Quantitative traits-be they morphological or physiological characters, aspects of behavior, or genome-level features such as the amount of RNA or protein expression for a specific gene-usually show considerable variation within and among populations. Quantitative genetics, also referred to as the genetics of complex traits, is the study of such characters and is based on mathematical models of evolution in which many genes influence the trait and in which non-genetic factors may also be important. Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits presents a holistic treatment of the subject, showing the interplay between theory and data with extensive discussions on statistical issues relating to the estimation of the biologically relevant parameters for these models. Quantitative genetics is viewed as the bridge between complex mathematical models of trait evolution and real-world data, and the authors have clearly framed their treatment as such. This is the second volume in a planned trilogy that summarizes the modern field of quantitative genetics, informed by empirical observations from wide-ranging fields (agriculture, evolution, ecology, and human biology) as well as population genetics, statistical theory, mathematical modeling, genetics, and genomics. Whilst volume 1 (1998) dealt with the genetics of such traits, the main focus of volume 2 is on their evolution, with a special emphasis on detecting selection (ranging from the use of genomic and historical data through to ecological field data) and examining its consequences.
p”Ein auch heute noch bedeutsamer Klassiker“ Daily Express Sind wir Marionetten unserer Gene? Nach Richard Dawkins ́ vor über 30 Jahren entworfener und heute noch immer provozierender These steuern und dirigieren unsere von Generation zu Generation weitergegebenen Gene uns, um sich selbst zu erhalten. Alle biologischen Organismen dienen somit vor allem dem Überleben und der Unsterblichkeit der Erbanlagen und sind letztlich nur die "Einweg-Behälter" der "egoistischen" Gene. Sind wir Menschen also unserem Gen-Schicksal hilflos ausgeliefert? Dawkins bestreitet dies und macht uns Hoffnung: Seiner Meinung nach sind wir nämlich die einzige Spezies mit der Chance, gegen ihr genetisches Schicksal anzukämpfen.
Von Darwin bis DNA – Ihr Wegweiser durch die Evolution Von Ihrem Körperbau bis zu Ihrem Verhalten bei der Partnerwahl – all Ihre vererbbaren Eigenschaften sind wie bei allen Lebewesen durch die Evolution bestimmt. Aber was ist Evolution überhaupt? Was treibt sie an? In diesem Buch erfahren Sie alles, was Sie über Evolution wissen müssen: Was genetische Variabilität ist, wie neue Arten entstehen, welchen Evolutionsvorteil soziales Verhalten bringt und vieles, vieles mehr. Greg Krukonis und Tracy Barr nehmen Sie mit auf eine spannende Reise durch die Geschichte der Evolution – von Darwins Theorie bis zu den neuesten wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen.
Greenbury, New York: ein strahlend schöner Tag, wie gemacht für einen ruhigen Waldspaziergang. Doch plötzlich wird Rina Deckers Harmonie jäh gestört - tief im Wald stolpert sie über die verscharrten Überreste eines Menschen. Sofort benachrichtigt sie ihren Mann, Peter, der nach Jahren als Detective für das LAPD nun bei der örtlichen Polizei aushilft. Er stellt schnell fest, dass es sich bei den Leichenteilen um eine Studentin eines nahen College handelt. Weiteres ergeben seine offiziellen Ermittlungen nicht. Rina, die als Dozentin dort arbeitet, sieht sich gezwungen, selber nach der Wahrheit zu suchen und begibt sich dadurch in höchste Gefahr ... Faye Kellerman ist einfach eine exzellente Autorin." The Times "Ein flüssig geschriebener Roman von einer erstklassigen Schriftstellerin. Die Handlung sehr durchdacht geschildert und mit einem exzellenten Spannungsbogen versehen. Glückwunsch." Magazin Köllefornia
Livestock production systems are the result of an interaction between domestic animals and the environment, modulated by man, that dates back to Neolithic times. As a consequence of this interaction among the wide diversity of animal resources, natural habitats and population needs, very different farming systems have developed across the Mediterranean Basin. Understanding the mechanisms and effects of these relationships is key to design the farming systems best adapted to each condition, guaranteeing an adequate balance between target animal production and environmental outcomes provided by these systems. This is indeed a multidimensional topic, influenced by animal genetics, feeding resources, flock management, and economic and social aspects inside and outside the household. Therefore, this book focuses on the basis of the animal-environment interactions and the impact of human activities on the type and magnitude of these interactions. In this context, the issue of sustainability of livestock production is evaluated considering economic, social and environmental aspects. This book contributes to upgrade the state of the art in Mediterranean conditions, providing indicators and procedures of application across a wide range of systems, and hence of interest for researchers, students and professionals concerned with livestock production and the environment.
The impetus for this book arose out of my previous book, The Evolution of Life Histories (Roff, 1992). In that book I presented a single chapter on quanti tative genetic theory. However, as the book was concerned with the evolution of life histories and traits connected to this, the presence of quantitative genetic variation was an underlying theme throughout. Much of the focus was placed on optimality theory, for it is this approach that has proven to be extremely successful in the analysis of life history variation. But quantitative genetics cannot be ig nored, because there are some questions for which optimality approaches are inappropriate; for example, although optimality modeling can address the ques tion of the maintenance of phenotypic variation, it cannot say anything about genetic variation, on which further evolution clearly depends. The present book is, thus, a natural extension of the first. I have approached the problem not from the point of view of an animal or plant breeder but from that of one interested in understanding the evolution of quantitative traits in wild populations. The subject is large with a considerable body of theory: I generally present the assumptions underlying the analysis and the results, giving the relevant references for those interested in the intervening mathematics. My interest is in what quantitative genetics tells me about evolutionary processes; therefore, I have concentrated on areas of research most relevant to field studies.
Dieses Buch enthält das Grundlagenwissen sowie Tipps und Tricks für den Umgang mit Nucleinsäuren. Der Autor kennt Lust und Frust der täglichen Laborroutine ganz genau. Präparieren, Fällen, Konzentrieren und Reinigen von Nucleinsäuren Restriktionsenzyme, Gele, Blotten Polymerase-Kettenreaktion RNA-Isolierung, -Transkription Klonierung von DNA-Fragmenten Markierung von Sonden, Hybridisierung, Screening, Sequenzierung Mutagenese, In-vitro-Translation, transgene Mäuse, Transgenexpression, Gentherapie, Genomik Dieses Buch richtet sich an alle Experimentatoren, die molekularbiologische Versuche durchführen wollen und gern nachvollziehen möchten, was sich in ihrem Reaktionsgefäß abspielt. Das ganze Spektrum der üblichen molekularbiologischen Methoden wird vorgestellt, kommentiert und Alternativen aufgezeigt. Der lockere Ton wendet sich gleichermaßen an Studenten wie an BTAs und Laboranten, aber auch der alte Hase wird hier und dort noch etwas Neues entdecken. Die 7. Auflage wurde überarbeitet und aktualisiert.
The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.
"It is close to being a masterpiece...could well be the classic presentation of the area." Warren J. Ewens, University of Pennsylvania, USA Population genetics is concerned with the study of the genetic, ecological, and evolutionary factors that influence and change the genetic composition of populations. The emphasis here is on models that have a direct bearing on evolutionary quantitative genetics. Applications concerning the maintenance of genetic variation in quantitative traits and their dynamics under selection are treated in detail. * Provides a unified, self-contained and in-depth study of the theory of multilocus systems * Introduces the basic population-genetic models * Explores the dynamical and equilibrium properties of the distribution of quantitative traits under selection * Summarizes important results from more demanding sections in a comprehensible way * Employs a clear and logical presentation style Following an introduction to elementary population genetics and discussion of the general theory of selection at two or more loci, the author considers a number of mutation-selection models, and derives the dynamical equations for polygenic traits under general selective regimes. The final chapters are concerned with the maintenance of quantitative-genetic variation, the response to directional selection, the evolutionary role of deleterious mutations, and other topics. Graduate students and researchers in population genetics, evolutionary theory, and biomathematics will benefit from the in-depth coverage. This text will make an excellent reference volume for the fields of quantitative genetics, population and theoretical biology.
Author: Anne Charmantier,Dany Garant,Loeske E. B. Kruuk
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Although the field of quantitative genetics - the study of the genetic basis of variation in quantitative characteristics such as body size, or reproductive success - is almost 100 years old, its application to the study of evolutionary processes in wild populations has expanded greatly over the last few decades. During this time, the use of 'wild quantitative genetics' has provided insights into a range of important questions in evolutionary ecology, ranging from studies conducting research in well-established fields such as life-history theory, behavioural ecology and sexual selection, to others addressing relatively new issues such as populations' responses to climate change or the process of senescence in natural environments. Across these fields, there is increasing appreciation of the need to quantify the genetic - rather than just the phenotypic - basis and diversity of key traits, the genetic basis of the associations between traits, and the interaction between these genetic effects and the environment. This research activity has been fuelled by methodological advances in both molecular genetics and statistics, as well as by exciting results emerging from laboratory studies of evolutionary quantitative genetics, and the increasing availability of suitable long-term datasets collected in natural populations, especially in animals. Quantitative Genetics in the Wild is the first book to synthesize the current level of knowledge in this exciting and rapidly-expanding area. This comprehensive volume also offers exciting perspectives for future studies in emerging areas, including the application of quantitative genetics to plants or arthropods, unraveling the molecular basis of variation in quantitative traits, or estimating non-additive genetic variance. Since this book deals with many fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology, it should be of interest to graduate, post-graduate students, and academics from a wide array of fields such as animal behaviour, ecology, evolution, and genetics.
Issues in Genetic Medicine / 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Genetic Medicine. The editors have built Issues in Genetic Medicine: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Genetic Medicine in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Genetic Medicine: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Algorithms of estimation and population-genetic models
Author: A.B. Korol,S.I. Preigel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Using an interdisciplinary approach, the authors provide an adaptionist interpretation of the basic features of recombination, its evolutionary significance as a key process in reproduction and its importance in genetic mapping. The book synthesizes much recent information in the fields of evloutionary genetics of recombination, the analysis of genetic markers and breeding applications. The authors analyse recombination through a consideration of computer models, large Drosophila populations and an empirical approach to current theories. Practically-orientated readers will be interested in the discussion of a wide spectrum of mapping methods and the new algorithms proposed for genetic mapping of quantitative loci.
Bright colors, enlarged fins, feather plumes, song, horns, antlers, and tusks are often highly sex dimorphic. Why have males in many animals evolved more conspicuous ornaments, signals, and weapons than females? How can such traits evolve although they may reduce male survival? Such questions prompted Darwin's perhaps most scientifically controversial idea--the theory of sexual selection. It still challenges researchers today as they try to understand how competition for mates can favor the variety of sex-dimorphic traits. Reviewing theoretical and empirical work in this very active field, Malte Andersson, a leading contributor himself, provides a major up-to-date synthesis of sexual selection. The author describes the theory and its recent development; examines models, methods, and empirical tests; and identifies many unsolved problems. Among the topics discussed are the selection and evolution of mating preferences; relations between sexual selection and speciation; constraints on sexual selection; and sex differences in signals, body size, and weapons. The rapidly growing study of sexual selection in plants is also reviewed. This volume will interest students, teachers, and researchers in behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology.
This book describes the evolutionary and ecological consequences of reproductive competition for scarabaeine dung beetles. As well as giving us insight into the private lives of these fascinating creatures, this book shows how dung beetles can be used as model systems for improving our general understanding of broad evolutionary and ecological processes, and how they generate biological diversity. Over the last few decades we have begun to see further than ever before, with our research efforts yielding new information at all levels of analysis, from whole organism biology to genomics. This book brings together leading researchers who contribute chapters that integrate our current knowledge of phylogenetics and evolution, developmental biology, comparative morphology, physiology, behaviour, and population and community ecology. Dung beetle research is shedding light on the ultimate question of how best to document and conserve the world's biodiversity. The book will be of interest to established researchers, university teachers, research students, conservation biologists, and those wanting to know more about the dung beetle taxon.
This book describes the experimental and analytical methodologies available for the genetical analysis of qualitative, quasi-quantitative and quantitative traits and its applications in practical plant breeding and evolution. Models for studying quantitative genetic variation following Birmingham and Edinburgh notations are described. The statistics used is simple and systematic so that the reader will have no difficulty in solving problems in plant genetics. It describes the genetic principles and provides breeding procedures underlying various breeding methods for manipulating qualitative, quasi-quantitative and quantitative traits. It takes into account the latest developments in breeding methodologies including dihaiploidy and apomixis, applications of tissue culture for plant breeding use, genetic engineering for production of transgenics and hybrids, and molecular marker technologies in the analysis of quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, evolution and conservation of genetic resources. This book will be useful for undergraduates, postgraduates, teachers and researchers working in the field of genetics and plant breeding.
Bringing together the viewpoints of leading ecologists concerned with the processes that generate patterns of diversity, and evolutionary biologists who focus on mechanisms of speciation, this book opens up discussion in order to broaden understanding of how speciation affects patterns of biological diversity, especially the uneven distribution of diversity across time, space and taxa studied by macroecologists. The contributors discuss questions such as: Are species equivalent units, providing meaningful measures of diversity? To what extent do mechanisms of speciation affect the functional nature and distribution of species diversity? How can speciation rates be measured using molecular phylogenies or data from the fossil record? What are the factors that explain variation in rates? Written for graduate students and academic researchers, the book promotes a more complete understanding of the interaction between mechanisms and rates of speciation and these patterns in biological diversity.
Wussten Sie, dass Sie mit einem Röhrling näher verwandt sind als mit einem Gänseblümchen oder Vögel den Krokodilen näher sind als Eidechsen? In den letzten 30 Jahren sind die Methoden der Klassifikation des Lebens völlig neu überdacht worden. Das Resultat stellt die bisherige Einteilung der mehr als 2 Millionen bekannten Arten auf den Kopf. Das Buch hilft, die organismische Vielfalt zu bewältigen, indem wesentliche Einteilungs- und Ordnungskriterien vorgestellt und bedeutende stammesgeschichtliche Entwicklungslinien diskutiert werden.
This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.