Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

Author: Bruce Walsh,Michael Lynch

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192566644

Category: Science

Page: 1504

View: 2413

Quantitative traits-be they morphological or physiological characters, aspects of behavior, or genome-level features such as the amount of RNA or protein expression for a specific gene-usually show considerable variation within and among populations. Quantitative genetics, also referred to as the genetics of complex traits, is the study of such characters and is based on mathematical models of evolution in which many genes influence the trait and in which non-genetic factors may also be important. Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits presents a holistic treatment of the subject, showing the interplay between theory and data with extensive discussions on statistical issues relating to the estimation of the biologically relevant parameters for these models. Quantitative genetics is viewed as the bridge between complex mathematical models of trait evolution and real-world data, and the authors have clearly framed their treatment as such. This is the second volume in a planned trilogy that summarizes the modern field of quantitative genetics, informed by empirical observations from wide-ranging fields (agriculture, evolution, ecology, and human biology) as well as population genetics, statistical theory, mathematical modeling, genetics, and genomics. Whilst volume 1 (1998) dealt with the genetics of such traits, the main focus of volume 2 is on their evolution, with a special emphasis on detecting selection (ranging from the use of genomic and historical data through to ecological field data) and examining its consequences.

Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits

Author: Michael Lynch,Bruce Walsh

Publisher: Sinauer Associates Incorporated

ISBN: 9780878934812

Category: Science

Page: 980

View: 4225

Professors Lynch and Walsh bring together the diverse array of theoretical and empirical applications of quantitative genetics in a work that is comprehensive and accessible to anyone with a rudimentary understanding of statistics and genetics.

Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics

Author: Derek Roff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461540801

Category: Science

Page: 494

View: 2428

The impetus for this book arose out of my previous book, The Evolution of Life Histories (Roff, 1992). In that book I presented a single chapter on quanti tative genetic theory. However, as the book was concerned with the evolution of life histories and traits connected to this, the presence of quantitative genetic variation was an underlying theme throughout. Much of the focus was placed on optimality theory, for it is this approach that has proven to be extremely successful in the analysis of life history variation. But quantitative genetics cannot be ig nored, because there are some questions for which optimality approaches are inappropriate; for example, although optimality modeling can address the ques tion of the maintenance of phenotypic variation, it cannot say anything about genetic variation, on which further evolution clearly depends. The present book is, thus, a natural extension of the first. I have approached the problem not from the point of view of an animal or plant breeder but from that of one interested in understanding the evolution of quantitative traits in wild populations. The subject is large with a considerable body of theory: I generally present the assumptions underlying the analysis and the results, giving the relevant references for those interested in the intervening mathematics. My interest is in what quantitative genetics tells me about evolutionary processes; therefore, I have concentrated on areas of research most relevant to field studies.

Quantitative Genetics in the Wild

Author: Anne Charmantier,Dany Garant,Loeske E. B. Kruuk

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191655961

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 4140

Although the field of quantitative genetics - the study of the genetic basis of variation in quantitative characteristics such as body size, or reproductive success - is almost 100 years old, its application to the study of evolutionary processes in wild populations has expanded greatly over the last few decades. During this time, the use of 'wild quantitative genetics' has provided insights into a range of important questions in evolutionary ecology, ranging from studies conducting research in well-established fields such as life-history theory, behavioural ecology and sexual selection, to others addressing relatively new issues such as populations' responses to climate change or the process of senescence in natural environments. Across these fields, there is increasing appreciation of the need to quantify the genetic - rather than just the phenotypic - basis and diversity of key traits, the genetic basis of the associations between traits, and the interaction between these genetic effects and the environment. This research activity has been fuelled by methodological advances in both molecular genetics and statistics, as well as by exciting results emerging from laboratory studies of evolutionary quantitative genetics, and the increasing availability of suitable long-term datasets collected in natural populations, especially in animals. Quantitative Genetics in the Wild is the first book to synthesize the current level of knowledge in this exciting and rapidly-expanding area. This comprehensive volume also offers exciting perspectives for future studies in emerging areas, including the application of quantitative genetics to plants or arthropods, unraveling the molecular basis of variation in quantitative traits, or estimating non-additive genetic variance. Since this book deals with many fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology, it should be of interest to graduate, post-graduate students, and academics from a wide array of fields such as animal behaviour, ecology, evolution, and genetics.

Elements of Evolutionary Genetics

Author: Brian Charlesworth

Publisher: Roberts Publishers


Category: Science

Page: 734

View: 7590

Evolutionary genetics considers the causes of evolutionary change and the nature of variability in evolution. The methods of evolutionary genetics are critically important for the analysis and interpretation of the massive datasets on DNA sequence variation and evolution that are becoming available, as well for our understanding of evolution in general. This book shows readers how models of the genetic processes involved in evolution are made (including natural selection, migration, mutation, and genetic drift in finite populations), and how the models are used to interpret classical and molecular genetic data. The material is intended for advanced level undergraduate courses in genetics and evolutionary biology, graduate students in evolutionary biology and human genetics, and researchers in related fields who wish to learn evolutionary genetics. The topics covered include genetic variation, DNA sequence variability and its measurement, the different types of natural selection and their effects (e.g. the maintenance of variation, directional selection, and adaptation), the interactions between selection and mutation or migration, the description and analysis of variation at multiple sites in the genome, genetic drift, and the effects of spatial structure. The final two chapters demonstrate how the theory illuminates our understanding of the evolution of breeding systems, sex ratios and life histories, and some aspects of genome evolution.

The Origins of Genome Architecture

Author: Michael Lynch

Publisher: Sinauer Associates Incorporated


Category: Medical

Page: 494

View: 4460

The availability of genomic blueprints for hundreds of species has led to a transformation in biology, encouraging the proliferation of adaptive arguments for the evolution of genomic features, yet often sacrificing simpler, more compelling explanations. This textbook explains why the details matter and presents an explanatory framework for how the architectural diversity of eukarotic genomes and genes came to arise. Presented in non-technical fashion, it is compatible for use in an advanced Genetics course and as a professional reference.

The Genetical Analysis of Quantitative Traits

Author: Michael J. Kearsey

Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers


Category: Science

Page: 381

View: 8683

This book provides a guide to the experimental and analytical methodologies available to study quantitative traits, a review of the genetic control of quantiative traits, and a discussion of how this knowledge can be applied to breeding prpblems and evolution. Mathematics is kept simple and brief and worked examples. both plant and animal, are used extensively.

The Mathematical Theory of Selection, Recombination, and Mutation

Author: R. Bürger

Publisher: Wiley


Category: Mathematics

Page: 422

View: 6271

"It is close to being a masterpiece...could well be the classic presentation of the area." Warren J. Ewens, University of Pennsylvania, USA Population genetics is concerned with the study of the genetic, ecological, and evolutionary factors that influence and change the genetic composition of populations. The emphasis here is on models that have a direct bearing on evolutionary quantitative genetics. Applications concerning the maintenance of genetic variation in quantitative traits and their dynamics under selection are treated in detail. * Provides a unified, self-contained and in-depth study of the theory of multilocus systems * Introduces the basic population-genetic models * Explores the dynamical and equilibrium properties of the distribution of quantitative traits under selection * Summarizes important results from more demanding sections in a comprehensible way * Employs a clear and logical presentation style Following an introduction to elementary population genetics and discussion of the general theory of selection at two or more loci, the author considers a number of mutation-selection models, and derives the dynamical equations for polygenic traits under general selective regimes. The final chapters are concerned with the maintenance of quantitative-genetic variation, the response to directional selection, the evolutionary role of deleterious mutations, and other topics. Graduate students and researchers in population genetics, evolutionary theory, and biomathematics will benefit from the in-depth coverage. This text will make an excellent reference volume for the fields of quantitative genetics, population and theoretical biology.

Genetic Constraints on Adaptive Evolution

Author: Volker Loeschcke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642727700

Category: Science

Page: 188

View: 8196

Genetic constraints on adaptive evolution can be understood as those genetic aspects that prevent or reduce the potential for natural selection to result in the most direct ascent of the mean phenotype to an optimum. The contributions to this volume emphasize how genetic aspects in the transmission of traits constrain adaptive evolution. Approaches span from quantitative, population, ecological to molecular genetics. Much attention is devoted to genetic correlations, to the maintenance of quantitative genetic variation, and to the intimate relation between genetics, ecology, and evolution. This volume addresses all evolutionary biologists and explains why they should be wary of evolutionary concepts that base arguments purely on phenotypic characteristics.

Understanding Population Genetics

Author: Torbjörn Säll,Bengt O. Bengtsson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119124034

Category: Science

Page: 278

View: 6910

Interpretations, extensions and comments -- Altruism and natural selection via individuals and groups -- Frequency-dependent selection and resource competition -- Rare allele advantage due to infections and self-incompatibility -- Questions -- Chapter 9 Selection on a quantitative trait -- Analysis -- Selection in quantitative genetics -- Selection in population genetics - one more time -- Notations and assumptions -- Combining the tools -- Summing up -- Interpretations, extensions and comments -- The genetic effect of selection on a quantitative trait -- The limits of selection and the nature of -- Threshold selection and disease liability -- Quantitative genetics is not suited for causal analyses -- Chapter 10 Evolutionary genetic analysis of the sex ratio -- Analysis -- Assumptions and notations -- Finding the recursion equation system -- Testing for stability -- Summing up -- Interpretations, extensions and comments -- Sex ratio selection -- An explanation of well-delimited validity -- Meiotic recombination is an evolved genetic system -- Evolutionary genetic analysis -- What's next? -- Estimates and tests in population genetics -- The mutation-selection balance -- Partial genetic isolation -- Segregation distortion and genetic conflicts -- Epilogue -- Thanks -- Glossary -- Answers -- References -- Index -- EULA

Evolution in the Dark

Darwin's Loss Without Selection

Author: Horst Wilkens,Ulrike Strecker

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662545128

Category: Science

Page: 217

View: 2048

This book provides fascinating insights into the development and genetics of evolutionary processes on the basis of animals living in the dark, such as the Astyanax cave fish. Biologically functionless traits show high variability, which results from neutral deleterious mutations no longer being eliminated by natural selection, which normally acts to preserve functional capability. These negative mutations accumulate until the traits they are responsible for become rudimentary or even lost. The random genetic basis of regressive evolution is in accordance with Nei’s Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution, which applies to the molecular level. Such processes are particularly conspicuous in species living in constant darkness, where, for example in Astyanax, all traits depending on the exposure to light, like eyes, pigmentation, visually triggered aggressive behaviour, negative phototaxis, and several peripheral outcomes of circadian rhythmicity, are useless and diminish. In compensation constructive traits like taste, olfaction or the lateral line senses are improved by selection and do not show variability. Regressive and constructive traits inherit independently, proving that the rudimentation process is not driven by pleiotropic linkage between them. All these traits are subject to mosaic evolution and exhibit unproportional epistatic gene effects, which play an important role in evolutionary adaptation and improvement. Offering valuable evolutionary insights and supplemented by a wealth of illustrations, this book will appeal to evolutionary and developmental biologists alike.

Molecular Population Genetics

Author: Matthew William Hahn

Publisher: Sinauer Associates, Incorporated

ISBN: 9780878939657


Page: 352

View: 3083

Molecular Population Genetics is a general text covering one of the most active and exciting areas in biology. Combining advances in molecular biology and genomics with mathematical and empirical findings from population genetics, work in molecular population genetics has uncovered the extraordinary history of natural selection and demographic shifts in many organisms, including humans. While basic descriptions of the methods and tools of this field can be found in disparate places, no previous book has brought them together in a single volume. Rather than cobble together pieces from books, reviews, and primary research articles, Molecular Population Genetics presents a coherent user's guide to the field. Intended as a text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, the book will also be useful as a detailed reference for active professionals.

Quantitative Genetic Studies of Behavioral Evolution

Author: Christine R. B. Boake

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226062150

Category: Science

Page: 390

View: 5179

Quantitative genetics—the statistical study of the inheritance of traits within a population—has become an important tool for studying the evolution of behavior in the last decade. Quantitative Genetic Studies of Behavioral Evolution examines the theory and methods of quantitative genetics and presents case studies that illustrate the many ways in which the methods can be applied. Christine R. B. Boake brings together current theoretical and empirical studies to show how quantitative genetics can illuminate topics as diverse as sexual selection, migration, sociality, and aggressive behavior. Nearly half of the chapters focus on conceptual issues, ranging from quantitative genetic models to the complementary roles of quantitative genetic and optimality approaches in evolutionary studies. Other chapters illustrate how to use the techniques by providing surveys of research fields, such as the evolution of mating behavior, sexual selection, migration, and size-dependent behavioral variation. The balance of the volume offers case studies of territoriality in fruit flies, cannibalism in flour beetles, mate-attractive traits in crickets, locomotor behavior and physiology in the garter snake, and cold adaptation in the house mouse. Taken together, these studies document both the benefits and pitfalls of quantitative genetics. This book shows the advanced student and scholar of behavioral evolution and genetics the many powerful uses of quantitative genetics in behavioral research.

Molecular Biology of Woody Plants

Author: S.M. Jain,S.C. Minocha

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401723117

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 524

View: 2680

This two-volume book gives a broad coverage of various aspects of plant molecular biology relevant to the improvement of woody plants. The authors provide background information on genetic engineering and molecular marker techniques, and specific examples of species in which sufficient progress has been made.

Breeding Fodder Crops for Marginal Conditions

Proceedings of the 18th Eucarpia Fodder Crops Section Meeting, Loen, Norway, 25–28 August 1993

Author: O.A. Rognli,E.T. Solberg,I. Schjelderup

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401109664

Category: Science

Page: 330

View: 8867

This book contains papers and posters presented at the 18th Eucarpia Fodder Crops Section Meeting held at Loen, Nordfjord, Norway in August 1993. In most environments some form of marginal conditions or stress prevails. Few crops are being produced under such a wide range of environmental and management stresses as fodder crops. Improved adaptation of fodder crops to marginal conditions is crucial in developing sustainable, low-input agricultural systems. The book is unique in demonstrating the large diversity both in crops and environmental stresses that confront the forage breeders. Both general and specific aspects of adaptation to marginal growing conditions are presented, ranging from problems caused by snow and ice in the Subarctic regions of Europe to the severe drought problems in the Mediterranean regions. For everyone involved in studies of adaptation and breeding of perennial plants for marginal conditions or stress environments.

Adaptation and Natural Selection

A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought

Author: George Christopher Williams

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400820108

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 1005

Biological evolution is a fact--but the many conflicting theories of evolution remain controversial even today. In 1966, simple Darwinism, which holds that evolution functions primarily at the level of the individual organism, was threatened by opposing concepts such as group selection, a popular idea stating that evolution acts to select entire species rather than individuals. George Williams's famous argument in favor of the Darwinists struck a powerful blow to those in opposing camps. His Adaptation and Natural Selection, now a classic of science literature, is a thorough and convincing essay in defense of Darwinism; its suggestions for developing effective principles for dealing with the evolution debate and its relevance to many fields outside biology ensure the timelessness of this critical work.

Population Genetics and Microevolutionary Theory

Author: Alan R. Templeton

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470047216

Category: Science

Page: 720

View: 7975

The advances made possible by the development of molecular techniques have in recent years revolutionized quantitative genetics and its relevance for population genetics. Population Genetics and Microevolutionary Theory takes a modern approach to population genetics, incorporating modern molecular biology, species-level evolutionary biology, and a thorough acknowledgment of quantitative genetics as the theoretical basis for population genetics. Logically organized into three main sections on population structure and history, genotype-phenotype interactions, and selection/adaptation Extensive use of real examples to illustrate concepts Written in a clear and accessible manner and devoid of complex mathematical equations Includes the author's introduction to background material as well as a conclusion for a handy overview of the field and its modern applications Each chapter ends with a set of review questions and answers Offers helpful general references and Internet links

Evolution of Vulnerability

Implications for Sex Differences in Health and Development

Author: David C. Geary

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128017473

Category: Psychology

Page: 444

View: 3757

Biologists have known for decades that many traits involved in competition for mates or other resources and that influence mate choice are exaggerated, and their expression is influenced by the individuals’ ability to tolerate a variety of environmental and social stressors. Evolution of Vulnerability applies this concept of heightened sensitivity to humans for a host of physical, social, psychological, cognitive, and brain traits. By reframing the issue entirely, renowned evolutionary psychologist David C. Geary demonstrates this principle can be used to identify children, adolescents, or populations at risk for poor long-term outcomes and identify specific traits in each sex and at different points in development that are most easily disrupted by exposure to stressors. Evolution of Vulnerability begins by reviewing the expansive literature on traits predicted to show sex-specific sensitivity to environmental and social stressors, and details the implications for better assessing and understanding the consequences of exposure to these stressors. Next, the book reviews sexual selection—mate competition and choice—and the mechanisms involved in the evolution of condition dependent traits and the stressors that can undermine their development and expression, such as poor early nutrition and health, parasites, social stress, and exposure to man-made toxins. Then it reviews condition dependent traits (physical, behavioral, cognitive, and brain) in birds, fish, insects, and mammals to demonstrate the ubiquity of these traits in nature. The focus then turns to humans and covers sex-specific vulnerabilities in children and adults for physical traits, social behavior, psychological wellbeing, and brain and cognitive traits. The sensitivity of these traits is related to exposure to parasites, poor nutrition, social maltreatment, environmental toxins, chemotherapy, and Alzheimer’s disease, among others. The book concludes with an implications chapter that outlines how to better assess vulnerabilities in children and adults and how to more fully understand how, why, and when in development some types of environmental and social stressors are particularly harmful to humans. Describes evolved sex differences, providing predictions on the traits that will show sex-specific vulnerabilities Presents an extensive review of condition-dependent traits in non-human species, greatly expanding existing reviews published in scientific journals, and more critically, extending these to humans Applies condition-dependent traits to humans to identify children, adolescents, or populations at risk for poor long-term outcomes

A Primer of Ecological Genetics

Author: Jeffrey K. Conner,Daniel L. Hartl

Publisher: Sinauer Associates Incorporated

ISBN: 9780878932023

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 5234

This book covers basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, including measuring selection on phenotypic traits. The emphasis is on material applicable to field studies of evolution focusing on ecologically important traits. Topics addressed are critical for training students in ecology, evolution, conservation biology, agriculture, forestry, and wildlife management. Many texts in this field are too complex and mathematical to allow the average beginning student to readily grasp the key concepts. A Primer of Ecological Genetics, in contrast, employs mathematics and statistics-fully explained, but at a less advanced level-as tools to improve understanding of biological principles. The main goal is to enable students to understand the concepts well enough that they can gain entry into the primary literature. Integration of the different chapters of the book shows students how diverse concepts relate to each other.

Genetics and the Origin of Species

Author: Theodosius Dobzhansky,Theodosius Grigorievich Dobzhansky

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231054751

Category: Science

Page: 364

View: 6216

Featuring an introduction by Stephen Jay Gould, "Genetics and the Origin of Species" presents the first edition of Dobzhansky's groundbreaking and now classic inquiry into what has emerged as the most important single area of scientific inquiry in the twentieth century: biological theory of evolution. Genetics and the Origin of Species went through three editions (1937, 1941, and 1951) in which the importance accorded natural selection changed radically.