Geometry has been an essential element in the study of mathematics since antiquity. Traditionally, we have also learned formal reasoning by studying Euclidean geometry. In this book, David Clark develops a modern axiomatic approach to this ancient subject, both in content and presentation. Mathematically, Clark has chosen a new set of axioms that draw on a modern understanding of set theory and logic, the real number continuum and measure theory, none of which were available in Euclid's time. The result is a development of the standard content of Euclidean geometry with the mathematical precision of Hilbert's foundations of geometry. In particular, the book covers all the topics listed in the Common Core State Standards for high school synthetic geometry. The presentation uses a guided inquiry, active learning pedagogy. Students benefit from the axiomatic development because they themselves solve the problems and prove the theorems with the instructor serving as a guide and mentor. Students are thereby empowered with the knowledge that they can solve problems on their own without reference to authority. This book, written for an undergraduate axiomatic geometry course, is particularly well suited for future secondary school teachers. In the interest of fostering a greater awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and everyday life, MSRI and the AMS are publishing books in the Mathematical Circles Library series as a service to young people, their parents and teachers, and the mathematics profession.
This geometry book is written foremost for future and current middle school teachers, but is also designed for elementary and high school teachers. The book consists of ten seminars covering in a rigourous way the fundamental topics in school geometry, including all of the significant topics in high school geometry. The seminars are crafted to clarify and enhance understanding of the subject. Concepts in plane and solid geometry are carefully explained, and activities that teachers can use in their classrooms are emphasised. The book draws on the pictorial nature of geometry since that is what attracts students at every level to the subject. The book should give teachers a firm foundation on which to base their instruction in the elementary and middle grades. In addition, it should help teachers give their students a solid basis for the geometry that they will study in high school. The book is also intended to be a source for problems in geometry for enrichment programmes such as Math Circles and Young Scholars.
Pat Herbst,Taro Fujita,Stefan Halverscheid,Michael Weiss
Author: Pat Herbst,Taro Fujita,Stefan Halverscheid,Michael Weiss
IMPACT (Interweaving Mathematics Pedagogy and Content for Teaching) is an exciting new series of texts for teacher education which aims to advance the learning and teaching of mathematics by integrating mathematics content with the broader research and theoretical base of mathematics education. The Learning and Teaching of Geometry in Secondary Schools reviews past and present research on the teaching and learning of geometry in secondary schools and proposes an approach for design research on secondary geometry instruction. Areas covered include: teaching and learning secondary geometry through history; the representations of geometric figures; students’ cognition in geometry; teacher knowledge, practice and, beliefs; teaching strategies, instructional improvement, and classroom interventions; research designs and problems for secondary geometry. Drawing on a team of international authors, this new text will be essential reading for experienced teachers of mathematics, graduate students, curriculum developers, researchers, and all those interested in exploring students’ study of geometry in secondary schools.
Brian P. Katz,Michael Starbird,Michael P. Starbird
Author: Brian P. Katz,Michael Starbird,Michael P. Starbird
Designed for undergraduate students and lecturers, this text guides its users to develop the skills, attitudes, and habits of mind of a mathematician. It presents a carefully designed sequence of exercises and theorems so that its readers will be directed to discover mathematical ideas, strategies of proof, and strategies of thinking. Through the exploration of interesting mathematical content including graphs, groups, and calculus, this book helps to foster habits of inquiry. This book can be used by instructors as a text for an inquiry-based introduction to proof course, or as an independent study guide for mathematics students. The three core mathematical topics are presented separately, and each helps students develop theorem-proving skills and strategies of thinking whilst also providing an organised set of challenges that lead students to understand the process of mathematical creativity and development.
"One of the themes of the book is how to have a fulfilling professional life. In order to achieve this goal, Krantz discusses keeping a vigorous scholarly program going and finding new challenges, as well as dealing with the everyday tasks of research, teaching, and administration." "In short, this is a survival manual for the professional mathematician - both in academics and in industry and government agencies. It is a sequel to the author's A Mathematician's Survival Guide."--BOOK JACKET.
Many mathematicians have been drawn to mathematics through their experience with math circles. The Berkeley Math Circle (BMC) started in 1998 as one of the very first math circles in the U.S. Over the last decade and a half, 100 instructors--university professors, business tycoons, high school teachers, and more--have shared their passion for mathematics by delivering over 800 BMC sessions on the UC Berkeley campus every week during the school year. This second volume of the book series is based on a dozen of these sessions, encompassing a variety of enticing and stimulating mathematical topics, some new and some continuing from Volume I: from dismantling Rubik's Cube and randomly putting it back together to solving it with the power of group theory;from raising knot-eating machines and letting Alexander the Great cut the Gordian Knot to breaking through knot theory via the Jones polynomial;from entering a seemingly hopeless infinite raffle to becoming friendly with multiplicative functions in the land of Dirichlet, Möbius, and Euler;from leading an army of jumping fleas in an old problem from the International Mathematical Olympiads to improving our own essay-writing strategies;from searching for optimal paths on a hot summer day to questioning whether Archimedes was on his way to discovering trigonometry 2000 years ago Do some of these scenarios sound bizarre, having never before been associated with mathematics? Mathematicians love having fun while doing serious mathematics and that love is what this book intends to share with the reader. Whether at a beginner, an intermediate, or an advanced level, anyone can find a place here to be provoked to think deeply and to be inspired to create. In the interest of fostering a greater awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and everyday life, MSRI and the AMS are publishing books in the Mathematical Circles Library series as a service to young people, their parents and teachers, and the mathematics profession. Titles in this series are co-published with the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI).
Math circles provide a setting in which mathematicians work with secondary school students who are interested in mathematics. This form of outreach, which has existed for decades in Russia, Bulgaria, and other countries, is now rapidly spreading across the United States as well. The first part of this book offers helpful advice on all aspects of math circle operations, culled from conversations with over a dozen directors of successful math circles. Topics include creative means for getting the word out to students, sound principles for selecting effective speakers, guidelines for securing financial support, and tips for designing an exciting math circle session. The purpose of this discussion is to enable math circle coordinators to establish a thriving group in which students can experience the delight of mathematical investigation. The second part of the book outlines ten independent math circle sessions, covering a variety of topics and difficulty levels. Each chapter contains detailed presentation notes along with a useful collection of problems and solutions. This book will be an indispensable resource for any individual involved with a math circle or anyone who would like to see one begin in his or her community. Sam Vandervelde teaches at St. Lawrence University. He launched the Stanford Math Circle and also writes and coordinates the Mandelbrot Competition, a math contest for high schools. In the interest of fostering a greater awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and everyday life, MSRI and the AMS are publishing books in the Mathematical Circles Library series as a service to young people, their parents and teachers, and the mathematics profession. Titles in this series are co-published with the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI).
This book, which consists of twelve interactive seminars, is a comprehensive and careful study of the fundamental topics of K-8 arithmetic. The guide aims to help teachers understand the mathematical foundations of number theory in order to strengthen and enrich their mathematics classes. Five seminars are dedicated to fractions and decimals because of their importance in the classroom curriculum. The standard topics are covered in detail, but are arranged in an order that is slightly different from the usual one. Multiplication is treated first, and with that in hand, common denominators and equivalent fractions are more readily understood and are available for use when discussing addition. The book is intended for the professional development of teachers. It is appropriate for teacher education programs as well as for enrichment programs such as Mathematical Circles for Teachers. There are numerous activities in each seminar that teachers can bring into their classrooms. In the interest of fostering a greater awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and everyday life, MSRI and the AMS are publishing books in the Mathematical Circles Library series as a service to young people, their parents and teachers, and the mathematics profession.
Moscow has a rich tradition of successful math circles, to the extent that many other circles are modeled on them. This book presents materials used during the course of one year in a math circle organized by mathematics faculty at Moscow State University, and also used at the mathematics magnet school known as Moscow School Number 57. Each problem set has a similar structure: it combines review material with a new topic, offering problems in a range of difficulty levels. This time-tested pattern has proved its effectiveness in engaging all students and helping them master new material while building on earlier knowledge. The introduction describes in detail how the math circles at Moscow State University are run. Dorichenko describes how the early sessions differ from later sessions, how to choose problems, and what sorts of difficulties may arise when running a circle. The book also includes a selection of problems used in the competition known as the Mathematical Maze, a mathematical story based on actual lessons with students, and an addendum on the San Jose Mathematical Circle, which is run in the Russian style. In the interest of fostering a greater awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and everyday life, MSRI and the AMS are publishing books in the Mathematical Circles Library series as a service to young people, their parents and teachers, and the mathematics profession.
This third edition of the Handbook of International Research in Mathematics Education provides a comprehensive overview of the most recent theoretical and practical developments in the field of mathematics education. Authored by an array of internationally recognized scholars and edited by Lyn English and David Kirshner, this collection brings together overviews and advances in mathematics education research spanning established and emerging topics, diverse workplace and school environments, and globally representative research priorities. New perspectives are presented on a range of critical topics including embodied learning, the theory-practice divide, new developments in the early years, educating future mathematics education professors, problem solving in a 21st century curriculum, culture and mathematics learning, complex systems, critical analysis of design-based research, multimodal technologies, and e-textbooks. Comprised of 12 revised and 17 new chapters, this edition extends the Handbook’s original themes for international research in mathematics education and remains in the process a definitive resource for the field.
Classical Euclidean geometry, with all its triangles, circles, and inscribed angles, remains an excellent playground for high-school mathematics students, even if it looks outdated from the professional mathematician's viewpoint. It provides an excellent choice of elegant and natural problems that can be used in a course based on problem solving. The book contains more than 750 (mostly) easy but nontrivial problems in all areas of plane geometry and solutions for most of them, as well as additional problems for self-study (some with hints). Each chapter also provides concise reminders of basic notions used in the chapter, so the book is almost self-contained (although a good textbook and competent teacher are always recommended). More than 450 figures illustrate the problems and their solutions. The book can be used by motivated high-school students, as well as their teachers and parents. After solving the problems in the book the student will have mastered the main notions and methods of plane geometry and, hopefully, will have had fun in the process. In the interest of fostering a greater awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and everyday life, MSRI and the AMS are publishing books in the Mathematical Circles Library series as a service to young people, their parents and teachers, and the mathematics profession. What a joy! Shen's ``Geometry in Problems'' is a gift to the school teaching world. Beautifully organized by content topic, Shen has collated a vast collection of fresh, innovative, and highly classroom-relevant questions, problems, and challenges sure to enliven the minds and clever thinking of all those studying Euclidean geometry for the first time. This book is a spectacular resource for educators and students alike. Users will not only sharpen their mathematical understanding of specific topics but will also sharpen their problem-solving wits and come to truly own the mathematics explored. Also, Math Circle leaders can draw much inspiration for session ideas from the material presented in this book. --James Tanton, Mathematician-at-Large, Mathematical Association of America We learn mathematics best by doing mathematics. The author of this book recognizes this principle. He invites the reader to participate in learning plane geometry through carefully chosen problems, with brief explanations leading to much activity. The problems in the book are sometimes deep and subtle: almost everyone can do some of them, and almost no one can do all. The reader comes away with a view of geometry refreshed by experience. --Mark Saul, Director of Competitions, Mathematical Association of America
Krishnaswami Alladi,John R. Klauder,Calyampudi R. Rao
Author: Krishnaswami Alladi,John R. Klauder,Calyampudi R. Rao
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In the spirit of Alladi Ramakrishnan’s profound interest and contributions to three fields of science — Mathematics, Statistics, and Physics — this volume contains invited surveys and research articles from prominent members of these communities who also knew Ramakrishnan personally and greatly respected his influence in these areas of science. Historical photos, telegrams, and biographical narratives of Alladi Ramakrishnan’s illustrious career of special interest are included as well.
String Theory and the Geometry of the Universe's Hidden Dimensions
Author: Shing-Tung Yau,Steve Nadis
Publisher: Basic Books
String theory says we live in a ten-dimensional universe, but that only four are accessible to our everyday senses. According to theorists, the missing six are curled up in bizarre structures known as Calabi-Yau manifolds. In The Shape of Inner Space, Shing-Tung Yau, the man who mathematically proved that these manifolds exist, argues that not only is geometry fundamental to string theory, it is also fundamental to the very nature of our universe. Time and again, where Yau has gone, physics has followed. Now for the first time, readers will follow Yau’s penetrating thinking on where we’ve been, and where mathematics will take us next. A fascinating exploration of a world we are only just beginning to grasp, The Shape of Inner Space will change the way we consider the universe on both its grandest and smallest scales.
This anthology fosters an interdisciplinary dialogue between the mathematical and artistic approaches in the field where mathematical and artistic thinking and practice merge. The articles included highlight the most significant current ideas and phenomena, providing a multifaceted and extensive snapshot of the field and indicating how interdisciplinary approaches are applied in the research of various cultural and artistic phenomena. The discussions are related, for example, to the fields of aesthetics, anthropology, art history, art theory, artistic practice, cultural studies, ethno-mathematics, geometry, mathematics, new physics, philosophy, physics, study of visual illusions, and symmetry studies. Further, the book introduces a new concept: the interdisciplinary aesthetics of mathematical art, which the editors use to explain the manifold nature of the aesthetic principles intertwined in these discussions.
The book titled Advanced Computational and Communication Paradigms: Proceedings of International Conference on ICACCP 2017, Volume 1 presents refereed high-quality papers of the First International Conference on Advanced Computational and Communication Paradigms (ICACCP 2017) organized by the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, held from 8– 10 September 2017. ICACCP 2017 covers an advanced computational paradigms and communications technique which provides failsafe and robust solutions to the emerging problems faced by mankind. Technologists, scientists, industry professionals and research scholars from regional, national and international levels are invited to present their original unpublished work in this conference. There were about 550 technical paper submitted. Finally after peer review, 142 high-quality papers have been accepted and registered for oral presentation which held across 09 general sessions and 05 special sessions along with 04 keynote address and 06 invited talks. This volume comprises 65 accepted papers of ICACCP 2017.
The Story of a Mathematical Circle for Preschoolers
Author: Aleksandr Kalmanovich Zvonkin
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
This book is a captivating account of a professional mathematician's experiences conducting a math circle for preschoolers in his apartment in Moscow in the 1980s. As anyone who has taught or raised young children knows, mathematical education for little kids is a real mystery. What are they capable of? What should they learn first? How hard should they work? Should they even "work" at all? Should we push them, or just let them be? There are no correct answers to these questions, and the author deals with them in classic math-circle style: he doesn't ask and then answer a question, but shows us a problem--be it mathematical or pedagogical--and describes to us what happened. His book is a narrative about what he did, what he tried, what worked, what failed, but most important, what the kids experienced. This book does not purport to show you how to create precocious high achievers. It is just one person's story about things he tried with a half-dozen young children. Mathematicians, psychologists, educators, parents, and everybody interested in the intellectual development in young children will find this book to be an invaluable, inspiring resource. In the interest of fostering a greater awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and everyday life, MSRI and the AMS are publishing books in the Mathematical Circles Library series as a service to young people, their parents and teachers, and the mathematics profession. Titles in this series are co-published with the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI).
Written by Lars Peter Hansen (Nobel Laureate in Economics, 2013) and Thomas Sargent (Nobel Laureate in Economics, 2011), Uncertainty within Economic Models includes articles adapting and applying robust control theory to problems in economics and finance. This book extends rational expectations models by including agents who doubt their models and adopt precautionary decisions designed to protect themselves from adverse consequences of model misspecification. This behavior has consequences for what are ordinarily interpreted as market prices of risk, but big parts of which should actually be interpreted as market prices of model uncertainty. The chapters discuss ways of calibrating agents' fears of model misspecification in quantitative contexts.
Vladimir Arnold (1937-2010) was one of the great mathematical minds of the late 20th century. He did significant work in many areas of the field. On another level, he was keeping with a strong tradition in Russian mathematics to write for and to directly teach younger students interested in mathematics. This book contains some examples of Arnold's contributions to the genre. "Continued Fractions" takes a common enrichment topic in high school math and pulls it in directions that only a master of mathematics could envision. "Euler Groups" treats a similar enrichment topic, but it is rarely treated with the depth and imagination lavished on it in Arnold's text. He sets it in a mathematical context, bringing to bear numerous tools of the trade and expanding the topic way beyond its usual treatment. In "Complex Numbers" the context is physics, yet Arnold artfully extracts the mathematical aspects of the discussion in a way that students can understand long before they master the field of quantum mechanics. "Problems for Children 5 to 15 Years Old" must be read as a collection of the author's favorite intellectual morsels. Many are not original, but all are worth thinking about, and each requires the solver to think out of his or her box. Dmitry Fuchs, a long-term friend and collaborator of Arnold, provided solutions to some of the problems. Readers are of course invited to select their own favorites and construct their own favorite solutions. In reading these essays, one has the sensation of walking along a path that is found to ascend a mountain peak and then being shown a vista whose existence one could never suspect from the ground. Arnold's style of exposition is unforgiving. The reader--even a professional mathematician--will find paragraphs that require hours of thought to unscramble, and he or she must have patience with the ellipses of thought and the leaps of reason. These are all part of Arnold's intent. In the interest of fostering a greater awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and everyday life, MSRI and the AMS are publishing books in the Mathematical Circles Library series as a service to young people, their parents and teachers, and the mathematics profession.
Theory and Problem-solving Strategies for Mathematical Competitions and Beyond
Author: Costas Efthimiou
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
Functions and their properties have been part of the rigorous precollege curriculum for decades. And functional equations have been a favorite topic of the leading national and international mathematical competitions. Yet the subject has not received equal attention by authors at an introductory level. The majority of the books on the topic remain unreachable to the curious and intelligent precollege student. The present book is an attempt to eliminate this disparity. The book opens with a review chapter on functions, which collects the relevant foundational information on functions, plus some material potentially new to the reader. The next chapter presents a working definition of functional equations and explains the difficulties in trying to systematize the theory. With each new chapter, the author presents methods for the solution of a particular group of equations. Each chapter is complemented with many solved examples, the majority of which are taken from mathematical competitions and professional journals. The book ends with a chapter of unsolved problems and some other auxiliary material. The book is an invaluable resource for precollege and college students who want to deepen their knowledge of functions and their properties, for teachers and instructors who wish to enrich their curricula, and for any lover of mathematical problem-solving techniques. In the interest of fostering a greater awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and everyday life, MSRI and the AMS are publishing books in the Mathematical Circles Library series as a service to young people, their parents and teachers, and the mathematics profession.