostoevski, Tolstoy, Hemingway, Picasso, Joyce, and Beckett. The heart of the book explains the views of the foremost existentialists—Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre. The result is a marvelously lucid definition of existentialism and a brilliant interpretation of its impact.

Descartes

The Project of Pure Enquiry

Author: Bernard Williams

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317601300

Category: Philosophy

Page: 308

View: 8581

Descartes has often been called the 'father of modern philosophy'. His attempts to find foundations for knowledge, and to reconcile the existence of the soul with the emerging science of his time, are among the most influential and widely studied in the history of philosophy. This is a classic and challenging introduction to Descartes by one of the most distinguished modern philosophers. Bernard Williams not only analyzes Descartes' project of founding knowledge on certainty, but uncovers the philosophical motives for his search. With acute insight, he demonstrates how Descartes' Meditations are not merely a description but the very enactment of philosophical thought and discovery. Williams covers all of the key areas of Descartes' thought, including God, the will, the possibility of knowledge, and the mind and its place in nature. He also makes profound contributions to the theory of knowledge, metaphysics and philosophy generally. With a new foreword by John Cottingham.

An Imperial Message

Author: Franz Kafka

Publisher: Paperless

ISBN: 8826465231

Category: Fiction

Page: N.A

View: 3975

An Imperial Message ist a short parable written by Franz Kafka.

Existentialism For and Against

Author: Paul Roubiczek

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521092432

Category: Philosophy

Page: 208

View: 7622

Both an introduction to the Existentialist school of philosophy and a critique of it.

The Cambridge Companion to Dostoevskii

Author: W. J. Leatherbarrow

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521654739

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 244

View: 5137

Key dimensions of Dostoevskii's writing and life are explored in this collection of specially commissioned essays. Contributors examines topics such as Dostoevskii's relation to folk literature, money, religion, the family and science. The essays are well supported by supplementary material including a chronology of the period and detailed guides to further reading. Altogether the volume provides an invaluable resource for scholars and students.

The Will to Meaning

Foundations and Applications of Logotherapy

Author: Viktor E. Frankl

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101664029

Category: Psychology

Page: 176

View: 435

From the author of Man's Search for Meaning, one of the most influential works of psychiatric literature since Freud. "Perhaps the most significant thinker since Freud and Adler," said The American Journal of Psychiatry about Europe's leading existential psychologist, the founder of logotherapy.