This book is aimed at students taking courses on evolution in universities and colleges. Its approach and its structure are very different from previously-published evolution texts. The core theme in this book is how evolution works by changing the course of embryonic and post-embryonic development. In other words, it is an evolution text that has been very much influenced by the new approach of evolutionary developmental biology, or 'evo-devo'. Key themes include the following: developmental repatterning; adaptation and coadaptation; gene co-option; developmental plasticity; the origins of evolutionary novelties and body plans; and evolutionary changes in the complexity of organisms. As can be seen from this list, the book includes information across the levels of the gene, the organism, and the population. It also includes the issue of mapping developmental changes onto evolutionary trees. The examples used to illustrate particular points range widely, including animals, plants and fossils. "I have really enjoyed reading this book. One of the strengths of the book is the almost conversational style. I found the style easy to read, but also feel that it will be invaluable in teaching. One of our tasks in university level teaching is to develop students' critical thinking skills. We need to support them in their intellectual development from a "just the facts" approach to being able to make critical judgements based on available evidence. The openness and honesty with which Arthur speaks to uncertainty in science is refreshing and will be a baseline for discussions with students." -Professor Patricia Moore, Exeter University "This book, written as an undergraduate text, is a really most impressive book. Given the burgeoning interest in the role of developmental change in evolution in recent times, this will be a very timely publication. The book is well structured and, like the author's other books, very well written. He communicates with a clear, lucid style and has the ability to explain even the more difficult concepts in an accessible manner." ---Professor Kenneth McNamara, University of Cambridge The companion site can be found at www.wiley.com/go/arthur/evolution. Here you download all figures from the book, captions, tables, and table of contents.
In diesem rundum überarbeiteten Lehrbuch wird die Evolutionsbiologie umfassend und eindrucksvoll dargestellt - zahlreiche neue und verbesserte Abbildungen machen die großen Themenbereiche der Evolutionsbiologie in der Neuauflage noch anschaulicher. Die Themenschwerpunkte reichen von den wissenschaftstheoretischen Grundlagen, dem Neodarwinismus und die erweiterte Synthetische Theorie über evolutionäre Verhaltensforschung und Psychologie bis zum Kreationismus, Atheismus und zur evolutionären Ethik. Ideal zum Lernen, zur Prüfungsvorbereitung im Studium oder zum Nachschlagen! Durch das besondere Konzept liefert die Neuauflage nicht nur angehenden Biologen aller Studienrichtungen, sondern auch Medizinern, Psychologen und Theologen grundlegendes Basis- und Spezialwissen auf dem aktuellsten Stand der Wissenschaft.
There are few things that stir up our culture more than sex, particularly sex and children. Sexual behavior in children represents, to far too many people, further proof of the moral decay of our society. Any issue that provokes as strong an emotional reaction as childhood sexuality is obviously in need of a rational discussion. The best features of thought and reason include their moderating influence on overheated and reaction emotions. Consequently, this book by Betty Gordon and Carolyn Schroeder represents a very important, and even brave, counter to irrationality. When the Surgeon General of the United States is forced to resign because the words "children" and "masturbation" appear in the same sentence, you know that there is a great deal of misunderstanding about sexuality. My own evolution as a researcher in the area of child sexual abuse is a model of how naivete can be corrected by knowledge. Some of my early research in sexual abuse of children led me to realize that sexual behavior was a reliable marker of victimization in a relatively large percentage of children (Friedrich, Urquiza, & Beilke, 1986). My blinders to sexuality were evident in that I had not even hypothesized that to be the case in this early, exploratory research. When I realized how important sexual behavior was, several colleagues and I set out to interview parents and foster parents of sexually abused children more specifically. These adults were routinely quite reactive to our queries.
The purpose of this book is to present a new mechanistic theory of mutation-driven evolution based on recent advances in genomics and evolutionary developmental biology. The theory asserts, perhaps somewhat controversially, that the driving force behind evolution is mutation, with natural selection being of only secondary importance. The word 'mutation' is used to describe any kind of change in DNA such as nucleotide substitution, gene duplication/deletion, chromosomal change, and genome duplication. A brief history of the principal evolutionary theories (Darwinism, mutationism, neo-Darwinism, and neo-mutationism) that preceded the theory of mutation-driven evolution is also presented in the context of the last 150 years of research. However, the core of the book is concerned with recent studies of genomics and the molecular basis of phenotypic evolution, and their relevance to mutation-driven evolution. In contrast to neo-Darwinism, mutation-driven evolution is capable of explaining real examples of evolution such as the evolution of olfactory receptors, sex-determination in animals, and the general scheme of hybrid sterility. In this sense the theory proposed is more realistic than its predecessors, and gives a more logical explanation of various evolutionary events. Mutation-Driven Evolution is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers (both empiricists and theoreticians) in the fields of molecular evolution and population genetics. It assumes that the readers are acquainted with basic knowledge of genetics and molecular biology.
Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Stefan Schnitzer,Frans Bongers,Robyn J. Burnham,Francis E. Putz
Author: Stefan Schnitzer,Frans Bongers,Robyn J. Burnham,Francis E. Putz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Lianas are woody vines that were the focus of intense study by early ecologists, such as Darwin, who devoted an entire book to the natural history of climbing plants. Over the past quarter century, there has been a resurgence in the study of lianas, and liana are again recognized as important components of many forests, particularly in the tropics. The increasing amount of research on lianas has resulted in a fundamentally deeper understanding of liana ecology, evolution, and life-history, as well as the myriad roles lianas play in forest dynamics and functioning. This book provides insight into the ecology and evolution of lianas, their anatomy, physiology, and natural history, their global abundance and distribution, and their wide-ranging effects on the myriad organisms that inhabit tropical and temperate forests.
p”Ein auch heute noch bedeutsamer Klassiker“ Daily Express Sind wir Marionetten unserer Gene? Nach Richard Dawkins ́ vor über 30 Jahren entworfener und heute noch immer provozierender These steuern und dirigieren unsere von Generation zu Generation weitergegebenen Gene uns, um sich selbst zu erhalten. Alle biologischen Organismen dienen somit vor allem dem Überleben und der Unsterblichkeit der Erbanlagen und sind letztlich nur die "Einweg-Behälter" der "egoistischen" Gene. Sind wir Menschen also unserem Gen-Schicksal hilflos ausgeliefert? Dawkins bestreitet dies und macht uns Hoffnung: Seiner Meinung nach sind wir nämlich die einzige Spezies mit der Chance, gegen ihr genetisches Schicksal anzukämpfen.
Is it possible to explain and predict the development of living things? What is development? Articulate answers to these seemingly innocuous questions are far from straightforward. To date, no systematic, targeted effort has been made to construct a unifying theory of development. This novel work offers a unique exploration of the foundations of ontogeny by asking how the development of living things should be understood. It explores the key concepts of developmental biology, asks whether general principles of development can be discovered, and examines the role of models and theories. The two editors (one a biologist with long interest in the theoretical aspects of his discipline, the other a philosopher of science who has mainly worked on biological systems) have assembled a team of leading contributors who are representative of the scientific and philosophical community within which a diversity of thoughts are growing, and out of which a theory of development may eventually emerge. They analyse a wealth of approaches to concepts, models and theories of development, such as gene regulatory networks, accounts based on systems biology and on physics of soft matter, the different articulations of evolution and development, symbiont-induced development, as well as the widely discussed concepts of positional information and morphogenetic field, the idea of a 'programme' of development and its critiques, and the long-standing opposition between preformationist and epigenetic conceptions of development. Towards a Theory of Development is primarily aimed at students and researchers in the fields of 'evo-devo', developmental biology, theoretical biology, systems biology, biophysics, and the philosophy of science.
Exploring the history of disability and special education practices from the seventeenth to the twenty-first century indicates similar ideas and similar human approaches that have developed independently over time. People who survived the eugenics movement were placed in asylums and segregated special schools. In Europe and America, the general systems theory has been applied as a logico-mathematical discipline to include students of all special needs categories in their placements and education. The systems approach to special education practices has evolved from a historical model of diagnoses and cures to the biological and ecological models, integrating technology as the driving force in implementing curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Quentin C.B. Cronk,Richard M. Bateman,Julie A. Hawkins
Author: Quentin C.B. Cronk,Richard M. Bateman,Julie A. Hawkins
Publisher: CRC Press
A benchmark text, Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution integrates the recent revolution in the molecular-developmental genetics of plants with mainstream evolutionary thought. It reflects the increasing cooperation between strongly genomics-influenced researchers, with their strong grasp of technology, and evolutionary morphogenetists and systematists who are more deeply rooted in comparative biology and patterns of plant evolution. The book discusses our increasing understanding of gene function and expression, along with modern phylogenies. It integrates morphological and molecular data to highlight specific key transitions in plant evolution that warrant additional intensive study. Furthermore, it explores increasing knowledge of the physical expression of plant development from disciplines such as anatomy and paleobotany. Rather than focus on the technical aspects of plant genomics, this book provides genuinely integrated explanations of plant evolution. The distinguished panel of contributors has succeeded in capturing a demanding subject in an accessible volume for a wide range of professional botanists and students in developmental biology, applied molecular biology, molecular evolution, morphogenesis, organismal botany, and theoretical systematics.
The social development approach seeks to integrate economic and social policies within a dynamic development process in order to achieve social welfare objectives. This first comprehensive textbook on the subject demonstrates that social development offers critically significant insights for the developed as well as the developing world. James Midgley describes the social development approach, traces its origins in developing countries, reviews theoretical issues in the field and analyzes different strategies in social development. By adding the developmental dimension, social development is shown to transcend the dichotomy between the residualist approach, which concentrates on targeting resources to the most needy, and the institutional approach which urges extensive state involvement in welfare.
This volume handles in various perspectives the concept of function and the nature of functional explanations, topics much discussed since two major and conflicting accounts have been raised by Larry Wright and Robert Cummins’ papers in the 1970s. Here, both Wright’s ‘etiological theory of functions’ and Cummins’ ‘systemic’ conception of functions are refined and elaborated in the light of current scientific practice, with papers showing how the ‘etiological’ theory faces several objections and may in reply be revisited, while its counterpart became ever more sophisticated, as researchers discovered fresh applications for it. Relying on a firm knowledge of the original positions and debates, this volume presents cutting-edge research evincing the complexities that today pertain in function theory in various sciences. Alongside original papers from authors central to the controversy, work by emerging researchers taking novel perspectives will add to the potential avenues to be followed in the future. Not only does the book adopt no a priori assumptions about the scope of functional explanations, it also incorporates material from several very different scientific domains, e.g. neurosciences, ecology, or technology. In general, functions are implemented in mechanisms; and functional explanations in biology have often an essential relation with natural selection. These two basic claims set the stage for this book’s coverage of investigations concerning both ‘functional’ explanations, and the ‘metaphysics’ of functions. It casts new light on these claims, by testing them through their confrontation with scientific developments in biology, psychology, and recent developments concerning the metaphysics of realization. Rather than debating a single theory of functions, this book presents the richness of philosophical issues raised by functional discourse throughout the various sciences.
Burack Hodapp,Robert M. Hodapp,Jacob A. Burack,Edward Zigler
Author: Burack Hodapp,Robert M. Hodapp,Jacob A. Burack,Edward Zigler
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Issues in the Developmental Approach to Mental Retardation is one of the first books exclusively devoted to applying the theories, findings and approaches used in work with nonretarded children to several types of retarded individuals. It defines the developmental approach and explores theoretical issues as they relate to retarded populations. Problems involving similar sequences of development, cross-domain relations, the environment, and motivation are all discussed, as is the importance of separating the various etiological groups for research and intervention purposes. This book will be of interest to professionals in the fields of psychology, mental retardation and atypical development. It is also suitable for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in mental retardation, developmental psychology and developmental disabilities.
... an adult poet is simply an individual in a state of arrested development-in brief, a sort of moron. Just as all of us, in utero, pass through a stage in which we are tadpoles, ... so all of us pass through a state, in our nonage, when we are poets. A youth of seventeen who is not a poet is simply a donkey: his development has been arrested even anterior to that of the tadpole. But a man of fifty who still writes poetry is either an unfortunate who has never developed, intellectually, beyond his teens, or a conscious buffoon who pretends to be something he isn't-something far younger and juicier than he actually is. -H. 1. Mencken, High and Ghostly Matters, Prejudices: Fourth Series (1924) Where would evolution be, Without this thing, heterochrony? -M. L. McKinney (1987) One of the joys of working in a renascent field is that it is actually possible to keep up with the literature. So it is with mixed emotions that we heterochronists (even larval forms like myself) view the recent "veritable explosion of interest in heterochrony" (in Gould's words in this volume). On the positive side, it is ob viously necessary and desirable to extend and expand the inquiry; but one regrets that already we are beginning to talk past, lose track of, and even ignore each other as we carve out individual interests.
Over the more than three decades of my life as a physician, I have been constantly amazed at how subtle and elegant nature is as a teacher. Our questions to her, though, must be clear and unambiguous. Otherwise, the answers we receive are likely to be misleading and confusing. As I have matured as a clinician, I have tried to improve my questions to increase my chances of receiving an answer. For the past decade, I have been pondering the subject of strabismus with which I have busied myself for practically two and one-half decades. I began to realize that my time, my share of wisdom, my abilities to carry out the prodigious work necessary to create a book out of nothing but thought, reading, and reflection on the work of others, as well as my own experience, were perhaps becoming limited. I do not doubt that they will become even more limited! Thus I have been led to write this book. Further, I am left in greater awe of prolific writers, particu larly those who write with the precision and attention to detail necessary for a medical text. Let me warn the reader at the outset that my approach in this book is "teleologi cal. " I am well aware of the conflict between science's notion of causality as only local and instrumental as opposed to the anthropomorphic notion of purpose or design in nature implied by the choice of this teleology.