This book is aimed at students taking courses on evolution in universities and colleges. Its approach and its structure are very different from previously-published evolution texts. The core theme in this book is how evolution works by changing the course of embryonic and post-embryonic development. In other words, it is an evolution text that has been very much influenced by the new approach of evolutionary developmental biology, or 'evo-devo'. Key themes include the following: developmental repatterning; adaptation and coadaptation; gene co-option; developmental plasticity; the origins of evolutionary novelties and body plans; and evolutionary changes in the complexity of organisms. As can be seen from this list, the book includes information across the levels of the gene, the organism, and the population. It also includes the issue of mapping developmental changes onto evolutionary trees. The examples used to illustrate particular points range widely, including animals, plants and fossils. "I have really enjoyed reading this book. One of the strengths of the book is the almost conversational style. I found the style easy to read, but also feel that it will be invaluable in teaching. One of our tasks in university level teaching is to develop students' critical thinking skills. We need to support them in their intellectual development from a "just the facts" approach to being able to make critical judgements based on available evidence. The openness and honesty with which Arthur speaks to uncertainty in science is refreshing and will be a baseline for discussions with students." -Professor Patricia Moore, Exeter University "This book, written as an undergraduate text, is a really most impressive book. Given the burgeoning interest in the role of developmental change in evolution in recent times, this will be a very timely publication. The book is well structured and, like the author's other books, very well written. He communicates with a clear, lucid style and has the ability to explain even the more difficult concepts in an accessible manner." ---Professor Kenneth McNamara, University of Cambridge The companion site can be found at www.wiley.com/go/arthur/evolution. Here you download all figures from the book, captions, tables, and table of contents.
In diesem rundum überarbeiteten Lehrbuch wird die Evolutionsbiologie umfassend und eindrucksvoll dargestellt - zahlreiche neue und verbesserte Abbildungen machen die großen Themenbereiche der Evolutionsbiologie in der Neuauflage noch anschaulicher. Die Themenschwerpunkte reichen von den wissenschaftstheoretischen Grundlagen, dem Neodarwinismus und die erweiterte Synthetische Theorie über evolutionäre Verhaltensforschung und Psychologie bis zum Kreationismus, Atheismus und zur evolutionären Ethik. Ideal zum Lernen, zur Prüfungsvorbereitung im Studium oder zum Nachschlagen! Durch das besondere Konzept liefert die Neuauflage nicht nur angehenden Biologen aller Studienrichtungen, sondern auch Medizinern, Psychologen und Theologen grundlegendes Basis- und Spezialwissen auf dem aktuellsten Stand der Wissenschaft.
There are few things that stir up our culture more than sex, particularly sex and children. Sexual behavior in children represents, to far too many people, further proof of the moral decay of our society. Any issue that provokes as strong an emotional reaction as childhood sexuality is obviously in need of a rational discussion. The best features of thought and reason include their moderating influence on overheated and reaction emotions. Consequently, this book by Betty Gordon and Carolyn Schroeder represents a very important, and even brave, counter to irrationality. When the Surgeon General of the United States is forced to resign because the words "children" and "masturbation" appear in the same sentence, you know that there is a great deal of misunderstanding about sexuality. My own evolution as a researcher in the area of child sexual abuse is a model of how naivete can be corrected by knowledge. Some of my early research in sexual abuse of children led me to realize that sexual behavior was a reliable marker of victimization in a relatively large percentage of children (Friedrich, Urquiza, & Beilke, 1986). My blinders to sexuality were evident in that I had not even hypothesized that to be the case in this early, exploratory research. When I realized how important sexual behavior was, several colleagues and I set out to interview parents and foster parents of sexually abused children more specifically. These adults were routinely quite reactive to our queries.
The purpose of this book is to present a new mechanistic theory of mutation-driven evolution based on recent advances in genomics and evolutionary developmental biology. The theory asserts, perhaps somewhat controversially, that the driving force behind evolution is mutation, with natural selection being of only secondary importance. The word 'mutation' is used to describe any kind of change in DNA such as nucleotide substitution, gene duplication/deletion, chromosomal change, and genome duplication. A brief history of the principal evolutionary theories (Darwinism, mutationism, neo-Darwinism, and neo-mutationism) that preceded the theory of mutation-driven evolution is also presented in the context of the last 150 years of research. However, the core of the book is concerned with recent studies of genomics and the molecular basis of phenotypic evolution, and their relevance to mutation-driven evolution. In contrast to neo-Darwinism, mutation-driven evolution is capable of explaining real examples of evolution such as the evolution of olfactory receptors, sex-determination in animals, and the general scheme of hybrid sterility. In this sense the theory proposed is more realistic than its predecessors, and gives a more logical explanation of various evolutionary events. Mutation-Driven Evolution is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers (both empiricists and theoreticians) in the fields of molecular evolution and population genetics. It assumes that the readers are acquainted with basic knowledge of genetics and molecular biology.
Stefan Schnitzer,Frans Bongers,Robyn J. Burnham,Francis E. Putz
Author: Stefan Schnitzer,Frans Bongers,Robyn J. Burnham,Francis E. Putz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Lianas are woody vines that were the focus of intense study byearly ecologists, such as Darwin, who devoted an entire book to thenatural history of climbing plants. Over the past quartercentury, there has been a resurgence in the study of lianas, andliana are again recognized as important components of many forests,particularly in the tropics. The increasing amount ofresearch on lianas has resulted in a fundamentally deeperunderstanding of liana ecology, evolution, and life-history, aswell as the myriad roles lianas play in forest dynamics andfunctioning. This book provides insight into the ecology and evolution oflianas, their anatomy, physiology, and natural history, theirglobal abundance and distribution, and their wide-ranging effectson the myriad organisms that inhabit tropical and temperateforests.
Is it possible to explain and predict the development of living things? What is development? Articulate answers to these seemingly innocuous questions are far from straightforward. To date, no systematic, targeted effort has been made to construct a unifying theory of development. This novel work offers a unique exploration of the foundations of ontogeny by asking how the development of living things should be understood. It explores the key concepts of developmental biology, asks whether general principles of development can be discovered, and examines the role of models and theories. The two editors (one a biologist with long interest in the theoretical aspects of his discipline, the other a philosopher of science who has mainly worked on biological systems) have assembled a team of leading contributors who are representative of the scientific and philosophical community within which a diversity of thoughts are growing, and out of which a theory of development may eventually emerge. They analyse a wealth of approaches to concepts, models and theories of development, such as gene regulatory networks, accounts based on systems biology and on physics of soft matter, the different articulations of evolution and development, symbiont-induced development, as well as the widely discussed concepts of positional information and morphogenetic field, the idea of a 'programme' of development and its critiques, and the long-standing opposition between preformationist and epigenetic conceptions of development. Towards a Theory of Development is primarily aimed at students and researchers in the fields of 'evo-devo', developmental biology, theoretical biology, systems biology, biophysics, and the philosophy of science.
Exploring the history of disability and special education practices from the seventeenth to the twenty-first century indicates similar ideas and similar human approaches that have developed independently over time. People who survived the eugenics movement were placed in asylums and segregated special schools. In Europe and America, the general systems theory has been applied as a logico-mathematical discipline to include students of all special needs categories in their placements and education. The systems approach to special education practices has evolved from a historical model of diagnoses and cures to the biological and ecological models, integrating technology as the driving force in implementing curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
... an adult poet is simply an individual in a state of arrested development-in brief, a sort of moron. Just as all of us, in utero, pass through a stage in which we are tadpoles, ... so all of us pass through a state, in our nonage, when we are poets. A youth of seventeen who is not a poet is simply a donkey: his development has been arrested even anterior to that of the tadpole. But a man of fifty who still writes poetry is either an unfortunate who has never developed, intellectually, beyond his teens, or a conscious buffoon who pretends to be something he isn't-something far younger and juicier than he actually is. -H. 1. Mencken, High and Ghostly Matters, Prejudices: Fourth Series (1924) Where would evolution be, Without this thing, heterochrony? -M. L. McKinney (1987) One of the joys of working in a renascent field is that it is actually possible to keep up with the literature. So it is with mixed emotions that we heterochronists (even larval forms like myself) view the recent "veritable explosion of interest in heterochrony" (in Gould's words in this volume). On the positive side, it is ob viously necessary and desirable to extend and expand the inquiry; but one regrets that already we are beginning to talk past, lose track of, and even ignore each other as we carve out individual interests.
Quentin C.B. Cronk,Richard M. Bateman,Julie A. Hawkins
Author: Quentin C.B. Cronk,Richard M. Bateman,Julie A. Hawkins
Publisher: CRC Press
A benchmark text, Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution integrates the recent revolution in the molecular-developmental genetics of plants with mainstream evolutionary thought. It reflects the increasing cooperation between strongly genomics-influenced researchers, with their strong grasp of technology, and evolutionary morphogenetists and systematists who are more deeply rooted in comparative biology and patterns of plant evolution. The book discusses our increasing understanding of gene function and expression, along with modern phylogenies. It integrates morphological and molecular data to highlight specific key transitions in plant evolution that warrant additional intensive study. Furthermore, it explores increasing knowledge of the physical expression of plant development from disciplines such as anatomy and paleobotany. Rather than focus on the technical aspects of plant genomics, this book provides genuinely integrated explanations of plant evolution. The distinguished panel of contributors has succeeded in capturing a demanding subject in an accessible volume for a wide range of professional botanists and students in developmental biology, applied molecular biology, molecular evolution, morphogenesis, organismal botany, and theoretical systematics.
The social development approach seeks to integrate economic and social policies within a dynamic development process in order to achieve social welfare objectives. This first comprehensive textbook on the subject demonstrates that social development offers critically significant insights for the developed as well as the developing world. James Midgley describes the social development approach, traces its origins in developing countries, reviews theoretical issues in the field and analyzes different strategies in social development. By adding the developmental dimension, social development is shown to transcend the dichotomy between the residualist approach, which concentrates on targeting resources to the most needy, and the institutional approach which urges extensive state involvement in welfare.
This volume handles in various perspectives the concept of function and the nature of functional explanations, topics much discussed since two major and conflicting accounts have been raised by Larry Wright and Robert Cummins’ papers in the 1970s. Here, both Wright’s ‘etiological theory of functions’ and Cummins’ ‘systemic’ conception of functions are refined and elaborated in the light of current scientific practice, with papers showing how the ‘etiological’ theory faces several objections and may in reply be revisited, while its counterpart became ever more sophisticated, as researchers discovered fresh applications for it. Relying on a firm knowledge of the original positions and debates, this volume presents cutting-edge research evincing the complexities that today pertain in function theory in various sciences. Alongside original papers from authors central to the controversy, work by emerging researchers taking novel perspectives will add to the potential avenues to be followed in the future. Not only does the book adopt no a priori assumptions about the scope of functional explanations, it also incorporates material from several very different scientific domains, e.g. neurosciences, ecology, or technology. In general, functions are implemented in mechanisms; and functional explanations in biology have often an essential relation with natural selection. These two basic claims set the stage for this book’s coverage of investigations concerning both ‘functional’ explanations, and the ‘metaphysics’ of functions. It casts new light on these claims, by testing them through their confrontation with scientific developments in biology, psychology, and recent developments concerning the metaphysics of realization. Rather than debating a single theory of functions, this book presents the richness of philosophical issues raised by functional discourse throughout the various sciences.
Burack Hodapp,Robert M. Hodapp,Jacob A. Burack,Edward Zigler
Author: Burack Hodapp,Robert M. Hodapp,Jacob A. Burack,Edward Zigler
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Issues in the Developmental Approach to Mental Retardation is one of the first books exclusively devoted to applying the theories, findings and approaches used in work with nonretarded children to several types of retarded individuals. It defines the developmental approach and explores theoretical issues as they relate to retarded populations. Problems involving similar sequences of development, cross-domain relations, the environment, and motivation are all discussed, as is the importance of separating the various etiological groups for research and intervention purposes. This book will be of interest to professionals in the fields of psychology, mental retardation and atypical development. It is also suitable for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in mental retardation, developmental psychology and developmental disabilities.
Marcia B. Baxter Magolda,Peggy S. Meszaros,Elizabeth G. Creamer
Author: Marcia B. Baxter Magolda,Peggy S. Meszaros,Elizabeth G. Creamer
Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC.
This book brings together new scholarship that expands and refines the concept of self-authorship across cultures. It adopts a constructive-developmental approach to self-evolution that emphasizes the interaction of personal characteristics and contextual influences on individuals’ construction of knowledge, identities, and relationships. Individual chapters cover subjects from populations as varied as Dutch students, male and female Bedouin and Jewish adolescents, African American male and female adolescents in economically depressed areas of the US, Latino/a college students grappling with ethnic identity and dissonance, Australian college females preparing to be childcare workers, and finally a comparative study of Japanese and U.S. college students’ epistemic beliefs. The book concludes by addressing questions about the challenges and opportunities involved in developing a valid measure of self-authorship that is less time and expertise-intensive than the in-depth one-on-one interview employed until now; and offering an outline of future theoretical and methodological research needed to further our understanding of self-evolution in general and self-authorship in particular.
A Constructivist-Developmental Approach to Spiritual Growth and Leadership
Author: Jean-Paul Gedeon
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
Western culture is changing. Postmodern exigencies are encroaching on all aspects of our lived experiences. With them, these exigencies bring tremendous pressures and challenges to Spiritual Leadership-challenges that must be met and overcome, lest this traditional institution render itself out-dated and outmoded. We are now confronted with the advent of an empowered, educated, and democratically geared population-an epistemological culture that is engaged in its own determination, that has information at its fingertips, that feels entitled to its own points of view, that passionately pursues its own development, and that wants to feel validated in all these pursuits. Postmodern Western society expects its Spiritual Leaders to be able to engage it at a level of depth that is sufficiently cogent to honor individual complexity, personal trajectory and evolution, philosophical differences, scientific relevance, empirical cogency, cultural sensitivity, religious background, emotional inheritance, and existential mystery. It is a sophisticated and elegant culture, steeped in autonomous entitlement and ready to easily discard that which it feels is no longer useful. In the face of such a stark and startling challenge, what can Spiritual Leaders do to keep up? How do we approach our work when so much is demanded of us? How do we conceive of our vocation in such as way as to avoid the slide into potential cultural 'obsolescence'? This book sets forth a framework of spiritual growth and spiritual leadership that addresses these very issues. In its pages, cherished traditional messages are interwoven with post-modern therapeutic and care-giving outlooks, resulting in a product that is a must read for Spiritual Leaders today. Spiritual Leadership must find a way to remain relevant, cogent, and integrated as it toils to disseminate its essential message of growth and transformation into this post-modern world. This book tells us how.
Contemporary research in the field of evolutionary developmental biology, or 'evo-devo', has to date been predominantly devoted to interpreting basic features of animal architecture in molecular genetics terms. Considerably less time has been spent on the exploitation of the wealth of facts and concepts available from traditional disciplines, such as comparative morphology, even though these traditional approaches can continue to offer a fresh insight into evolutionary developmental questions. The Development of Animal Form aims to integrate traditional morphological and contemporary molecular genetic approaches and to deal with post-embryonic development as well. This approach leads to unconventional views on the basic features of animal organization, such as body axes, symmetry, segments, body regions, appendages and related concepts. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students and researchers in evolutionary and developmental biology, as well as to those in related areas of cell biology, genetics and zoology.